1
Title: Dual stimuli-responsive delivery system for self-regulated colon-targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are chronic inflammatory conditions which cause significant patient morbidity. Local drug delivery to the colon can improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects associated with IBD treatment. Smart drug delivery systems are designed to regulate the release of therapeutic agents at the desired site of action. pH-responsive drug carriers have been previously utilised for improved oral drug delivery beyond stomach harsh conditions. Additionally, the colon possesses a diverse microbiome secreting bioactive molecules e.g., enzymes, that can be exploited for targeted drug delivery. We herein synthesised and characterised a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid copolymer, crosslinked with an azobenzyl crosslinker, that displayed pH- and enzyme-responsive properties. The swelling and drug release from hydrogel were analysed in pH 1.2, 6.5 and 7.4 buffers, and in the presence of rat caecal matter using metronidazole and mesalamine as model BCS Class I and IV drugs, respectively. Swelling studies displayed pH-responsive swelling behaviour, where swelling was maximum at pH 7.4 and minimum at pH 1.2 (69% versus 32%). Consequently, drug release was limited in gastric and small intestinal conditions but increased significantly when exposed to colonic conditions containing caecal matter. This system displays promising capacity for achieving colon-targeted drug delivery with enhanced dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs for local treatment of IBD and other colon-targeted therapies.

Keywords: Hydrogels; Azobenzene; Colon-targeted; Crohn's disease; Metronidazole; Mesalamine.

2
Title: Recent advances in sustainability science for environmental conservation
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Mankind is on the brink of an ecological crisis, sitting behind the wheel itself. Sustainability science is concerned with the interactions between humans and the environment to foster long-term sustainable development. It focuses on the prediction and assessments of faults all over the globe and their appropriate remediation with the aid of best-fitting knowledge for the resilience of the global natural systems, social systems, and human systems. The primary goal of sustainability science is the restoration of ultimate functionality to Earth’s ecosystems and landscapes. Climate change, acidification of the oceans, loss of biodiversity, pollution of the environment, deforestation, and changes in the use of land are just a few of the global environmental concerns that are now manifesting on a planetary scale. Pollution is the root and the leading cause of every liability in the ecosystem, it is no less than a bane on the planet. In the ladder of sustainability science, pollution control serves as the side wood that holds all other steps. Here all the plausible sustainable techniques have been discussed that can help out in controlling all types of pollution.

Keywords: sustainability science environmental conservation

3
Title: EXPLORING COOLING OF PV PANELS BASED ON METALLIC AND NONMETALLIC NANOFLUIDS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
Author: Munzer Ebaid, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: An outdoor experimental study investigated cooling photovoltaic (PV) panels using nanofluids containing metallic (calcium carbonate) and non-metallic (ferro-magnetite) particles. The study compared solar power output and efficiency of PV panels cooled by various nanofluids, uncooled and water-cooled systems, under laminar and turbulent flow with flow rates from 1000 to 7000 ml/min. Aluminum heat exchangers (460mm length, 10mm outer diameter, 10mm thickness) were attached to each PV cell's rear surface, allowing analysis of cell temperature, thermal, and electrical performance. CaCO3 and Fe3O4 nanofluids notably reduced average cell surface temperature compared to uncooled and water-cooled systems. Fe3O4 nanofluid excelled due to its high thermal conductivity, showing improved heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number compared to air and water cooling. Electrical performance, power output, and efficiency of PV cells improved with cooling systems compared to uncooled. Fe3O4 nanofluid stood out for its superior results owing to its exceptional thermal conductivity among available cooling methods.

Keywords: Nanofluids, Nusselt number, volume concentration, power output, PV efficiency

4
Title: واقع اللغة العربية في تطبيقات الذكاء الاصطناعي: دراسة وصفية تطبيقية.
Author: Muhammad Ismail Amayreh, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: الملخص الأهداف: تبحث هذه الورقة العلمية في علاقة الذكاء الاصطناعي بدراسة اللغة، وتمثيل المعرفة الأساسية التي تدعم عملية الفهم. وتهدف الورقة في قسمها الأول إلى تسليط الضوء على خيط موحد لمجموعة متنوعة من الأساليب الحديثة لفهم اللغة الطبيعية، وآلية عمل الذكاء الاصطناعي اللغوي، ويركز القسم الثاني على بعض التطبيقات التي تُبين لنا كيف يمكن للذكاء الاصطناعي أن يكون له تأثير جذري على تعليم اللغة العربية، والكتابة العربية، والكتابة بالأصوات العربية من خلال تناول نماذج لتطبيقات تدعم خدمة اللغة العربية، ومعرفة مدى خدمة هذه التطبيقات للغة العربية، بالإضافة إلى ذلك، تقديم تصور عن واقع اللغة العربية من خلال دراسة بعض التطبيقات والأدوات التي تمثل اللغة العربية مادتها الأساسية. المنهجية: وقد اتبع البحث المنهج الوصفي التطبيقي، من خلال وصف آلية عمل الذكاء الاصطناعي وأهميته، وتسليط الضوء على واقع اللغة العربية بوساطة المنهج التطبيقي، فقد تناول الباحث ثلاثة برامج تستخدم الذكاء الاصطناعي وتدعم اللغة العربية للتطبيق عليها، ولم يغفل دور المنهج التحليلي، الذي كان له دور في الخروج بتوصيات من خلال تحليل نتائج الدراسة التطبيقية. النتائج: خَلص البحث إلى مجموعة من النتائج والتوصيات المبنية على الدراسة التطبيقية، ومن أهمها: زيادة المحتوى العربي الماثل على الإنترنت، حتى تتمكن برمجيات الذكاء الاصطناعي من الاستجابة والتحليل، ويضاف إلى ذلك تدريب نماذج اللغة الاصطناعية على كميات كبيرة من البيانات العربية؛ لتحسين أداء النظم في الفهم والتفاعل بشكل أفضل مع المستخدمين الناطقين بالعربية. كذلك، تعزيز الوعي اللغوي، فيمكننا تحسين فهم اللغة العربية من قبل النظم الذكية عن طريق توفير مصادر تعليمية تشرح الخصائص اللغوية الفريدة للعربية. الخلاصة: بات التطرق لواقع اللغة العربية في التكنولوجيا الحديثة -ولا سيما في الذكاء الاصطناعي- أمرا لا مفر منه، ولا بد من تقديم دراسات تساعد المختصين، وأصحاب القرار على دعم التطبيقات التي تستخدم الذكاء الاصطناعي وتخدم اللغة العربية في جميع مستوياتها، فالتطور لا بد ألا يبقى مقتصرا على الشكل الخارجي للجملة العربية، بل يجب أن يشمل المستويين الأسلوبي والدلالي. كلمات مفتاحية: اللسانيات التطبيقية، الذكاء الاصطناعي، اللغة العربية.

Keywords: كلمات مفتاحية: اللسانيات التطبيقية، الذكاء الاصطناعي، اللغة العربية.

5
Title: Using VR Technology at Environments of Teaching Interior Design to Promote the Level of Creativity among Students
Author: Saif Mohammad Obeidat, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: Objectives: This research studies Virtual Reality’s (VR) importance in teaching interior design to promote students’ creativity in educational environments. The lack of virtual reality (VR) will affect the three main parts of the educational process: learning environments, students, and interior design. The main question focuses on virtual reality’s (VR) impact on the quality of interior design and students’ thinking and creativity in educational environments. The research aims to provide information about virtual reality’s (VR) importance and how it can improve students' thinking and creativity and promote the output of interior design in educational environments. The importance of the research is to provide information on using virtual reality technology (VR) and what it leads to in improving efficiency, performance, services, improving students' thinking and creativity, and raising the outputs of interior design functionally and aesthetically in educational environments. Methods: The research followed the mixed (quantitative and qualitative) analytical descriptive approach, where information was collected and analyzed by disturbuting questionnaires (200 interior design students), conducting personal interviews (50 academic specialists), and analyzing previous studies (5 studies specialized in VR technology), leading to the results. Results: The results proved that the use of virtual reality (VR) has an impact on the functional and aesthetic interior design outputs within educational environments, and it also affects the quality of educational environments, which increases the efficiency, performance, and services of those environments, while improving the level of positive thinking. Coclusions: This research is very important for students, their creativity levels increases, and this is reflected on the educational process, and interior design in projects.

Keywords: Educational Environments, Interior Design, Student Thinking, Virtual Reality (VR) Technology

6
Title: Optimization of ON-grid hybrid PV/wind system for a cement factory in Kuwait using HOMER pro software
Author: Firas Abdullah Obeidat, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The reliance on a single energy source leads to many problems, i.e. cost and unsustainable operation. Hybrid renewable energy systems (include more than one energy source) has been effectively shown as a feasible choice to overcome these problems. The main purpose of this research is to carry out a techno-economic optimization to minimize the size of the system with lower cost and higher reliability. This proposed ON-grid hybrid PV/wind energy system is designed to supply the electrical power of a cement factory in Kuwait. To achieve this purpose, the Hybrid Optimization of Electric Energy (HOMER Pro) software was utilized to carry out the optimization process. The results of this study show that the cost of electricity energy generated by the hybrid PV/wind energy system is equal to $0.082/kWh which is much lower when compared to the conventional fuel power plants in Kuwait which is approximately $0.12/kWh.

Keywords: photovoltaic energy; wind energy; hybrid system; renewable energy; LCOE; optimization; HOMER

7
Title: Development and Characterization of High-Energy Protein Bars with Enhanced Antioxidant, Chemical, Nutritional, Physical, and Sensory Properties
Author: Hani Jameel Mohammad Hamad, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Abstract: Protein-rich energy bars are known as an excellent nutritional supplement for athletes that help to build and repair connective tissues. The study is, therefore, aimed at developing high-protein bars using lupine seeds, wheat germ, and selected dried fruits including raisins, dates, apricots, and cranberries. Different formulations (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were performed at different ratios of ingredients to produce high-protein bars and compared them with a control bar made of wheyprotein concentrate and oat flakes. For this purpose, a proximate analysis, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, water content, nutritional, and sensory analysis was performed to evaluate the results. The proximate analysis of the produced protein bars showed a significantly higher protein content (22 ± 2) and total phenolic activity (57 ± 33) in formulation group 4 as compared to the other groups. Furthermore, the least water activity content was found in formulation group 1 (1 ± 0.0) when compared with the control group (1 ± 0.0). The results from the sensory evaluation revealed that T3 had the highest average scores in overall consumer acceptability. Our study found that total phenolic, flavonoid, and fiber content were significantly higher in the prepared protein bars indicating prospective health benefits when compared to the control group. Overall, the study demonstrates that high-protein bars using functional ingredients like dried fruit can provide enriched nutritionally valuable food options for consumers.

Keywords: protein bars; proximate analysis; DPPH; phenolic content; flavonoid content; sensory analysis

8
Title: Development and Characterization of High-Energy Protein Bars with Enhanced Antioxidant, Chemical, Nutritional, Physical, and Sensory Properties
Author: Zaher Qassim Al-Bashabsheh, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Protein-rich energy bars are known as an excellent nutritional supplement for athletes that help to build and repair connective tissues. The study is, therefore, aimed at developing high-protein bars using lupine seeds, wheat germ, and selected dried fruits including raisins, dates, apricots, and cranberries. Different formulations (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were performed at different ratios of ingredients to produce high-protein bars and compared them with a control bar made of wheyprotein concentrate and oat flakes. For this purpose, a proximate analysis, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, water content, nutritional, and sensory analysis was performed to evaluate the results. The proximate analysis of the produced protein bars showed a significantly higher protein content (22 ± 2) and total phenolic activity (57 ± 33) in formulation group 4 as compared to the other groups. Furthermore, the least water activity content was found in formulation group 1 (1 ± 0.0) when compared with the control group (1 ± 0.0). The results from the sensory evaluation revealed that T3 had the highest average scores in overall consumer acceptability. Our study found that total phenolic, flavonoid, and fiber content were significantly higher in the prepared protein bars indicating prospective health benefits when compared to the control group. Overall, the study demonstrates that high-protein bars using functional ingredients like dried fruit can provide enriched nutritionally valuable food options for consumers.

Keywords: protein bars; proximate analysis; DPPH; phenolic content; flavonoid content; sensory analysis

9
Title: The behavior of strengthened RC beams under pure torsion using NSM-CFRP rope
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Abstract Purpose – The paper aims to introduces an experimentalwork to investigate the torsional behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened by near-surfacemounted (NSM) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) ropes. Design/methodology/approach – In this research, nine rectangular RC beams of 250 mm 3 300 mm cross section and 1,600 mm in length were constructed and tested considering the studied parameters. These parameters include the length of the CFRP rope, the orientation of the CFRP rope, the arrangement of longitudinal and the scheme of NSM-CFRP ropes. Findings – In comparison to control specimens, the results demonstrate a considerable improvement in the torsional response of RC beams strengthened with the CFRP rope. Additionally, specimens strengthened with 908 vertical ropes increase torsional moment capacity more efficiently than specimens strengthened with 458 inclined ropes since the stress concentration leads to premature debonding of the CFRP rope. Whereas RC beams’ ability to withstand torsional moments is reduced as the distance between reinforcing CFRP ropes is increased. According to test results, adding CFRP ropes to RC beams’ bottoms had a slightly positive impact on torsional response. Originality/value – This paper fulfills an identified need to study how the using of the CFRP rope is effective in strengthening RC beam subjected to torsion moment.

Keywords: Reinforced concrete beam, Angle of twist, Torsion, Strengthening, NSM-CFRP rope

10
Title: The behavior of strengthened RC beams under pure torsion using NSM-CFRP rope
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Abstract Purpose – The paper aims to introduces an experimentalwork to investigate the torsional behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened by near-surfacemounted (NSM) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) ropes. Design/methodology/approach – In this research, nine rectangular RC beams of 250 mm 3 300 mm cross section and 1,600 mm in length were constructed and tested considering the studied parameters. These parameters include the length of the CFRP rope, the orientation of the CFRP rope, the arrangement of longitudinal and the scheme of NSM-CFRP ropes. Findings – In comparison to control specimens, the results demonstrate a considerable improvement in the torsional response of RC beams strengthened with the CFRP rope. Additionally, specimens strengthened with 908 vertical ropes increase torsional moment capacity more efficiently than specimens strengthened with 458 inclined ropes since the stress concentration leads to premature debonding of the CFRP rope. Whereas RC beams’ ability to withstand torsional moments is reduced as the distance between reinforcing CFRP ropes is increased. According to test results, adding CFRP ropes to RC beams’ bottoms had a slightly positive impact on torsional response. Originality/value – This paper fulfills an identified need to study how the using of the CFRP rope is effective in strengthening RC beam subjected to torsion moment.

Keywords: Reinforced concrete beam, Angle of twist, Torsion, Strengthening, NSM-CFRP rope

11
Title: Adolescents' online health information seeking: Trust, e-health literacy, parental influence, and AI-generated credibility
Author: Heba Mohammad Ahmad Hatamlah, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Adolescents increasingly turn to online sources for health information, raising concerns about the credibility of information and its impact on their behaviors. This study explores the factors shaping adolescents' online health information seeking (OHIS) behaviors. The study surveyed 381 adolescents to assess trust in online health information, eHealth literacy, parental behaviors, and AI-generated credibility scores. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze data and test hypotheses based on the Social Cognitive Theory. Trust in online health information positively influenced disease-related OHIS behaviors (β = 0.24, p < 0.05) and fitness-related OHIS behaviors (β = 0.18, p < 0.05). Higher eHealth literacy correlated with increased diseaserelated OHIS behaviors (β = 0.32, p < 0.05) and fitness-related OHIS behaviors (β = 0.28, p < 0.05). Parental OHIS behaviors influenced adolescents' disease-related OHIS behaviors (β = 0.16, p < 0.05) and fitness-related OHIS behaviors (β = 0.22, p < 0.05). Parental OHIS mediation positively mediated these relationships (H7, H8). Higher AI-generated credibility scores associated with more disease-related OHIS behaviors (β = 0.20, p < 0.05) and fitness-related OHIS behaviors (β = 0.15, p < 0.05). Adolescents' eHealth literacy mediated these relationships (H11, H12). Trust, eHealth literacy, parental influence, and AI-generated credibility play vital roles in shaping adolescents' OHIS behaviors. Educators should prioritize enhancing eHealth literacy and promoting credible online sources to improve adolescents' health information seeking practices. This study contributes insights into the factors influencing adolescents' OHIS behaviors, emphasizing the role of parental mediation and AI-generated credibility scores. The findings inform the development of targeted health education interventions to encourage responsible online health information seeking among adolescents.

Keywords: Information Trustworthiness Health Information Sources Adolescents' Information Behavior Healthcare Decision-making AI

12
Title: Pesticides: An alarming detrimental to health and environment
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Pesticides are chemical substances of natural or synthetic origin that are used to eradicate pests and insects. These are indispensable in the agricultural processes for better crop production. Pesticide use aims to promote crop yield and protect the crops from diseases and damage. Pesticides must be handled carefully and disposed of appropriately because they are dangerous to people and other species by default. Environmental pollution occurs when pesticide contamination spreads away from the intended plants. Older pesticides such as lindane and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) may remain in water and soil for a longer time. These accumulate in various parts of the food chain and cause damage to the ecosystem. Biological techniques in the management of pest control such as importation, augmentation, and conservation, and the accompanying procedures are more efficient, less expensive, and ecologically sound than other ways. This review mainly focuses on the consequences on the targeted and non-targeted organisms including the health and well-being of humans by the use of pesticides and their toxicity. The side effects that occur when a pesticide's LD50 exceeds the accepted limit through oral or skin penetration due to their binding to various receptors such as estrogen receptors, GABA, EGFR, and others. These pesticide classes include carbamates, pyrethroids, organochlorides, organophosphorus, and others. The current study seeks to highlight the urgent requirement for a novel agricultural concept that includes a major reduction in the use of chemical pesticides.

Keywords: Pesticides; health; environment

13
Title: The impact of entrepreneurial behavior on entrepreneurial human resources management: The mediating role of entrepreneurial orientation
Author: Shadi Mohammad Al-Tahat, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Entrepreneurial human resources management can establish competitive advantages by consistently fostering superior human resources contributions within companies. This is achieved through the development of skilled employees who are passionate about delivering quality products and services. This study sets out to explore the role of entrepreneurial orientation for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), particularly the relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and entrepreneurial human resource management. An online questionnaire technique was used to meet the research objectives. The study sample consisted of 356 participants from human resource management departments from 30 SMEs in the Al-Hassan Industrial Estate (HIE) in northern Jordan. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the data. The results displayed that entrepreneurial behavior positively and significantly impacts both entrepreneurial human resources management and entrepreneurial orientation. Additionally, entrepreneurial orientation positively impacts entrepreneurial human resources management. Entrepreneurial orientation partially mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and entrepreneurial human resources management. According to these findings, human resources management policies and practices influence the level of entrepreneurship within an organization

Keywords: entrepreneurial behavior, entrepreneurial human resources management, entrepreneurial orientation, SMEs

14
Title: On some generalized numerical radius inequalities for Hilbert space operators
Author: Hani Yousef Mohammad Kawariq, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Science

Abstract: In this paper, it is shown, among other inequalities, that if A, B ∈ B(H), then, for p > 1, we have

Keywords: Numerical radius, norm inequality, Schatten p-norm.

15
Title: Co-Lindelöf Open Sets
Author: Hani Yousef Mohammad Kawariq, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Science

Abstract: In this paper, we define a new type of open sets called co-Lindelöf open set (coL-open). Moreover, we obtain several results about co-Lindelöf open sets and study the relation among open set, coc-open set and coL-open. Furthermore, we define separation axioms via coL-open and prove some related results.

Keywords: co-Lindel ̈of open sets, coL-Ti- spaces i = 0, 1, 2,coL-Di− spaces i = 0, 1, 2.

16
Title: Integrating network pharmacology with molecular docking to rationalize the ethnomedicinal use of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax & K. Hoffm. for efficient treatment of depression
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Background: Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax & K. Hoffm. (A. laxiflora) has been indicated in traditional medicine to treat depression. However, scientific rationalization is still lacking. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the antidepressant potential of A. laxiflora using network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis. Materials and methods: The active compounds and potential targets of A. laxiflora and depression-related targets were retrieved from public databases, such as PubMed, PubChem, DisGeNET, GeneCards, OMIM, SwissTargetprediction, BindingDB, STRING, and DAVID. Essential bioactive compounds, potential targets, and signaling pathways were predicted using in silico analysis, including BA-TAR, PPI, BA-TAR-PATH network construction, and GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Later on, with molecular docking analysis, the interaction of essential bioactive compounds of A. laxiflora and predicted core targets of depression were verified. Results: The network pharmacology approach identified 15 active compounds, a total of 219 compound-related targets, and 14,574 depression-related targets with 200 intersecting targets between them. SRC, EGFR, PIK3R1, AKT1, and MAPK1 were the core targets, whereas 3-acetyloleanolic acid and 3-acetylursolic acid were the most active compounds of A. laxiflora with anti-depressant potential. GO functional enrichment analysis revealed 129 GO terms, including 82 biological processes, 14 cellular components, and 34 molecular function terms. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis yielded significantly enriched 108 signaling pathways. Out of them, PI3K-Akt and MAPK signaling pathways might have a key role in treating depression. Molecular docking analysis results exhibited that core targets of depression, such as SRC, EGFR, PIK3R1, AKT1, and MAPK1, bind stably with the analyzed bioactive compounds of A. laxiflora. Conclusion: The present study elucidates the bioactive compounds, potential targets, and pertinent mechanism of action of A. laxiflora in treating depression. A. laxiflora might exert an antidepressant effect by regulating PI3K-Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. However, further investigations are required to validate

Keywords: Alchornea laxiflora, depression, network pharmacology, molecular docking, in silico, ethnomedicine, African traditional medicine

17
Title: Study of Phenotypic Traits and Production Characteristics of Chickens in the Desert Regions of Jordon
Author: Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The study aimed to describe the phenotypic traits of Indigenous chicken. A field survey was conducted in South Jordan, Karak governorate, and data were recorded for each bird's morphological and biometric traits. Furthermore, information such as height, latitude, longitude, and rearing and breeding practices were recorded, followed by several statistical analyses. The results showed that the phenotypic characteristics of the chickens are unevenly distributed between regions and heights. This may reflect the correlation between phenotype traits of morphology and their expression of different levels with the impact of the environment. Random mating and human selection practices were also discovered and observed. In addition, the studied traits indicated that chickens are still being raised in traditional methods, and there are no genetic improvement practices or genetic groups of geographically distant regions. The correlation coefficients between these traits and their relationship with the region and height were also reported. As a result, it could be recommended that chicken farmers be educated on the best administrative, technical, and genetic improvement techniques and practice for their flocks are to achieve highly productive and optimal adaptability.

Keywords: Biodiversity, climate adaptation, geographical height, morphology, production system, topography

18
Title: Multivariate Discriminant Analysis on Differentiating Sheep Breeds Based on Live Body and Carcass Measurements
Author: Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The multivariate technique analysis was utilized for assigning and discriminating three Saudi sheep breeds, Naemi, Najdi and Hari based on live body and carcass traits. The traits were body height at wither and rump, body length, heart girth, body depth, head length, ear length, body weight at slaughtering, empty body, dressing percentage, hot carcass, cold carcass, and head weight which had a significant effect on breed. The phenotypic associations between the traits were also studied and strong associations between economically important traits were reported. The analyses of principal components were efficient in showing the total variation of 13 traits accumulated in linear combinations of four traits of most discriminant power body depth, ear length, body height at the rump, and head length. About 77% of the total variation between the breeds. Overall, the analysis of canonical discriminant was very successful in verifying the carcass of each breed considering thus previously mentioned 13 traits. It is recommended to disseminate the findings of this study as a guideline to assign slaughtered sheep and its carcass to its own breed when other means impossible to take place.

Keywords: Meat tracing, Canonical discriminant analysis, Lamb

19
Title: Does Supply Chain Resilience Mediate the Relationship Between CRM Dimensions and Customer Satisfaction?
Author: Abdal-Razzaq Mohammad Al-Oqool, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Supply chain (SC) disruptions are increasingly common in today’s dynamic business environment, and understanding the effectiveness of customer relationship management (CRM) practices in achieving customer satisfaction through supply chain resilience (SCR) can provide valuable insights for businesses. This study aims to empirically examine the impact of CRM dimensions and SCR on customer satisfaction. It also examined the mediation role of SCR between different dimensions of CRM and customer satisfaction. A total of 529 responses were collected from different customers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Middle Eastern region. For empirical analysis, this study employed structural equation modelling through PLS software. The results clearly show a significant direct influence of SCR, customer orientation and knowledge management on customer satisfaction, while surprisingly technology-based CRM does not influence customer satisfaction. Further, the outcomes of this study indicate that there is a significant mediation role of SCR between CRM practices (knowledge management, technology-based CRM) and customer satisfaction. The findings of this study can have important ramifications for managers, stakeholders and policymakers regarding the significance of CRM dimensions and SCR as factors that increase customer satisfaction in Middle Eastern businesses in particular and in developing nations in general.

Keywords: Supply Chain Resilience, CRM, Customer Satisfaction

20
Title: A comprehensive overview of selective and novel fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors as a potential anticancer modality
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The arrival of comprehensive genome sequencing has accelerated the understanding of genetically aberrant advanced cancers and target identification for possible cancer treatment. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene alterations are frequent findings in various rare and advanced cancers refractive to mainstay chemotherapy or surgical interventions. Several FGFR inhibitors have been developed for addressing these genetically altered FGFR-harboring malignancies, and some have performed well in clinical trials. In contrast, others are still being investigated in different phases of clinical trials. FDA has approved four anticancer agents such as erdafitinib, pemigatinib, infigratinib, and futibatinib, for clinical use in oncogenic FGFR-driven malignancies. These include cholangiocarcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, and myeloid/lymphoid malignancies. Pemigatinib is the only FGFR inhibitor globally approved (USA, EU, and Japan) and available as a targeted therapy for two types of cancer, including FGFR2 fusion or other rearrangements harboring cholangiocarcinoma and relapsed/refractory myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 rearrangements. Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasm is the latest area of application added to the therapeutic armamentarium of FGFR inhibitors. Furthermore, futibatinib is the first-inclass covalent or irreversible pan-FGFR inhibitor that has received FDA approval for locally advanced or metastatic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma harboring FGFR2 gene aberrations. This review highlights the current clinical progress concerning the safety and efficacy of all the approved FGFR-TKIs (tyrosine kinase inhibitors) and their ongoing investigations in clinical trials for other oncogenic FGFR-driven malignancies.

Keywords: FGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, FDA approval, erdafitinib, infigratinib, pemigatinib, futibatinib

21
Title: Computational pharmaceutics
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The conventional ways employed in the preformulation, formulation, and in vivo studies are based on trial-and-error experiments, which are time consuming, expensive, and with limited productivity. This has paved the way for computational pharmaceutics, which is the application of computer to pharmaceutical drug delivery and modeling (computer simulation) in order to save energy, time, and costs in the development pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. Computational methods can help in forecasting a molecule’s structure and physicochemical attributes, simulates the motion of molecules and atoms, characterize the substances structurally, dynamically, and energetically, and examine the molecular mechanisms of molecular mechanics-based formulations. In this chapter, we give an overview about computational pharmaceutics, their history, applications, and developments.

Keywords: Computer-Aided Pharmaceutical, Computational Pharmaceutics, Simulation Models, In-silico.

22
Title: The impact of audit committee dimensions on financial reporting efficiency of limited partnership companies listed on the Amman Stock exchange”
Author: Qasim Ahmad Alawaqleh, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract Currently, the Jordanian economy needs more investment due to the growing financial deficit facing the Jordanian state. Therefore, this study came to increase investors’ trust in financial reports issued by Jordanian companies to attract more investments. Based on that, this study will investigate the impact of audit committee dimensions on the efficiency of financial reports of limited partnership companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange. The data were collected from financial reports issued by 52 limited partnership companies for the year 2021. The study used multiple regression to test the hypotheses. Based on the findings, audit committee dimensions explained the variation in financial reports’ efficiency which reached 0.629. The audit committee members’ size does not significantly affect the financial reports’ efficiency. The significance reached 0.287. However, the knowledge of financial management has a significant positive effect on financial report efficiency; the significance reached 0.000 and the effect volume arrived at 0.699. Also, the findings showed that audit committee meetings have a greater effect on financial reporting efficiency than financial management knowledge. The impact was significantly positive, arriving at 0.790, while the significance reached 0.000. The main research conclusion is that limited partnership companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange adopt corporate governance to achieve control effectiveness of audit committees to increase financial reporting efficiency to achieve more investments.

Keywords: legitimacy, corporate governance, investment, performance, effectiveness, auditing, financial market

23
Title: Tilt Angle Optimality Criteria for Stand Alone PV Systems
Author: Mohammad Abdul Qader Abu Naser, Published Year: 2024
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The conventional approach to optimizing tilt angles for fixed solar panels aims to maximize energy generation over the entire year. However, in the context of a supply controlled electric grid, where solar energy availability varies, this criterion may not be optimal. This study explores two alternative optimization criteria focused on maximizing baseload supply potential and minimizing required storage capacity to address seasonality in energy generation. The optimal tilt angles determined for these criteria differed significantly from the standard approach. This research highlights additional factors crucial for designing solar power systems beyond gross energy generation, essential for the global transition towards a fully renewable energy-based electric grid in the future.

Keywords: Electric Grid, Fixed Solar Panels, Optimal PV Tilt Angle, Seasonal Solar Variability, Renewable Energy, Supply-Demand Balance

24
Title: Enhancing flat slab design: machine learning and metaheuristic approaches to predict punching shear strength
Author: Sawsan Mohammad Alkhawaldeh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This study aimed to enhance the design of flat slabs by utilizing the capabilities of machine learning and metaheuristic optimization. Besides, the main aim of this study was to develop a robust predictive model for estimating punching shear strength, which is a crucial factor in the design of flat slabs and an attempt to enhance the safety and efficiency of construction practices. The study employed a carefully selected dataset from The American Concrete Institute Committee 445C, encompassing experimental findings about flat slabs. The Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LGBM) was the fundamental prediction model. The Locust Swarm Algorithm (LSA) was integrated to optimize the model's parameters and configurations to improve its performance. The combination of LGBM and LSA substantially improved prediction precision, accompanied by a noteworthy decrease in RMSE, MAE, and MAPE metrics. The hybrid approach performed better than the standalone LGBM model and traditional approaches. The findings highlight the possibility of combining machine learning and metaheuristic optimization techniques in structural engineering. The convergence of these factors can fundamentally change the approach to decision-making in flat slab designs, focusing on utilizing data-driven methods. This can significantly transform safety protocols and enhance the overall efficiency of construction processes. Moreover, the results have significant implications for the broader domain of civil engineering, indicating the advent of a novel era characterized by evidence-based and highly efficient design practices. The culmination of the research involves promoting the utilization of the LGBM-LSA hybrid as a robust method for predicting punching shear strength in flat slabs. The integration of machine learning and metaheuristic optimization in this study establishes a foundation for potential advancements in structural engineering.

Keywords: Flat slab design · Punching shear strength · Machine learning · LGBM · Metaheuristic optimization · Locust swarm algorithm

25
Title: An Ontology Learning Framework for unstructured Arabic Text
Author: Mohammad Taye, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Abstract— Ontologies are widely regarded as valuable sources of semantics and interoperability in all artificially intelligent systems. Due to the rapid growth of unstructured data on the web, studying how to automatically get ontology from unstructured text is important. Therefore, ontology learning (OL) is an important process in the business world. It involves finding and extracting concepts from the text so that these concepts can be used for things such as information retrieval. Unfortunately, learning ontology is not easy for some reasons, and there has not been much research on how to automatically learn a domain-specific ontology from data. Ontology Studying Arabic text is not as developed as learning Latin text. There is almost no automated support for using Arabic literary knowledge in semantically enabled systems. Machine learning (ML) has proven beneficial in numerous fields, including text mining. By employing neural language models such as AraBERT, it is possible to obtain word embeddings as distributed word representations from textual input using machine learning. However, the application of machine learning to aid the development of Arabic ontology is largely unexplored. This research examines the performance of AraBERT for ontology learning tasks in Arabic. Early performance results as an application of Arabic ontology learning are promising. In this research, we provide a method for populating an existing ontology with instance information extracted from the input natural language text. This prototype has achieved an information extraction accuracy of 91%.

Keywords: Arabic Ontology, Natural language Processing (NLP), Ontology, Ontology Learning (OL), Semantic Web, semantic representation.

26
Title: N-dodecyl β-D-glucopyranoside micelles catalyzed reaction of ascorbic acid with azure A chloride salt dye in acidic aqueous solution: A kinetic, thermodynamic, and mechanism study
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The current study has investigated the reaction of ascorbic acid with azure A chloride salt dye spectrophotometrically by following the absorbance decline of azure A chloride salt at 630 nm in the presence and absence of a non-ionic micelle of the natural surfactant (N-dodecyl β-D-glucopyranoside). Thus, the primary aim was to examine the influence of the non-ionic natural surfactant on the reaction rates of ascorbic acid with azure A chloride salt dye in acidic aqueous media, as well as using the Piszkiewicz, Arrhenius, and Eyring equations to clarify its catalytic effect in pre- and micellar phases. Hence, the kinetic experiments were achieved by adapting pseudo-first-order reaction conditions with respect to the azure A chloride salt dye. However, the reaction was found to be fractional order with respect to the oxidant, reductant, and H2SO4. The findings reveal the reaction rates have been enhanced in the presence of N-dodecyl β-D-glucopyranoside through the formation of several hydrogen bonds, which play a significant role in the binding N-dodecyl β-D-glucopyranoside monomers and micelles with reactant molecules in pre-micellar and micellar phases, in addition to determination of critical micelle concentration of N-dodecyl β-D-glucopyranoside at specific conditions. Thus, the aspects of kinetic features, thermodynamic parameters, the products at the end of the reactions, and their probable mechanism are estimated and discussed.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Azure A chloride salt, Nonionic micelles, N-dodecyl β-D glucopyranoside, Pre- and micellar phases

27
Title: البحث العلمي (في ظل الأزمات)
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: صدر حديثا للدكتورة أماني غازي جرار كتاب (البحث العلمي في ظل الأزمات) ، ويأتي الكتاب الصادر عن دار البديل للنشر في 263 صفحة . يستهدف الكتاب فئة المهتمين بالدراسات والبحوث العلمية في العلوم الإنسانية على اختلافها ، وهو يتصدى لإدارة الأزمات من خلال البحث العلمي ،وكذلك يبحث علميا في سبل إدارة الأزمات في عصر النهضة المعرفية الذي نعيش اليوم. يسعى الكتاب لتقديم منهجية شاملة للبحث العلمي وفق مقاربات علمية قائمة على إدارة المعرفة في مجالات البحث العلمي ،لاسيما في عصر يتطلب فيه منا كباحثين في العلوم الإنسانية التعامل مع الأزمات للنهوض بالمعرفة من أجل التنمية التي من شأنها تقدم الإنسانية. ويتضمن الكتاب ستة فصول ، فقد جاء الفصل الأول بعنوان البحث العلمي من منظور إدارة المعرفة ، ويتناول مفهوم إدارة المعرفة وأهميتها وأثر إدارة المعرفة على البحث العلمي . وجاء الفصل الثاني بعنوان مفهوم البحث العلمي وأهميته وأهدافه ، ويتناول مفاهيم البحث العلمي ،وتطور البحث العلمي عبر التاريخ ،وأهمية البحث العلمي وأهدافه . أما الفصل الثالث فجاء بعنوان أساليب ومنهجيات البحث العلمي ، ويتناول أسلوب التفكير العلمي في البحث،وأنواع البحوث العلمية ،كما قدم قراءة تفصيلية حول أبحاث التواصل الموجزة،وتصنيفات البحث العلمي ومعاييره. وجاء الفصل الرابع بعنوان التحليل الكمي والتحليل النوعي، فتناول موضوع تحليل البيانات ،وأدوات جمع البيانات في البحث العلمي ،والتحليل النوعي والكيفي ،والتحليل الاستقرائي ، والبحث العلمي في ظل الأزمات والاستكشاف والتحليل المرحلي ،وتطوير التحليل الاحصائي للبحث العلمي ، وخطوات التحليل الإحصائي وطرقه. وجاء الفصل الخامس بعنوان البحث العلمي والنهضة المعرفية ،فتناول البحث العلمي ودوره في تنمية المجتمعات ، ووقفة تقييمية للـبـحـــث الـعـلـمــي بـيــن الـواقــع والمــأمــول،ودور الجامعات ودور البعث العلمي في تطوير البحوث العلمية،وأثر التحول في اقتصاد المعرفة على تعزيز البحث العلمي . وأخير جاء الفصل السادس بعنوان البحث العلمي وإدارة الأزمات ، وتناول مراحل إدارة الأزمات ، واستعراض أوقات الأزمات وأثر الحوكمة في الإدارة ،وخطوات المنهج العلمي في التصدي للأزمات، والتفكير الابتكاري وقت الأزمات . إن حاجتنا إلى الدراسات والبحوث العلمية تزداد يوماً بعد آخر، فالعلم في سباق محموم للحصول على أكبر قدر ممكن من المعرفة الدقيقة المستمدة من العلوم التي تكفل الراحة والرفاهية للإنسان وتضمن له التفوق والاستدامة، فالوظيفة الأساسية للبحث العلمي هي في تقدم المعرفة من أجل توفير ظروف أفضل لبقاء الإنسان وأمنه ورفاهيته. والبحث العلمي بمناهجه وإجراءاته من الأمور الضرورية في أي حقل من حقول المعرفة. فقد أصبح الإلمام بمناهج البحث العلمي المختلفة والقواعد الواجب اتباعها بدءاً من تحديد مشكلة البحث العلمي ووصفها إجرائياً مروراً باختيار منهجية محددة لجمع البيانات المتعلقة بها وانتهاء بتحليل البيانات واستخلاص النتائج من الأمور الهامة في كل العلوم النظرية والتطبيقية. ويبين الكتاب ان ما نشهده ونلمسه اليوم من تطورات هائلة في مختلف نواحي العلوم، والتأثير الحاصل لهذه التطورات وانعكاسها على المجتمع، إنما هو نتيجة بحوث علمية ودراسات عدة قام بها باحثون، حيث تبرز أهمية البحث العلمي بازدياد اعتماد الدول المتقدمة عليه ، إدراكاً منها بمدى أهمية البحث العلمي في تحقيق التقدم والتطور الحضاري واستدامة المجتمعات ، فقد أصبح للبحث العلمي الدور الأهم في إدارة الأزمات وتنمية المجتمعات الإنسانية . https://www.ammonnews.net/article/758162 https://www.neelwafurat.com/itempage.aspx?id=lbb395073-392918&search=books

Keywords: البحث العلمي ، الأزمات

28
Title: الحوكمة (المنهج الشمولي)
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: https://www.neelwafurat.com/itempage.aspx?id=lbb395051-392896&search=books صدر حديثا عن دار البديل للنشر والتوزيع كتاب جديد للأستاذة الدكتورة أماني غازي جرار بعنوان (الحوكمة : المنهج الشمولي). هدف الكتاب الى وضع تصور شمولي منهجي متكامل للحوكمة ، بحيث يقدم المفيد الى كل مهتم من الدارسين سواء المعني منهم بالشأن التنموي والتربوي أوالسياسي والحكومي والاقتصادي أوالثقافي أوالإعلامي بشكل خاص. فتسعى الحوكمة الى تحقيق الحكم الرشيد ، وقد بين الكتاب كيف يتمحور مفهوم الحوكمة في السعي لتحقيق الوعي وفهم متطلبات الحكم الرشيد، والعمل على مساعدة القطاعين العام والخاص على فهم القواعد المنظمة للحوكمة، والالتزام بها لتحقيق أقصى استثمار لأداء المؤسسات القوية ، فهي عبارة عن نظام متكامل يتم من خلاله إدارة المؤسسات والدول، والتحكم في أعمالها وسياساتها، ومنع الفساد، كما أنها مجموعة من القواعد تقوم على الربط بين القائمين على إدارة الشركات، ومجالس الإدارة، والمساهمين، وأصحاب المصالح العليا ، وغيرهم في تلك المؤسسات. وقد جاء هذا الكتاب بعنوان (الحوكمة: المنهج الشمولي) ليناقش في فصله الأول مفهوم الحوكمة، وتعريفها، ومستوياتها ومجالاتها، ونماذجها. بينما أسهب الفصل الثاني في تحليل مجالات الحوكمة، الاقتصادية والسياسية والإدارية وغيرها، حيث بدأ ببحث الحوكمة الاقتصادية بمفهومها وأهميتها وأبعادها؛ منطلقا إلى حوكمة الشركات بمفهومها ونشأتها، وأهميتها وأهدافها ومقوماتها، وكذلك تفسير العلاقة بين حوكمة الشركات والتنمية. وبحث الفصل الثاني أيضاً في الحوكمة المالية وموازنة الدول، وكذلك بحث في الحوكمة السياسية بمفهومها، وأبعادها، وأيضا الحوكمة الإدارية بمفهومها، ومحدداتها، هذا إضافة إلى البحث في الحوكمة الإلكترونية وأهميتها. أما الفصل الثالث فقد جاء بعنوان الحوكمة الشاملة ليبحث في أبعاد الحوكمة الشاملة، وحوكمة التعليم، والحوكمة الإلكترونية التعليمية في ظل المتغيرات العالمية الراهنة. كما بحث الفصل في الحوكمة البيئية، مفهومها، وأهدافها، ليستكمل بعد ذلك البحث في الحوكمة والشفافية في المنظمات التنموية. ثم جاء الفصل الرابع بعنوان الحوكمة العالمية ليبحث في مفهومها، ونشأتها، وحدودها، ومدى الحاجة إليها، ومهامها وهيئاتها،كما تطرق الى مفهوم الحوكمة العالمية وحقوق الإنسان. وأخيراً جاء الفصل الخامس بعنوان الحوكمة وإدارة الأزمات ليبحث في هذه الوحدة في توظيف مفهوم الحوكمة في إدارة الأزمات، وكذلك إدارة الأزمات في ظل الوعي الاستراتيجي وارتباط ذلك بالحوكمة، ومحاولة وضع تصور لنموذج حوكمة جديد يتلاءم مع المستجدات في ظالم عالم متغير. وأخير وضح الكتاب كيف ان الحكم مفهوم مجرد، وإنه يحتاج إلى تعريف ملموس يرتكز على واقع معين،وان من المهم أيضًا ضمان فهم مشترك للمبادئ المقبولة والمستخدمة دوليًا لتقييم الحكم في مختلف الدول ، لذلك ففي حين أن مفهوم الحكم الرشيد لا يتم تناوله وتطبيقه بشكل واحد في جميع أنحاء العالم ، فكان لابد من إنشاء فهم مشترك للمعنى والمفهوم والمبادئ الأساسية التي تؤكد عليه الحوكمة ، ليكون بمثابة إرشادات للدول التي تشرع في إصلاحات الحوكمة. ولذلك فقد بين الكتاب ان تبادل الخبرات والممارسات الجيدة في سياق حكومي دولي هو أداة لا تقدر بثمن للمساعدة في تحديد المبادرات الناجحة لتعزيز مبادئ الحكم الرشيد. وخلص الكتاب الى ان تطوير مثل هذه المبادرات لتقوية الحكم الرشيد أمرًا محوريًا لجهود التحديث الحالية في معظم الدول، وبين أهمية التركيز بشكل خاص على الدور الحاسم لتعزيز مشاركة المواطنين وإشراك المجتمع المدني، وان على الدول اتباع المنهج الشمولي الذي يربط بين مختلف مستويات الحوكمة. وقد أوضحت جرار كيف ان من أهم الركائز الأساسية لأهداف التنمية المستدامة هي الحوكمة الرشيدة، فالحوكمة في الواقع هي الركيزة التي ينبني عليها كل شيء. فإذا كانت المؤسسات ضعيفة، تصبح احتمالات نجاح أهداف التنمية المستدامة أقل بكثير؛ ولذلك تدعو الحوكمة إلى قيام مؤسسات فعالة وشفافة وخاضعة للمساءلة على جميع المستويات وفي القطاعين العام والخاص، وكذلك محلياً وعالمياً على السواء.

Keywords: حوكمة

29
Title: الإتصال الدولي (المنظور المتكامل )
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: https://www.neelwafurat.com/itempage.aspx?id=lbb395055-392900&search=books صدر حديثا عن دار البديل للنشر كتاب للأستاذة الدكتورة أماني غازي جرار بعنوان (الإتصال الدولي : المنظور المتكامل ) . ويهدف هذا الكتاب إلى تحديد التقاطعات بين مفهومي الاتصال الدولي والإعلام الدولي، حيث يقدم للمهتمين والدارسين في مجالات الدراسات الدولية والإعلامية منظوراً متكاملاً للاتصال الدولي من كافة جوانبه، منذ النشأة وحتى التطور التكنولوجي الذي غير مفهوم الاتصال والإعلام الدولي بشكل جذري. يسعى هذا الكتاب بأسلوب السرد والتحليل والتسلسل الزمني لتطور مفهوم الاتصال والإعلام الدولي. وقد توسع الكتاب في ربط مفهومي الاتصال والإعلام الدوليين بمفاهيم العولمة والعالمية. وهو يطرح رؤية تبين كيف أن النظام الإعلامي الدولي الجديد يجب ان يقوم على المبادئ الإنسانية والديمقراطية واقامة العلاقات الدولية بعيدا عن النزاعات إن أردنا تحقيق معادلة إنسانية تنمو فيها المجتمعات في كافة المجالات. يقدم الكتاب الفوارق بين الدول النامية والدول المتقدمة في مجالات كالإعلام والعلاقات الدولية ، والتي تسعى فيها القوى المختلفة الى تحقيق أكبر قدر من التوازنات، ومنح فرص أكبر لنشأة المؤسسات الإعلامية الخاصة أو الحرة المدعومة من الحكومات الوطنية، لتحقيق رفاهية شعوبها في ظل التباينات في النظام العالمي. وقد استعرض الكتاب مفهوم العولمة وأثره على الإعلام والاتصال، باعتباره مؤديا إلى التعظيم المتسارع والمستمر في قدرات وسائل الإعلام والمعلومات ،وأثر ذلك على تجاوز الحدود السياسية والثقافية بين المجتمعات بفضل ما توفره التكنولوجيا الحديثة، والتكامل والاندماج بين وسائل الإعلام والاتصال والمعلومات، وذلك لدعم عملية توحيد ودمج أسواق العالم من ناحية، وتحقيق مكاسب لشركات الإعلام والاتصالات العملاقة المتعددة الجنسيات على حساب تقليص سلطة ودور الدولة في المجالين الإعلامي والثقافي من ناحية أخرى. يأتي هذا الكتاب ليقدم المنظور المتكامل لمفهوم الإتصال الدولي ومفهوم الإعلام الدولي ،وبيان مدى ارتباط المفهومين معاً عبر ستة فصول. جاء الفصل الأول بعنوان (الاتصال تطوره ووظائفه)، ليبحث في مفهوم الاتصال وعناصره ومستوياته، ووظائفه. ثم الفصل الثاني بعنوان (الاتصال الدولي والإعلام الدولي) جاء ليبحث في تعريف الإعلام والاتصال، والتفريق بين المفهومين، مفهومي الاتصال الدولي والإعلام الدولي. أما الفصل الثالث (نشأة وتطور وسائل الاتصال في العالم) فقد بحث في مراحل نشأة الاتصال الدولي . وتناول الفصل الرابع (نظام الاتصال الدولي وتطوره) مكونات النظام الدولي من الدول والمنظمات الدولية والشركات متعددة الجنسيات. وكذلك استعرض ملامح تطور النظام الاتصالي الدولي، وأهدافه، ووظائفه. أما الفصل الخامس (وكالات الأنباء العالمية) فقد بحث في مختلف وكالات الأنباء، وأهميتها ونشأتها، وخصائصها وأشكالها. وفي الفصل السادس (العولمة والاتصال) تم بحث العولمة والعالمية وتطورهما ،وأثر العولمة في مستوياتها المختلفة على الإعلام والاتصال الدولي. ويوضح الكتاب الاتصال كعنصر أساسي فى حياة الإنسان، حيث برزت أهميته وفاعليته مع زيادة التقدم التكنولوجى، إذ هيأت عمليات التطور والتحديث الظروف المحلية والدولية الملائمة نحو تعميق الاتصالات بين كافة المجتمعات، الأمر الذى جعل من العالم أشبه بقرية صغيرة. ولا يفوتنا هنا بيان ان موضوع الاتصال من أكثر الموضوعات التى شغلت اهتمام العلماء والباحثين فى فروع معرفية شتى، ومجالات علمية مختلفة نذكر من أهمها دراسات التنمية وعلم النفس والاجتماع والسياسة والانثروبولوجيا والتاريخ، فضلاً عن أنه يمثل محور اهتمام المتخصصين فى دراسة العلاقات الدولية والدراسات الإنسانية والعلمية المتنوعة، والتى تصدت جميعها بالدراسة والفهم والتحليل لهذه العملية ، نظرا لدورها المحوري. ولا يخفى على أحد أهمية ودور الاتصال في حياتنا المعاصرة، ولقد أدرك الإنسان منذ أقدم العصور، وربما من اللحظات الأولى لبداية الحياة الانسانية أهمية الاتصال، ولذلك نخشى أن تكون الحرب القادمة التي سيشهدها العالم، هي حرب إعلامية، ستوظّف من خلالها الدول الصناعية، التي تمتلك التكنولوجيا المتطورة، الإعلام الجديد بكل أنواعه في أغراض قد تكون هدامة للخصوصيات الثقافية وللشعوب وللإنسانية جمعاء. من هنا يوضح الكتاب كيف أنه عوض هذا الدور الخطير والذي قد لا يكون بناءا، ينبغي أن يبقى الإعلام الجديد من أهم عوامل نقل الحضارة، وتعزيز الحوار الثقافي، وتحقيق الاتصال الإنساني بين الأفراد والجماعات والأمم. فالإعلام الجديد مطالب بتقديم رسالة إيجابية تهدف لبناء مجتمع دولي خال من الصراعات الثقافية، يسود فيه التعاون والمحبة والاحترام المتبادل بين الخصوصيات الثقافية للمجتمعات الإنسانية.

Keywords: اتصال دولي

30
Title: العلاقات العامة الدولية ( في عالم متغير )
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371733112_International_Public_Relations_In_a_Changing_World يسعى هذا الكتاب توسيع دائرة الاهتمام بمفاهيم العلاقات العامة الدولية وهو يحاول إعادة تصور وفهم المدركات المتصلة بالعلاقات العامة الدولية. أتمنى أن يلق قراء هذا الكتاب ما فيه توسيعا لمدارك وفهم أفضل للعلاقات العامة الدولية في سياق يسعى لفض النزاعات . إن هذا الكتاب يطرح مجموعة من المفاهيم والأساليب التي يستخدمها المهتمون في مجال العلاقات الدولية، مع تمنياتي ان يسهم هذا الكتاب ولو بشكل بسيط في فهم أيسر لكيفية التفاعل مع المؤسسات العامة والحكومات في جميع أنحاء العالم. يسعى الكتاب الى إرشاد الدارسين إلى كيفية بناء شبكة من الصلات المؤثرة التي تؤدي إلى نجاح مستقبلي في مجال العلاقات العامة الدولية ،لاسيما في عالم متغير ، يسعى فيه محبو السلام الى السلام. إن مفهوم العلاقات الدولية من المفاهيم الحديثة، والذي لا يشمل العلاقات بين الدول فحسب، بل يشمل أيضًا العلاقات القائمة بين الدول والمنظمات من غير الدول؛ مثل المؤسسات الثقافية ومنظمات الإغاثة الإنسانية والشركات متعددة الجنسيات، والعلاقات القائمة بين الدول والمنظمات الحكومية الدولية؛ كالأمم المتحدة والاتحاد الأوروبي. ويثير مفهوم العلاقات العامة الدولية، العديد من الإشكاليات النظرية والتحليلية، حول تعريف المفهوم، وتداخله مع العديد من المفاهيم الأخرى التي تتشابه معه. وينصب اهتمام العلاقات الدولية على محاولة التعرف على الكيفية التي تتعامل بها الدولة، مع السياسات الخارجية التي تنتهجها القوى والأطراف الفاعلة فى النظام الدولي، وفى طليعتها الدول، سواء ما تعلق من ذلك بمواقف التعاون أو الصراع أو التعامل الروتيني المنتظم من خلال قنوات الاتصال والتنسيق والتشاور والتفاوض بالوسائل والأدوات الدبلوماسية المتعارف عليها دولياً. أما العلاقات الدولية فيتسع إطارها ويمتد ليشمل كل صور العلاقات والمجتمعات والشعوب والجماعات الحاضرة فى الساحة الدولية أو بالأحرى التي يضمها المجتمع الدولي، فهي مجموعة العلاقات عبر القومية من سياسية وغير سياسية، من رسمية وغير رسمية. جاء هذا الكتاب بفصوله الخمسة ليحلل مفهوم العلاقات العامة الدولية ومدى ارتباطها بالعلوم الأخرى، حيث بين الفصل الأول بعنوان مفهوم العلاقات العامة الدولية المفاهيم والتعريفات والفارق بين العلاقات العامة والعلاقات العامة الدولية. وبحث الفصل الثاني في نشأة وتطور العلاقات الدولية،بينما بحث الفصل الثالث في علاقة الاتصال الدولي بالعلاقات العامة الدولية. أما الفصل الرابع فتناول نظام الاتصال الدولي وتطوره، وقد عالج مدى الترابط بين نظام الاتصال الدولي في مراحل تطوره وبين العلاقات العامة الدولية. وجاء الفصل الخامس الأخير ليبحث العلاقات العامة الدولية في عالمنا المتغير، متناولا المتغيرات العالمية ومدى انعكاساتها على تطور مفهوم العلاقات العامة الدولية. إن علم العلاقات الدولية يهتم ببحث المسائل والظواهر الدولية، لـذلك يلتقي ويتداخل مع العلوم الأخرى التي تتناول جانبا من هـذه الظـواهر والمسائل، ويختلف عنها بكونه يهتم بتجاوز الجوانب الخاصة للإلمام بمجموعها. لأن العلاقات الدولية لا تخضع لجانب واحد ولا تقتصر على عامل معين من العوامل الفاعلة على الصعيد الدولي، لأنه ليس بمقـدور عامل واحد مهما كانت قوته أن يشكل وحدة أداة فاعلة لتحديـد وتعريـف وحصر العلاقات الدولية فيه، بل يجب الاعتماد على عوامـل وجوانـب متعددة. كما أن مجمل الملاحظات التي واكبت تطوّر النظرية في العلاقات الدولية، لا تنتقص في حقيقة الأمر من أهمية وجدّية الجهود المعرفية المتراكمة في هذا الخصوص، كما تعلي من أهمية العلاقات الدولية كعلم، بقدر ما تحيل إلى دينامية هذا الحقل المعرفي وتطوراته ومواكبته للمتغيرات التي تشهدها الساحة الدولية في جوانبها التعاونية والصراعية، وهو ما يؤكّد أن هذا العلم مرشّح للتطور أكثر، انسجاما مع المواضيع والقضايا التي أفرزتها التحولات الميدانية الدولية والتي ضاق خلالها الهامش واختلط بين ما هو محلي وما هو دولي. وإذا كانت العلاقات الدولية كظاهرة إنسانية قد وجـدت مـع ظهـور المجتمع البشري وتابعت تطورها بشكل فعلي وبخاصة منذ ظهور الدولة الحديثة، إلا أن ظهور العلاقات الدولية كمجال بحثي وحقل دراسـي قـد تأخر إلى بدايات القرن العشرين. لذلك فإن العلاقات الدولية تعد من العلوم الحديثة نسبيا،وربما من أبرز أسباب ذلك التأخر هو شيوع وجهة النظر التي تقول إن العلاقات الدولية كجزء من العلوم الاجتماعية التي ظهرت في إطار تطور المجتمع البشري هي ظاهرة معقدة وليس من السهل دراستها بشكل علمي ومنهجي، وسبب ذلك يعود إلى أن العلاقـات الدوليـة تـرتبط مباشـرة بالعلاقات القائمة بين الدول المستقلة ذات السيادة، وبما أن الدول المستقلة متعددة وكبيرة العـدد ومتنوعـة الاتجاهـات السياسـية، الاجتماعيـة، والاقتصادية فانه من الصعب تحديد ملامح الدولة في العلاقات الدوليـة دون فهم عميق لثوابتها وتطلعاتها، وبالتالي التنبؤ بسلوكها في المستقبل.

Keywords: علاقات دولية ، عالم متغير

31
Title: Development and Characterization of Econazole Topical Gel
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The purpose of this work was to develop a novel topical formulation of econazole nitrate based on gel that can be easily scaled up in one pot for the potential treatment of fungal and yeast infections. Econazole nitrate, a topical antifungal, is used to treat tinea versicolor, tinea pedis, and tinea cruris. Compared to applying cream or ointment, topical gels offer numerous advantages, one of which is that the drug is released more quickly to the intended site of action. A viscous mixture of propylene glycol, Capmul® MCM C8, methyl and propyl paraben, and econazole nitrate were mixed together before being formulated into the optimized Carbopol® gel bases. The gel’s color, appearance, and homogeneity were assessed visually. For every formulation, the drug content, pH, viscosity, spreadability, and gel strength were characterized. The cup plate diffusion method was used to evaluate the anti-fungal activity of the prepared formulations. To assess the behavior of the developed system, studies on in vitro release and mechanism were conducted. The manufactured formulations were transparent, pale yellow, and exhibited excellent homogeneity. The pH of each formulation was roughly 6.0, making them suitable for topical use. The concentration of Carbopol® 940 resulted in a significant increase in viscosity and gel strength but a significant decrease in spreadability. It was demonstrated that the prepared formulations inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In contrast, the standard blank gel showed no signs of antifungal action. By increasing the concentration of Carbopol® 940, the in vitro release profile of econazole nitrate significantly decreased. Following the Korsmeyer–Peppas model fitting, all formulations exhibited n values greater than 0.5 and less than 1, indicating that diffusion and gel swelling control econazole nitrate release.

Keywords: econazole; cutaneous candidiasis; Carbopol® 940; topical gel; sustainability

32
Title: Mitigating the carbon footprint in Jordan by designing an artificial lake system to improve domestic tourism
Author: Mustafa Awwad Al Khawaldeh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Abstract This work investigates mitigating the carbon footprint in Jordan by altering the travel patterns of the population. This goal can be accomplished by creating a new tourist destination that has a marine environment, similar to overseas destinations. Based on recent data, it is estimated that half a million Jordanians would prefer a domestic destination instead of traveling abroad, provided that it has a marine environment. This shift in travel preferences would result in an estimated reduction of 320,000 tons of CO2 emissions every year. The proposed new destination is an artificial lake created in the Jafer basin, located in southeastern Jordan. The area has a natural depression that is suitable for this purpose. The proposal involves excavating a 140 km-long tunnel connecting the Gulf of Aqaba to the Jafer basin, where seawater is pumped into the basin to create the lake, with a water volume of 2000 MCM. The design is based on keeping the water's level steady in the lake. The proposed design is shown to be feasible, with an optimal tunnel diameter of 4 m, excavated at constant depth. In order to maintain a uniform water pressure, 15 pumping stations should be installed along the tunnel. The total cost of the project is estimated at 5.5 B$. This cost is not only used for mitigating carbon footprint but also for increasing the real estate value of the area around the lake, and a more healthy distribution of population in the country.

Keywords: Artificial lake engineering design; Carbon footprint; Domestic tourism; Jafer basin; Pumping station

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Title: Performance Comparison of Four-Stroke Diesel Engine Fuelled by Various Biodiesel Blends and Diesel
Author: Mustafa Awwad Al Khawaldeh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The objective of this study is to compare the performance of diesel engines, fuelled with biofuel blends extracted from corn, sunflower, and palm oils, against pure diesel. The experiments were performed using Lister LVI, single-cylinder, direct injection, four-stroke engines, with a compression ratio of 17:1. The following parameters were analysed: brake torque, brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature. The findings indicate that the characteristics of biodiesels are close to diesel fuel. Therefore, biodiesel becomes a viable alternative to diesel fuel without any modifications. Pure diesel has higher brake thermal efficiency and lower BSFC than all the biodiesel blends tested in this study. In addition, the engine consumes less fuel for biodiesel blends than pure diesel. High exhaust temperatures are conducive to nitrogen oxides (NOx) generation; hence, this study reveals that the exhaust temperature is reduced when utilizing biodiesel compared to pure diesel. According to several tests, palm biodiesel provides greater torque and BMEP than the rest of the biodiesel blends, and pure diesel due to emitting less NOx. Therefore, it stands to reason that it would be utilized in a diesel engine.

Keywords: biodiesel, diesel engine, performance, comparison, vegetable oils

34
Title: Target protein degradation by protacs: a budding cancer treatment strategy
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Cancer is one of the most common causes of death. So, its lethal effect increases with time. Near about hundreds of cancers are known in humans. Cancer treatment is done to cure or prolonged remission, and shrinkage of the tumor. Cytotoxic agents, biological agents/targeted drugs, hormonal drugs, surgery, radiotherapy/proton therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and gene therapy are currently used in the treatment of cancer but their cost is high and cause various side effects. Seeing this, some new targeted strategies such as PROTACs are the need of the time. Proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) has become one of the most discussed topics regarding cancer treatment. Few of the PROTAC molecules are in the trial phases. PROTACs have many advantages over other strategies such as modularity, compatibility, sub-stoichiometric activity, acting on undruggable targets, molecular design, and acts on intracellular targets, selectivity and specificity can be recruited for any cancer, versatility, and others. PROTACs are having some unclear questions on their pharmacokinetics, heavy-molecular weight, etc. PROTACs are anticipated to bring about a conversion in current healthcare and will emerge as booming treatments. In this review article we summarize PROTACs, their mechanism of action, uses, advantages, disadvantages, challenges, and future aspects for the successful development of potent PROTACs as a drug strategy.

Keywords: protacs cancer treatment

35
Title: Design, Synthesis, Anticancer Screening and Molecular Modelling Studies of Novel Thiazoles
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A library of novel benzamide-thiazolyl-chalcone compounds was synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt reaction and spectroscopically characterized using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, LC–MS, and HR-MS. The synthesized compounds were biologically evaluated using in vitro MTT assay against different cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-AMB-231, Caco-2, A549, and H1299). Amongst all compounds screened, (E)-N-(5-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide and (E)-N-(5-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide showed potent anti-proliferation against breast (MCF-7) and colon cancer cell lines reaching 88.56 % and 84.36 % with IC50 values of 44.00 μM and 58.88 μM, respectively. All synthesized compounds exhibited no significant cytotoxicity to normal cells. Structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated the effect of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups on the anticancer activity of the molecules under investigation. This was also corroborated by theoretical DFT studies. Thus, these molecules may serve as potential lead candidates for further development of novel anticancer agents against breast and colon cancers.

Keywords: Thiazoles, Synthesis, Anticancer Screening Molecular docking

36
Title: Development and Characterization of Econazole Topical Gel
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The purpose of this work was to develop a novel topical formulation of econazole nitrate based on gel that can be easily scaled up in one pot for the potential treatment of fungal and yeast infections. Econazole nitrate, a topical antifungal, is used to treat tinea versicolor, tinea pedis, and tinea cruris. Compared to applying cream or ointment, topical gels offer numerous advantages, one of which is that the drug is released more quickly to the intended site of action. A viscous mixture of propylene glycol, Capmul® MCM C8, methyl and propyl paraben, and econazole nitrate were mixed together before being formulated into the optimized Carbopol® gel bases. The gel’s color, appearance, and homogeneity were assessed visually. For every formulation, the drug content, pH, viscosity, spreadability, and gel strength were characterized. The cup plate diffusion method was used to evaluate the anti-fungal activity of the prepared formulations. To assess the behavior of the developed system, studies on in vitro release and mechanism were conducted. The manufactured formulations were transparent, pale yellow, and exhibited excellent homogeneity. The pH of each formulation was roughly 6.0, making them suitable for topical use. The concentration of Carbopol® 940 resulted in a significant increase in viscosity and gel strength but a significant decrease in spreadability. It was demonstrated that the prepared formulations inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In contrast, the standard blank gel showed no signs of antifungal action. By increasing the concentration of Carbopol® 940, the in vitro release profile of econazole nitrate significantly decreased. Following the Korsmeyer–Peppas model fitting, all formulations exhibited n values greater than 0.5 and less than 1, indicating that diffusion and gel swelling control econazole nitrate release.

Keywords: econazole; cutaneous candidiasis; Carbopol® 940; topical gel; sustainability

37
Title: قوانين الانتخابات والاحزاب السياسية: من منظور المساواة بين الجنسين التقرير الوطني: المملكة الاردنية الهاشمية
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: يقدم التقرير قراءة وتحليل لواقع الانتخابات والمشاركة السياسية في الاردن من منظور الجندر https://arabwomenorg.org/MediaFiles/conferences/9th/Reports/elections_laws/Jordan.pdf

Keywords: القوانين،التشريعات ،المرأة ،المنظور الجندري

38
Title: Effectiveness of Blended Learning Strategies in Jordanian Universities: Faculty Members’ Point of View
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This study aimed at analyzing the effectiveness of blended learning strategies in Jordanian Universities from the faculty members’ point of view. For that, the researcher adopted the descriptive-analytical statistical methodology by applying the study tool (questionnaire) to a sample size of (40) faculty members from two Jordanian Universities (Al-Zaytoonah University and Mutah University). And after calculating the relative weights of the arithmetic means, the results showed differences in the levels of acceptance of the effect of the study variables within its three pillars (University responsibilities, technical requirements, and learners’ responsibilities) on the effectiveness of blended learning strategies in the Jordanian Universities from the faculty members’ point of view. Results also show that all the study variables within the three parts (University responsibilities, technical requirements, and learners’ responsibilities) have statistically significant influences at the level of significance (α≤0.05) on the effectiveness of blended learning strategies in the Jordanian Universities from the faculty members’ point of view.

Keywords: Blended Learning; Universities’ responsibilities; Learners’ responsibilities; Learning strategies; Jordanian Universities. DOI: 10.7176/JEP/14-6-06

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Title: Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the chronic pain acceptance questionnaire (CPAQ) in a sample of patients with chronic pain
Author: Fuad Abdul Rahman Taha Abdulla, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: ABSTRACT Purpose: Chronic pain (CP) acceptance is a major factor in determining the well-being of patients with chronic pain. The chronic pain acceptance questionnaire (CPAQ) was translated and validated into Arabic (CPAQ-Ar). Methods: 244 patients with CP completed the CPAQ-Ar, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the short form health survey (SF-36), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21). 110 patients completed the CPAQ-Ar twice separated by two weeks to investigate test-retest reliability. Results: Cronbach’s α was 0.902 while the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.917. The standard error measurement (SEM) was seven points while the minimal detectable change with 95% confidence interval (MDC95) was seventeen points. The CPAQ-Ar showed moderate to high correlations with the PCS, the BDI-II, the SF-36, the MFIS, the PSQI, and the DASS-21 indicating a good concurrent validity. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed that the CPAQ-Ar consists of two subscales. Better pain acceptance associated with male gender, older people, employed participants, low pain intensity, and single pain site. Conclusions: The CPAQ-Ar is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of pain acceptance in Arabic speaking patients with CP

Keywords: Validity; reliability; chronic pain acceptance questionnaire (CPAQ-20); Arabic; minimal detectable change; pain; acceptance associated factors

40
Title: Intertextuality in the Cordovan Maqama_ An Analytical Statistical study
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The study aimed to shed light on an important mechanism for the construction of the text in the Cordovan Maqama, one of the Andalusian Maqamat in the 6th century AH, that is the mechanism of intertextuality. The study starts with introducing this Maqama and the context of its production besides a summary of its plot, and then the definition and importance of intertextuality are introduced before explaining the main intertextual forms that are found in this Maqama via a statistical process which highlights the role of intertextuality in constructing the Maqama text on both the aesthetic and the thematic aspects. The main forms of intertextuality in the Maqama are the religious intertextuality, especially the Quranic one, and the literary intertextuality, such as poetic and proverbial intertextuality, in addition to references to traditional figures. The research method used was the statistical one in combination with the descriptive and formalist methods. The study ends with several conclusions, the most important of which is that literary intertextuality, particularly poetry, is the most common in the Maqama, while the rest of the forms are present almost equally, and the style of intertextuality in most of them takes the form of direct quotation.

Keywords: Intertextuality, Intertextuality Forms, Cordovan Maqama

41
Title: Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in unsolved neurodevelopmental disease cases can guide re-evaluation for X-linked genes.
Author: Tawfiq Froukh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Despite major advances in genome technology and analysis, >50% of patients with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) remain undiagnosed after extensive evaluation. A point in case is our clinically heterogeneous cohort of NDD patients that remained undiagnosed after FRAXA testing, chromosomal microarray analysis and trio exome sequencing (ES). In this study, we explored the frequency of non-random X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in the mothers of male patients and affected females, the rationale being that skewed XCI might be masking previously discarded genetic variants found on the X chromosome. A multiplex fluorescent PCR-based assay was used to analyse the pattern of XCI after digestion with HhaI methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme. In families with skewed XCI, we re-evaluated trio-based ES and identified pathogenic variants and a deletion on the X chromosome. Linkage analysis and RT-PCR were used to further study the inactive X chromosome allele, and Xdrop long-DNA technology was used to define chromosome deletion boundaries. We found skewed XCI (>90%) in 16/186 (8.6%) mothers of NDD males and in 12/90 (13.3%) NDD females, far beyond the expected rate of XCI in the normal population (3.6%, OR = 4.10; OR = 2.51). By re-analyzing ES and clinical data, we solved 7/28 cases (25%) with skewed XCI, identifying variants in KDM5C, PDZD4, PHF6, TAF1, OTUD5 and ZMYM3, and a deletion in ATRX. We conclude that XCI profiling is a simple assay that targets a subgroup of patients that can benefit from re-evaluation of X-linked variants, thus improving the diagnostic yield in NDD patients and identifying new X-linked disorders.

Keywords: PDZD4

42
Title: Validation of Employee Job Performance (EJP) Scale in an Arab Working Environment: The Case of Healthcare Providers in Emergency Departments in Jordan
Author: Audi Naji Khaled Al Smadi, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Job performance is an essential contributing factor to hospital success because it appraises healthcare providers’ (HCPs) job performance. Achieving the purpose of measuring HCP’s job performance in the emergency department requires a valid, reliable, satisfying psychometric properties scale. This study aims to verify the validity and reliability of the employee job performance (EJP) scale developed by Na-Nan et al. (2018). Two steps were followed to verify the validity and reliability of the EJP scale, namely, instrument validation and statistical testing, including exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A survey questionnaire was distributed to the HCPs in two phases to collect the data in the period of April–July 2020. The findings failed to replicate the Na-Nan et al. (2018) EJP scale. Two items were dropped from the scale based on the content validity ratio results. The EFA yielded 11 items and two dimensions, and CFA yielded 9 items and two dimensions. The two dimensions name job quality (five items) and job time (four items). The goodness of fit of the model was defined as satisfactory with a value of Chi-square/df 2.63 and RMSEA < 0.08, TLI, GFI and CFI ≥ 0.90. The results of this study failed to replicate Na-Nan et al. (2018) findings. The final results indicated a two dimensions scale consisting of job quality and job time construct. In general, the two dimensions EJP scales meet the goodness of fit, and the results confirm the reliability and validity of the two dimensions EJP scale.

Keywords: Job performance, healthcare providers, emergency department, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis

43
Title: Intercultural Engagement and Internationalisation Advancing the Concept of Global Citizenry Education
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This chapter discusses the ways of intercultural engagement of university students and professors and advances the internationalisation of the Concept of Global Citizenship Education in Jordanian Universities, taking Philadelphia as a model.

Keywords: Intercultural engagement, university students, professors , internationalisation, Global Citizenship Education in Jordanian Universities

44
Title: The Stylistics Repetition in the Poem "Glad Tidings Your Flags Spread Everywhere" by Ibn Zumrak Gurnaaty_ An Indicative Semantic Study
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The study discusses the stylistics of repetition in the poem titled " Glad Tidings: Your Flags Spread Everywhere!" by Ibn Zumrak Gurnaaty. In fact, the poet composed his verse to commend Emir "AL-Ghany Billah " who was a Sultan descending from "Bani-Ahmar" in Granada Kingdom. The most prominent manifestations of repetition in it were monitored and counted, and studied by a semantic study, which leads to the representation of the purposes of the text and its main purpose represented in praise. These manifestations were classified into repetitions related to verb forms: the past, the present, the command, and the repetition of indicatives and compositional techniques methods, and showed their role in building the text on both levels: Objective, artistic, and its impact on imparting semantic pluralism and artistic values, and adopted semantic analysis that helped the connotations of repetition and its overtones, and concluded that Ibn Zamrok invested in the method of repetition, and was able to adapt it to fit with its textual structure, and had a role in representing ideas, confirming and intensifying them, as well as Its rhythmic effect, and the poem gave him music that attracts and delights the recipient.

Keywords: Repetition, Ibn Zumrak, Manifestations of Repetition.

45
Title: Argument in the message “The Boasts of Malaga and Sala” by Lisan Al- Deen Bin Al-Khatib
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The study dealt with the argument in the message "The Boasts of Malaga and Sala" by Lisan Al-Deen Bin Al-Khatib, and introduced the message and the motives for writing then it spotted the manifestations of the argument in it, represented by the news and facts mentioned by the writer; To prove his statements regarding his preference for the city of (Málaga) over the other (Sala), then she highlighted the rhetorical and linguistic mechanisms that he used to represent, confirm and consolidate his arguments, to reach his goal of persuading and influencing the recipient. I used the tools of description and analysis, and I concluded that Ibn Al-Khatib used the argument and their manifestations and means; In order to influence the recipient and convince him of the validity of his words.

Keywords: Argument, Ibn AL-Khatib, The Boasts of Malaga and Sala.

46
Title: The Artistic in the Poetry of Iamentation for the Kuwaiti Poet Khaled AL-Faraj
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The study aimed to shed light on the artistic image in the poetry of lamentation for the Kuwaiti poet Khaled Al-Faraj, and to monitor its most important sources and study it a study based on linking it with the topics of lamentation, and its harmony with them, and classifying the most prominent types of those images and their patterns related to the senses and diagnosis, based on objective analysis integrated with the curriculum technical; Because of their role in highlighting the themes of the image and its artistic characteristics, and linking it with the meanings of lamentation, and concluded that Al-Faraj succeeded in employing the image as a structural element in his poetry, and it was his means of expressing his experience and emotions, and made his texts dynamic and lively, through its ability to interpret leading to the realization of its connotations and semantics.

Keywords: Khaled AL-Faraj, Iament Poetry, Artistic Image.

47
Title: The Methods of Demand Construction in the Poetry of Ibn Mujbar AL- Andalusi's- Semantic Rhetoric Study
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The study discusses the methods of demand construction in Ibn Mujber AL-Andalusi's poetry, and aimed to monitor what he used from it, to highlight its rhetorical connotations, to link it to the semantics and meanings of the texts, and to show the extent of its consistency with them, and to show their role in the building of texts objectively and artistically,Through an applied procedural study, it is based on analyzing and linking each method and its context, and not just monitoring it, using descriptive method integrated with the artistic curriculum; For their role in highlighting the functions of these methods in representing meanings, and imparting artistic values to the texts that give them poetic stemming from their ability to interpret, which leads to a multiplicity of connotations, which gives the texts movement and dynamism. The need for specialized researchers to study such linguistic and rhetorical methods and others in the poetry of some poets of Andalusia, about whom there have been few studies, and about their creativity.

Keywords: Demand Construction, Semantics, Ibn Mujber.

48
Title: Parallelism Phonological and Semantic in Lamaite AL-Ramadi Praise of Abi Ali AL-Qali
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The study dealt with the phenomenon of phonetic and semantic parallelism in the poem of the poet Youssef bin Harun AL-Ramadi a lamaite, which he recited in praise of Abi Ali AL-Qali, about the poet's visions and emotions, adopting the descriptive approach integrated with stylistics, For their ability to investigate the types of parallelism in the poem, and to show its artistic and objective impact, and concluded that parallelism has an effective role in achieving a regular and varied internal and external rhythm in the poem, and is linked to its connotations, and its expression of the meanings of praise and pride.

Keywords: Phonetic Parallelism, Semantic Parallelism, Lamaite AL-Ramadi.

49
Title: Smart Pellets for Controlled Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: This work aimed to develop a new one-pot and readily scaled-up formulation capable of retaining 5-fluorouracil and prolonging its release to obtain a site-specific medication delivery for the potential treatment of colorectal cancer. Six polymer-based formulations were successfully produced using a thermal bulk polymerization method and loaded with 5-fluorouracil, which is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The pellets produced were characterized by measuring the glass transition temperature, tensile strength, Young’s modulus, and tensile elongation at break. Studies on in vitro swelling and release were carried out in phosphate-buffered saline to evaluate the behaviour of the developed system. The Young’s modulus, glass transition temperature, and tensile strength all increased significantly as the crosslinker concentration increased, but the fracture strain value reduced significantly. The in vitro swelling profile of the produced formulations was significantly reduced by increasing crosslinking density. Less than 27% cumulative drug release was achieved for all formulations after 5 h of starting the release study. The highest cumulative drug release reached after 24 h was 69%. The developed drug delivery system demonstrated the ability to delay the release of 5-fluorouracil in upper gastrointestinal tract-mimicking conditions, while permitting its release in a controlled way afterward, which makes it promising for the potential delivery of 5-fluorouracil to the colon.

Keywords: 5-fluorouracil; sustainable materials; smart polymers; specific drug delivery; colorectal carcinoma

50
Title: آثار العنف المعنوي ضد المرأة وتأثيره على المجتمع والطفل
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Law

Abstract: الأهداف: العمل على توعية المجتمع الأردني والدولة والمؤسسات الرسمية والخاصة بالعنف المعنوي ضد المرأة وآثاره المدمره على المرأة ذاتها وعلى الأطفال والمجتمع كذلك, لأن المرأة هي نصف المجتمع وتقوم بتربية النصف الآخر من المجتمع. المنهجية: لأهمية العنف المعنوي وإزدياده بشكل كبير في المجتمع الأردني ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة استخدم الباحث المنهج الوصفي للأبحاث والدراسات العلمية المتعلقة بالعنف المعنوي ضد المرأة ليظهر الباحث مدى تأثير هذا العنف على المرأة ذاتها ومن ثم فأنه ينتقل إلى الأطفال ومن ثم إلى كامل المجتمع والذي بسببه تنهار المجتمعات والدول ولتوضيح ذلك تم تقسيم هذه الدراسة إلى مبحثين؛ المبحث الأول: مفهوم العنف المعنوي وتأثيره على المرأة ذاتها والمبحث الثاني: تأثير العنف المعنوي ضد المرأة على الطفل والمجتمع. النتائج : أظهرت نتائج الدراسة بأن العنف المعنوي مدمر للأسرة والمجتمع وشكوى العنف المعنوي ضد المرأة التي تتقدم به المعنفات في وزارة التنمية الاجتماعية أو إدارة حماية الأسرة يكون كجزء من العنف الجسدي أو الجنسي وليس بصورة مستقلة, والميثاق الوطني لحماية الأسرة من العنف الأسري في الأردن ملزم أخلاقياً فقط. التوصيات: في ضوء نتائج الدراسة توصي الدراسة بعمل دورات ومحاضرات توعية بالعنف المعنوي وكذلك بالنص صراحة بأن تشمل اختصاصات إدارة حماية الأسرة أو وزارة التنمية الاجتماعية العنف المعنوي الذي يقع ضد المرأة بشكل صريح, وأتمنى بأن يصبح الميثاق الوطني لحماية الأسرة من العنف الأسري في الأردن ملزم قانونياً.

Keywords: : العنف المعنوي, الطفل, المجتمع, مشاكل نفسية

51
Title: Numerical Analysis and Modelling of the Effectiveness of Micro Wind Turbines Installed in an Electric Vehicle as a Range Extender
Author: Munzer Ebaid, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: In recent years, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) has grown rapidly, as well as public interest in them. However, the lack of sufficient range is one of the most common complaints about these vehicles, which is particularly problematic for people with long daily commutes. Thus, this article proposed a solution to this problem by installing micro wind turbines (MWTs) on EVs as a range extender. The turbines will generate electricity by converting the kinetic energy of the air flowing through the MWT into mechanical energy, which can have a reasonable effect on the vehicle aerodynamics. The article uses mathematical modelling and numerical analysis. Regarding the modelling, a detailed EV model in MATLAB/SIMULINK was developed to analyze the EV performance using various driving cycles in real time. In terms of numerical analysis, a detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been implemented on a sample EV (Kia Soul) and an MWT using the Moving Reference Frame (MRF) method to act as a virtual wind tunnel in order to investigate the aerodynamic performance. The optimum location for the turbines to be installed has been identified on the front bumper of the car. The MWT has been designed from scratch using Qblade and Xfoil solvers by testing many foil sections and blade parameters to find the best design for the vehicle speed range. After using the designed turbine numerical results and implementing them into the EV model in MATLAB/SIMULINK, the results become more accurate. The vehicle efficiency increased by 13.1% at the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) highway driving cycle with five MWTs installed in the front bumper of the car, and its range increased by 24 km on a full charge; however, three MWTs have been studied in the CFD analysis to investigate the effect of the system on the vehicle drag coefficient, which is considered as the main trade-off of the proposed work. The analytical and numerical errors, points of strength, and weaknesses in each method and model have been determined to verify the enti

Keywords: Electric vehicles, Range extender, Micro wind turbine, Wind energy, Drag coefficient, Moving reference frame (MRF), CFD, Aerodynamics

52
Title: الحماية الجزائية للمستهلك في القانونين الأردني والفلسطيني
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Law

Abstract: هدف الدراسة هو وضع صورة واضحة عن مفهوم المستهلك وطرق حمايته والسياسة التجريمية والعقابية في سبيل حمايته في التشريع الأردني والفلسطيني ،فكانت هذه الدراسة لتسليط الضوء على هذا الموضوع المهم الذي يتعلق بصحة وحياة المواطنين الذين يعدون أهم ركن من أركان الدولة وحمايتهم من جميع النواحي المدنية والإدارية والجزائية ولكن في هذه الدراسة اقتصر على الناحية الجزائية, واعتمدت هذه الدراسة على المنهج المقارن والتحليلي بين القانون الأردني والفلسطيني. و توصلت الدراسة إلى إن المشرع الفلسطيني في قانون حماية المستهلك ،كان أفضل ببعض النصوص القانونية من المشرع الأردني في قانون حماية المستهلك وأوصت الدراسة بتعديل المادة 13/ج من قانون حماية المستهلك الأردني واختمتت بالنتائج والتوصيات.

Keywords: المستهلك, المسؤولية, الجزائية, المزود, العقوبة, حقوق المستهلك.

53
Title: Design, Build, and Test of a Mobile Solar PV Generator
Author: Munzer Ebaid, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Solar PV system in Jordan holds a significant potential, and studies show that solar radiation levels ranging from 2 to 7 kWh/m2 and approximately 330 sunny days per year. One of the modified designs on photovoltaic systems is the off-grid mobile PV generator system, capable of producing an electric power output up to 2kWh/day and incorporating a storage battery system as a backup. The proposed system is compact, small and can be transferred to any location easily. The PV arrays mounted on the main body can be hydraulically opened and closed to save space, ensuring high mobility, easy of construction and operation within short time. This innovative system represents an intelligent solution for numerous locations requiring electrical power such as disaster areas like flood and earthquake zones, sparsely populated regions and camping places. Moreover, This project serves as an educational, practical, and training exercise on Mechanical Engineering principles for undergraduate students. It also constitutes a high-performance engineering project, enabling engineering students to acquire knowledge in solar PV systems, engineering skills, and the freedom to express their creativity and imaginations. Ultimately, this initiative aims to foster the development of experience, skills and professionalism, cultivating “hands on engineers", and potentially contributing to the enhancement of the automotive industry in Jordan. The research work in this paper encompasses the design, construction, and test of a 1kW mobile PV generator with results demonstrating alignment with the design system.

Keywords: Mobile PV generator, Off grid, storage batteries, smart solution.

54
Title: Examining the Impact of Corporate Governance on Investors and Investee Companies: Evidence from Yemen
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether corporate governance is an important and effective technique for enhancing investors’ confidence in existing and prospective companies and for creating opportunities for safe investment in Yemen. A survey was conducted among certified public accountants to assess the importance of corporate governance. We employed regression analysis to test our hypothesis. According to the results of the study, corporate governance is an essential component of success for companies, and those firms that apply corporate governance best practices are highly regarded. Additionally, the findings suggest that regulators, policymakers, and standard-setters should raise awareness of the importance of protecting shareholders’ rights by providing seminars and courses for Yemeni media, unions, and professional associations. Moreover, in an environment of uncertainty there is a reluctance to invest and a prevalent tendency to invest in real estate. Furthermore, the results indicate that corporate governance is not practiced by all companies but only to a limited extent by some joint-stock companies. Most of the Yemeni companies that have adopted CG are joint-stock companies, so investors prefer to invest in these companies. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for regulators, practitioners, and academicians. We recommend that this survey be extended to a larger sample, including supervisory managers of companies. This study provides an insightful contribution, because it clarifies the importance of corporate governance for Yemeni investors and investee companies.

Keywords: transparency; awareness; disclosure; investee companies; investor protection; corporate governance in Yemen

55
Title: Synthesis, pharmacological evaluation, and molecular modeling studies of novel isatin hybrids as potential anticancer agents
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A novel series of isatin hybrids 5a-g was designed, synthesized, and characterized spectroscopically. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) by in vitro MTT assay. Amongst the tested compounds, 5e compound bearing benzyl moiety at N4 piperazine was found to be the most active with the promising IC50 (12.47 µM). Moreover, the active compounds 5e and 5g were subjected to antitumor evaluation (in vivo) against Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma (DAL) cell line and the results suggested that the best active compound 5e can normalize the blood picture in comparison to the standard drug. An in silico molecular docking study using the crystal structure of Hsp90 protein described the role of significant protein–ligand interactions and revealed more insights into the binding mode. The drug-likeliness of the compounds was predicted based on Lipinski's rule of five and pharmacokinetic ADME parameters. Hence, the synthesized isatin hybrids could be novel starting point anticancer lead compounds demonstrating drug-like properties which can be explored further for anticancer drug discovery.

Keywords: Isatin-pyrimidine hybridAntiproliferative activityBreast cancer cell (MCF-7)Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma (DAL)Molecular docking

56
Title: Big Data Analytics and AI for Green Supply Chain Integration and Sustainability in Hospitals
Author: Heba Mohammad Ahmad Hatamlah, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This paper examines how big data analytics and AI improve hospital supply chain sustainability. Hospitals are recognizing the need for eco-friendly operations due to environmental issues and rising healthcare needs. It analyzes data from 68 UK hospitals using a conceptual model and partial least squares regressionbased structural equation modeling. The research begins by examining hospital supply networks' environmental impact. Energy use, trash, and transportation emissions are major issues. It then explains how big data analytics and AI can transform these implications. This study prioritizes big data analytics for inventory management, demand forecasting, and procurement. Hospitals can reduce inventory, waste, and supply shortages using datadriven insights, saving money and the environment. AI also boosts hospital supply chain logistics and transportation efficiency, according to the study. Fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and delivery routes are optimized by AI. Predictive maintenance preserves medical equipment. In conclusion, hospital supply chains benefit greatly from big data analytics and AI. Hospitals can improve the healthcare business, reduce their environmental impact, and preserve resources for future generations. Healthcare leaders, politicians, and researchers seeking data-driven solutions for sustainable hospital supply chains gain valuable insights.

Keywords: Green supply chain, Sustainability in healthcare, Big data analytics, Artificial intelligence (AI), Hospital logistics, Environmental impact, Inventory management, Healthcare sustainability.

57
Title: Development of a Polyherbal Topical Gel for the Treatment of Acne
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The present work aimed to formulate and evaluate a polyherbal gel using Aloe barbadensis and extract of Vigna radiata for the treatment of acne, a disorder of the skin in which hair follicles and sebaceous glands are blocked, causing inflammation and redness of the skin. Aloe barbadensis pulp was collected and mixed with the extract of Vigna radiata and formulated into a gel using Carbopol 940, triethanolamine, and propylene glycol as the gelling agent, viscosity modifier, and pH modifier, respectively. The gel was evaluated for its antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial agents, such as gentamycin and fluconazole, were used as the standards. The developed formulation showed promising zone of inhibition. The gel was further evaluated for its physicochemical properties. The formulation showed a promising effect on acne together with the additive effect of Aloe barbadensis on skin.

Keywords: Aloe barbadensis; Vigna radiata; Carbopol 940; polyherbal gel; acne

58
Title: إيقاع التكرار في شعر نزار قباني وأبعاده الدلالية ديوان " تنويعات نزارية على مقام العشق " أنموذجًا"
Author: Ibtisam Hussein Jamil, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: يعنى هذا البحث بدراسة بنية إيقاع التكرار في شعر نزار قباني من خلال ديوان "تنويعات نزارية على مقام العشق"، وقد دُرس هذا الشكل من أشكال الإيقاع على المستوى الصوتي والبنائي والتركيبي في محاولة لتتبع أثره في تكوين الدلالات الشعرية المتنوعة في ديوان كُتب في عام (1995- 1996) وهي فترة المرض الذي أخذ يحاصر الشاعر حتى أدى إلى وفاته في عام (1998). قسمت الدراسة إلى مبحثين: تناول أولهما مفهوم الإيقاع الشعري عامة وعند نزار خاصة من خلال ديوانه التنويعات، وتوقف الثاني عند بنية إيقاع التكرار في الديوان من خلال قضيتين محوريتين، هما: المرأة والعشق، والسقوط السياسي والانهزامية، وهما الخطان الشعريان اللذان يسير عليهما شعر نزار عموما. وقد تمت الإفادة من برنامج Praat في بعض المحطات لقياس الشدة الصوتية Intensity لعدد من الكلمات التي تكررت بكثافة في بعض المقاطع الشعرية وربط ذلك بالدلالة الإيقاعية لها في سياقها النصي، و خلص البحث إلى أن الشاعر قد وظف تقنية التكرار بحضور لافت صوتا وبناء وتركيبا للتركيز على بؤر دلالية محددة تعزز دلالة القضيتين المذكورتين.

Keywords: الكلمات المفتاحية: إيقاع التكرار ، المستوى الصوتي، المستوى التركيبي، الدلالة، الشدة الصوتية

59
Title: An Artificial Neural Network Approach in Solving Inverse Kinematics of a 6 DOF KUKA Industrial Robot
Author: Qadri Jamal Al-Hamarsheh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Inverse kinematics is a mathematical method for computing the joint angles required to set the end effector of a robot in a particular position and orientation. The Inverse kinematics problem is challenging, especially for arm robots with several degrees of freedom. This paper provides two models of artificial neural networks for determining the Inverse kinematics solution of the KUKA KR/R900/SIXX 6 degrees of freedom manipulator. The Non-Linear Autoregressive Neural Network with Multiple Exogenous Variables Recurrent Model is used to create the first model. The second model, Adaptive Feedforward artificial neural networks is used to investigate the impact of several training methods with one hidden layer, changing numbers of neurons in the hidden layer, and measuring the artificial neural networks learning performance on the Inverse kinematics model learning of a 6-joint redundant robotic manipulator. The obtained results showed that the "Bayesian Regularization" training algorithm achieved the lowest mean square error score of 0.005 with a neuron number of 250.

Keywords: KUKA robot, ANN, NARX RNN, Inverse kinematics, Forward kinematics

60
Title: Evaluating the Jordanian university graduates’ entrepreneurship skills
Author: Shadi Mohammad Al-Tahat, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Entrepreneurship is fundamental to modern economics and technological development, and is vital to transitioning towards an interconnected digital economy, which requires adequate entrepreneurial skills that support this development. This study aimed to reveal the ability of Jordanian university graduates in some majors to pursue entrepreneurial work by examining their possession of entrepreneurial skills. This study utilised the descriptive, analytical approach on a sample of 322 graduate students. The study found that the degree of entrepreneurial skill possession among Jordanian university graduate students was moderate. However, graduates with prior work experience were found to have a significantly greater degree of entrepreneurial skills possession than those without. Moreover, among university graduates who have prior work experience, entrepreneurship personal skills were most available, followed by entrepreneurship technical skills, whereas entrepreneurship management skills were the least available. The study recommends universities enhance their course plan by adding practical courses to develop entrepreneurial skills.

Keywords: entrepreneurship personal skills; EPS; entrepreneurship; management skills; entrepreneurship technical skills; ETS; Jordanian university graduates’.

61
Title: 5G Wireless Communications Performance Enhancement-Based VANET technology
Author: Qadri Jamal Al-Hamarsheh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is considered as a powerful a technique that supports the needed recent technologies data rates. Thus, in this work it has been proposed to enhance the vehicular communications as a candidate in the 6G communication systems. The QoS for such system is a crucial factor; therefore, this work tackles the QoS from both of the power consumption point of view and of the latency enhancements. In this paper, the QoS modification has been made based on two stages; the reduction of the base stations latency and introducing the multiparalell processing stage. Accordingly, antenna deployment process has been proposed in addition to make use of Daubechies wavelet to overcome the peak to average power ratio problem. The efficiency of the proposed work will be compared to both of the literature work and our previously published work. An extensive simulation has been done, which shows he effectiveness of the proposed work. It outperforms the state-of the artwork and gives a 12% performance enhancement of our previously published work.

Keywords: OFDM, NB-IoT, Multiparalell Processing, Wavelets, and V2V

62
Title: Polyethylene glycol and polyvinylpyrrolidone: potential green corrosion inhibitors for copper in H2SO4 solutions
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Weight-loss, thermometric, and electrical conductance techniques were employed for the investigation of the influence of polyethylene glycol 400, 4000, and polyvinylpyrrolidone K15 as cost-effective, efficient, and eco-friendly inhibitors on the corrosion inhibition of copper in H2SO4 solution. The corrosion rates of copper in H2SO4 solutions increase with an increase in acid concentrations and temperatures in the absence of inhibitors. The addition of PEG 400, PEG 4000, and PVP K15 to the corrosive solutions was found to have a considerable inhibitory influence on the corrosion rates of copper at various temperatures. Consequently, the inhibition efficiency of PEG 400, PEG 4000 and PVP K15 increases with an increase in their concentrations. Remarkably, PVP K15 was a more efficient inhibitor than PEG 400, and PEG 4000, this effect might be attributed to the nature of the functional groups and the size of the PVP K15 chains. An evaluation of the temperature effect was studied to show that rising temperatures lead to an increased corrosion rate and lower inhibition efficiencies. However, PEG 400, PEG 4000, and PVP K15 inhibited copper corrosion by virtue of adsorption, which was found to accord with the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. Moreover, the thermodynamic aspects (ΔH0, ΔS0 and Ea) of the adsorption process were calculated and discussed

Keywords: corrosion inhibitor, copper, polyethylene glycol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, Temkin and Langmuir adsorption isotherms

63
Title: Theoretical Understanding of Convolutional Neural Network: Concepts, Architectures, Applications, Future Directions
Author: Mohammad Taye, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are one of the main types of neural networks used for image recognition and classification. CNNs have several uses, some of which are object recognition, image processing, computer vision, and face recognition. Input for convolutional neural networks is provided through images. Convolutional neural networks are used to automatically learn a hierarchy of features that can then be utilized for classification, as opposed to manually creating features. In achieving this, a hierarchy of feature maps is constructed by iteratively convolving the input image with learned filters. Because of the hierarchical method, higher layers can learn more intricate features that are also distortion and translation invariant. The main goals of this study are to help academics understand where there are research gaps and to talk in-depth about CNN’s building blocks, their roles, and other vital issues.

Keywords: artificial intelligence (AI); deep learning (DL); machine learning (ML); convolution neural network (CNN); deep learning applications; image classification; supervised learning

64
Title: PARACOMPACTNESS IN COC-OPEN SETS
Author: Hani Yousef Mohammad Kawariq, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: As a new topological property, we introduce paracompact space via co-compact sets. We give some characterizations and implications theorems .

Keywords: Coc-paParacompact, coc-meta compact, coc-metaLindel ̈of, coc-meta Lindel ̈of, coc-countable paracompact spaces

65
Title: An Approach towards Goal-Oriented Requirements Ontology: Consistency and Completeness Based Requirements Analysis
Author: Mohammad Taye, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The paper presents a new approach to managing software requirement elicitation techniques with a high level of analyses based on domain ontology techniques, where we established a mapping between user scenario, structured requirement, and domain ontology techniques to improve many attributes such as requirement consistency, completeness and eliminating duplicate requirements to reduce risk of overrun time and budgets. One of the main targets of requirement engineering is to develop a requirement document with high quality. So, we proposed a user interface to collect all vital information about the project directly from the regular user and requirement engineering; After that, the proposal will generate an ontology based on semantic relations and rules. Requirements Engineering tries to keep requirements throughout a project’s life cycle consistent necessities clear, and up to date. This prototype allows mapping requirement scenarios into ontology elements for semantically interrupted. The general points of our prototype are to guarantee the identification requirements and improved nature of the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) by solving incomplete and conflicting information in the requirements specification.

Keywords: Requirements Engineering, Requirements Elicitation, Domain Ontology, Ontology

66
Title: Modelling of a Solar Heating System for Industrial Processes using Linear Fresnel Reflectors
Author: Yara Hilal Haddad, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Thermal energy in industries has a significant share of the total energy consumed by different processes in the industrial sector. In solar energy rich countries, like Libya, this can be significantly provided by solar energy technologies. Dairy factories involve a number of processes requiring heat at different temperatures. Some processes even require steam at high temperatures. Pasteurization, sterilization, cleaning, washing, and evaporation are some of the operations in dairy processing plants. Concentrated solar power plants can provide such high temperatures using a number of technologies, specifically parabolic trough reflectors, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic dish, and the central receiver with a heliostat field. Libya is located in the sun belt and is pleasant with high levels of sun radiation. This paper investigates the techno-economic feasibility of a concentrated solar power plant utilizing linear Fresnel reflectors technology to provide heat for the pasteurizing process at a proposed milk processing diary. A production rate of 100,000 liters per day of milk was assumed. All of the parameters involved in the design process, such as the available area, solar energy available at the location, energy demand of the process, inlet and outlet temperatures, energy storage requirement, and cost per unit of electricity, were fed to the Ressspi platform, a solar simulator for industrial processes. Results showed that the system is highly feasible in terms of technical as well as economic aspects. The heat generated by the solar plant was 1260661.4 kWh, while that consumed by the process was 1321636.8 kWh and that represents 95.4% of the energy needed for the process. The solar utilization factor is 77.1% as a result of energy lost due to defocusing of the Fresnel reflectors. The payback period of the project was found to be 5 years with an internal rate of return of 23.88% and a levelized cost of energy of 0.03228 €/kWh.

Keywords: Solar energy, LFR, Industrial processes

67
Title: KIBRA Genetic Polymo A Cross Sectional Study on the Association of KIBRA Genetic Polymorphism with Episodic Memory in North Jordanian Adults"
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Episodic memory is one of the cognitive processes most damaged by ageing and is thought to be the system most susceptible to neurodegenerative illnesses. Recently, episodic memory function has been linked to a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs17070145) in the ninth intron of the KIBRA gene (kidney and brain expressed gene). AIM: This study looked at the relationship between the KIBRA polymorphism (rs17070145) and the episodic memory abilities assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test at various time points (20-minute, 30-minute, 24-hours, and 6-month). METHODS:112 healthy adult Jordanians between the ages of 18 and 45 were included in the study, and the genotypes at the KIBRA (rs17070145) polymorphic site were identified using the PCR-RFLP method. RESULTS: The outcomes did not reveal any statistically significant assessment of verbal and visual episodic memory tests and the KIBRA polymorphism. The findings also indicated that KIBRA polymorphism had no statistically significant impact on short-term memory or learning capacity, indicating that KIBRA did not affect a person's ability to pay attention or concentrate. In the Jordanian population, the genotype percentages for KIBRA rs17070145 were: 10.7% for TT, 43.8% for TC, and 45.5% for CC, and the percentage of the T allele was 0.326. CONCLUSION: The current investigation discovered no statistically significant differences between the Jordanian population and either the European or the South Asian populations in terms of the percentages of alleles and genotypes of the KIBRA rs17070145 gene.

Keywords: Keywords: Episodic memory, immediate memory, KIBRA.

68
Title: Strategic planning of human resources as an entrance to enhance marketing capabilities: A case study of King Abdullah II Center for Design and Development (KADDB)
Author: Mohammad Khalel Ibrahim Okour, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The study aims to identify the impact of strategic planning of human resources in enhancing marketing capabilities at the King Abdullah II Center for Design and Development (KADDB). The descriptive and analytical methods were used to understand the effect of human resource planning in enhancing marketing capabilities. The research population includes all departments in the respective center. As for the sample, it consisted of 65 marketing and sales managers and workers in the marketing departments. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the research data. The results showed a significant effect of strategic planning for human resources in enhancing marketing capabilities at KADDB (R2 = 0.619, sig < 0.05). It was also found that strategic planning for human resources contributes to increasing the leader ability to do their work diligently and proficiently and improving the ability to organize work, distribute duties to subordinates, and coordinate efforts. Therefore, this study recommends giving strategic planning to human resources the importance it deserves for its active role in enhancing marketing capabilities at KADDB.

Keywords: strategic planning, human resources, marketing, capabilities, Jordan

69
Title: The impact of information sharing on the quality of decision-making: From the point of view of employees in Jordanian private hospitals
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This paper examines how information sharing impacts the quality of decision-making in Jordanian private hospitals from the point of view of employees. It involved a structured questionnaire, which consisted of demographic data, information sharing, and decision-making. The research results suggest that sharing information in both common and unique situations significantly positively influences the decision-making abilities of teams. Merely possessing unique information does not enhance the ability to make decisions; conversely, common information is crucial to facilitate the decision-making process. Participant characteristics have no effect on decision-making quality, especially as team functional diversity continues to rise, with information sharing even less relevant as a result. Our results indicate that participants’ characteristics do not predict whether the discussion of shared information will contribute to decision-making quality. As a practical contribution, our findings recognise the importance of decision teams in information management, encourage flexibility and openness in organisational relations, and assist policymakers, managers, and regulators through training programs that confirm participation is one of the most important components of generating new ideas.

Keywords: Information sharing, decision making, common information, unique information, Jordanian hospitals.

70
Title: Therapeutic implications of current Janus kinase inhibitors as anti-COVID agents: A review
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Severe cases of COVID-19 are characterized by hyperinflammation induced by cytokine storm, ARDS leading to multiorgan failure and death. JAK-STAT signaling has been implicated in immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 infection under different stages such as viral entry, escaping innate immunity, replication, and subsequent inflammatory processes. Prompted by this fact and prior utilization as an immunomodulatory agent for several autoimmune, allergic, and inflammatory conditions, Jakinibs have been recognized as validated small molecules targeting the rapid release of proinflammatory cytokines, primarily IL-6, and GM-CSF. Various clinical trials are under investigation to evaluate Jakinibs as potential candidates for treating COVID-19. Till date, there is only one small molecule Jakinib known as baricitinib has received FDA-approval as a standalone immunomodulatory agent in treating critical COVID-19 patients. Though various meta-analyses have confirmed and validated the safety and efficacy of Jakinibs, further studies are required to understand the elaborated pathogenesis of COVID-19, duration of Jakinib treatment, and assess the combination therapeutic strategies. In this review, we highlighted JAK-STAT signalling in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and clinically approved Jakinibs. Moreover, this review described substantially the promising use of Jakinibs and discussed their limitations in the context of COVID-19 therapy. Hence, this review article provides a concise, yet significant insight into the therapeutic implications of Jakinibs as potential anti-COVID agents which opens up a new horizon in the treatment of COVID-19, effectively.

Keywords: Janus kinase, JAKs, JAK-STAT pathway, JAKi, Jakinibs, kinase inhibitors, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2

71
Title: The Synthetic Displacement in the Poetry of Yahya al-Ghazal al-Andalusi
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The study discussed the phenomena of the synthetic displacement in the poetry of Yahya ibn Ḥakam al-Ghazal al-Andalusi, and it observed the most prominent manifestations of this displacement such as preluding, delaying, excluding, repetition, enallage, and interpolated clause. Moreover, studies have handled synthetic displacement’s role in forming a text based on two levels: the literal and the artistic. It showed its effect in imparting semantic plural contexts and artistic values, and it adopted the survey approach based on monitoring the manifestations of synthetic displacement, and analyzing them objectively and semantically, integrated with the artistic approach that helped highlight the aesthetics of those displacements. This study concluded that the synthetic displacement represented a prominent stylistic phenomenon in al-Ghazal poetry that he represent his ideas and draw his pictures, which enriched his poetic experience, and made it able to interpretation and interpretation.

Keywords: al-Ghazal Poetry, Synthetic Displacement, Displacement Manifestations.

72
Title: IN SILICO INVESTIGATION OF NATURAL PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA AGAINST COVID-19
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 type of virus has scrambled the entire world with its mortality rate. Since it is a global pandemic, US-FDA endorsed the use of broad-spectrum antiviral medicationremdesivir from Gilead Sciences for its treatment. Recently, Molnupiravir tablets from Merck company got approval from the Britain has attracted the scientific community to find newer agents for the treatment of COVID-19. One of the important validated targets for designing and developing a new drug against COVID-19 is the main protease of SARSCoV In parallel, the knowledge of traditional medicines has been re-evaluated and can be considered to identify novel and effective approaches for the treatment of COVID-19. In our study,we have selected ten phytoconstituents from Terminalia chebula as potent inhibitors of the enzyme protease. In silico molecular investigation through the use of molecular docking was conducted and determined that constituents such as chebulic acid and corilagin showed strong interactions with the key amino acid residues (Cys145 and His41) with the binding affinities of -6.1kcal/mol and -9.0kcal/mol, respectively. ADMET analysis demonstrated the safety profiles for the identified natural phytoconstituents of Terminalia chebula. The molecular dynamics simulation showed that chebulic acid and corilagin are good candidates as inhibitors.

Keywords: Terminalia chebula, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 protease, ADMET, chebulic acid.

73
Title: Effects of PGf2α On P-Erk1/2 Mapk Activation, Proliferation and Formation of Trans-Endothelial Tunnels in Swiss 3t3 Fibroblast Cells
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Fibroblast cells are key cells that play a pivotal role in maintaining hemostasis in the body. Keeping the balance between proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of fibroblast cells is fundamental for the role of these cells. Many mediators can increase fibroblasts' proliferation including prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α]-induced phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase [p-ERK1/2] mitogen activated protein kinase [MAPK]. Thus, the effects and mechanisms of PGF2α in p-ERK1/2 MAPK activation, proliferation and the cytoskeleton of fibroblast cells were explored in the current study. The results showed that sustained p-ERK1/2 MAPK activation was dependent on MAP kinase kinase [MEK-1], proto-oncogene non-receptor tyrosine kinase [c-Src], protein kinase C [PKC] and insulin like growth factor-1 receptor [IGF1R]. The transient p-ERK1/2 MAPK activation involved c-Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K]/AKT and PKC pathways. Further, Gαq but not Gαi was involved in the activity of PGF2α in inducing p-ERK1/2 MAPK activation at all time points. In contrast, p-ERK1/2 MAPK activation evoked by PGF2α did not involve Rho, Rho-associated protein kinase [ROCK], adenylyl cyclase [AC], the mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] or epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]. Notably, PGF2α increased fibroblasts' proliferation via PI3K, MEK1, c-Src, PKC and IGF1R but not EGFR, Gαi, AC or mTOR pathways suggesting a correlation between proliferation and pathways that are involved in the transient and sustained p-ERK1/2 MAPK activation or in the sustained phase alone. Additionally, PGF2α produced a noticeable change in the cytoskeleton of fibroblast cells and increased the number of trans-endothelial tunnels by 54.12% compared to control group. These findings provide further insights into the mechanisms of PGF2α in p-ERK1/2 MAPK activation, proliferation and the cytoskeleton of swiss 3t3 fibroblast cells and can open an avenue to conduct more researches on PGF2α signalling to tailor drugs that can prevent specific routes in PGF2α-FP signalling pathways and decrease fibroblasts' proliferation.

Keywords: Fibroblasts; proliferation; PGF2α; FP receptor; trans-endothelial tunnels; p-ERK MAPK

74
Title: Role of TRPV1 in health and disease.
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a non-selective cation channel that plays a pivotal role in pain transduction. However, more than a pain sensor, it is involved in an array of vital processes in different body systems. The findings of several studies illustrated that many disorders are associated with alterations in the function and/or expression of the TRPV1 channel. Accordingly, the TRPV1 channel has become an important target in numerous therapeutic interventions. Several TRPV1 antagonists are already in the market, however, there is a need for new drugs with fewer or no side effects. This review highlights the involvement of the TRPV1 channel in a plethora of physiological and pathological conditions and points to its importance as a therapeutic target.

Keywords: TRPV1, Expression, Function, Health, Disease, Target

75
Title: Interaction of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55212 with tramadol on nociceptive thresholds and core body temperature in a chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy pain model
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a significant adverse effect of many anticancer drugs. Current strategies for the management of CIPN pain are still largely unmet. The aim of this study is to investigate the antinociceptive potential of combining tramadol with the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55212, and to evaluate their associated adverse effects, separately or in combination, in a CIPN rat model, and to investigate their ability to modulate the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor activity. Von Frey filaments were used to determine the paw withdrawal threshold in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) following intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of cisplatin. Single cell ratiometric calcium imaging was used to investigate WIN55212/tramadol combination ability to modulate the TRPV1 receptor activity. Both tramadol and WIN55212 produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effect when administered separately. The lower dose of tramadol (1 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effects of WIN55212 without interfering with core body temperature. Mechanistically, capsaicin (100 nM) produced a robust increase in [Ca 2+ ] i in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons ex vivo . Capsaicin-evoked calcium responses were significantly reduced upon pre-incubation of DRG neurons with only the highest concentration of tramadol (10 µM), but not with WIN55212 at any concentration (0.1, 1 and 10 µM). However, combining sub-effective doses of WIN55212 (1 µM) and tramadol (0.1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of capsaicin-evoked calcium responses. Combining WIN55212 with tramadol shows better antinociceptive effects with no increased risk of hypothermia, and provides a potential pain management strategy for CIPN.

Keywords: cannabinoid, pain, DRG, CIPN

76
Title: Medicinal Plants of Jordan Possessing Anti-Nociceptive, Anti Inflammatory and Antipyretic Properties.
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Since ancient period, man depended on the surrounding environment for survival and used plants for thetreatment of diseases. To date, there is increasing trend towards exploring the effects of medicinal plantsas they are affordable, cheap, and availableand have fewerside effects. Earlier reports showed thatseveral plants are used in folk medicine for the treatment of different diseases and disorders. Medicinalplants are rich in flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, triterpenes, polysaccharides, phenolic acids, organicacids,fatty acids,vitaminsandcarotenoids.The activeingredientsfrom herbsarevaluedasrawmaterials in herbal preparations and modern medicines. Jordan is one of the countries that are rich inflora in general and in medicinal plants in particular due to its geographic and climatic diversity. Thereare 363 medicinal plants in Jordan. The effect of some of these plants was proved scientifically invariableexperimentsdoneindifferentcountries.LiteraturesearchfromPubmedandGooglescholarwas conducted for articles in this context. The aim of this review was to highlight the researches thatproved the anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of medicinal plants in JordanandlistmultipleusesofmedicinalplantsbyJordanianpractitioners.Summarizing these studies is of vital importance to direct the attention of researchers towards medicinalplantsthatareusedintraditionalmedicinewhiletheireffectswerenotdeterminedscientifically.Discoveringneweffectsformedicinalplantsisanassetforpharmaceutical industryand theworld trade

Keywords: Jordan;medicinalplants;nociception;inflammation;pyrexia

77
Title: Substance Abuse among University Students: Assessing Prevalence, Risk and Preventive Measures.
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The study included a survey conducted among 679 students from private and public universities whereby two third of them were females and more than half were studying in medical and health departments. It was found that 7.1% of university students used drugs in their life including illicit drugs, alcohol and cigarettes. Also, the addictive students started using drugs at a mean age of 18 years old ± 3.9. Importantly, around half of the addictive students succeeded to quit using drugs, 20.8% reported not trying to quit, while 33.3% of them tried but could not quit. In addition, the findings of this study revealed that peer pressure (n= 657, 96.8%), and the lack of religious commitment (n= 654, 96.3%), were the most motivational factors for drug abuse. Finally, regression analysis showed that female gender (OR= 0.094, p-value <0.001), and studying in public university (OR= 0.496, p-value= 0.042) were considered protective factors against substance abuse.

Keywords: Students, substance use, knowledge, attitude

78
Title: The role of adenosine receptor ligands on inflammatory pain: Possible modulation of TRPV1 receptor function.
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Chronic pain has a debilitating consequences on health and lifestyle. The currently available analgesics are often ineffective and accompanied by undesirable adverse effects. Although adenosine receptors (AR) activation can affect nociceptive, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain states, the specific regulatory functions of its subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B and A3 ARs) are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different AR ligands on inflammatory pain. The von Frey filament test was used to assess the anti-nociceptive effects of adenosine ligands on Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA)-induced mechanical allodynia in (180–220 g) adult male Sprague Dawley rats (expressed as paw withdrawal threshold, PWT). Neither the A2AAR selective agonist CGS 21680 hydrochloride (0.1, 0.32 and 1 mg/kg) nor the A2BAR selective agonist BAY 60-6583 (0.1, 0.32 and 1 mg/kg) produced any significant reversal of the PWT. However, the A1AR selective agonist ( ±)-5′-Chloro-5′-deoxy-ENBA, the A3AR selective agonist 2-Cl-IB-MECA, the A2AAR selective antagonist ZM 241385 and the A2BAR selective antagonist PSB 603 produced a significant reversal of the PWT at the highest dose of 1 mg/kg. Co-administration of the selective antagonists of A1AR and A3AR PSB36 (1 mg/ml) and MRS-3777 (1 mg/ml); respectively, significantly reversed the anti-nociceptive effects of their corresponding agonists. Furthermore, calcium imaging studies reveled that the effective AR ligands in the behavioral assay also significantly inhibit capsaicin-evoked calcium responses in cultured rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. In conclusion, modulating the activity of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor by ARs ligands could explain their anti-nociceptive effects observed in vivo. Therefore, the cross talk between ARs and TRPV1 receptor may represent a promising targets for the treatment of inflammatory pain conditions.

Keywords: CFA, inflammation, chronic, pain TRPV1

79
Title: The impact of information sharing on the quality of decision-making: From the point of view of employees in Jordanian private hospitals
Author: Atef Al-Raoush, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This paper examines how information sharing impacts the quality of decision-making in Jordanian private hospitals from the point of view of employees. It involved a structured questionnaire, which consisted of demographic data, information sharing, and decision-making. The research results suggest that sharing information in both common and unique situations significantly positively influences the decision-making abilities of teams. Merely possessing unique information does not enhance the ability to make decisions; conversely, common information is crucial to facilitate the decision-making process. Participant characteristics have no effect on decision-making quality, especially as team functional diversity continues to rise, with information sharing even less relevant as a result. Our results indicate that participants’ characteristics do not predict whether the discussion of shared information will contribute to decision-making quality. As a practical contribution, our findings recognise the importance of decision teams in information management, encourage flexibility and openness in organisational relations, and assist policymakers, managers, and regulators through training programs that confirm participation is one of the most important components of generating new ideas.

Keywords: Information sharing decision making common information unique information Jordanian hospitals

80
Title: Examining the Impact of Corporate Governance on Investors and Investee Companies: Evidence from Yemen
Author: Jafer Maroof Al Sawalhah, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether corporate governance is an important and effective technique for enhancing investors’ confidence in existing and prospective companies and for creating opportunities for safe investment in Yemen. A survey was conducted among certified public accountants to assess the importance of corporate governance. We employed regression analysis to test our hypothesis. According to the results of the study, corporate governance is an essential component of success for companies, and those firms that apply corporate governance best practices are highly regarded. Additionally, the findings suggest that regulators, policymakers, and standard-setters should raise awareness of the importance of protecting shareholders’ rights by providing seminars and courses for Yemeni media, unions, and professional associations. Moreover, in an environment of uncertainty there is a reluctance to invest and a prevalent tendency to invest in real estate. Furthermore, the results indicate that corporate governance is not practiced by all companies but only to a limited extent by some joint-stock companies. Most of the Yemeni companies that have adopted CG are joint-stock companies, so investors prefer to invest in these companies. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for regulators, practitioners, and academicians. We recommend that this survey be extended to a larger sample, including supervisory managers of companies. This study provides an insightful contribution, because it clarifies the importance of corporate governance for Yemeni investors and investee companies.

Keywords: transparency; awareness; disclosure; investee companies; investor protection; corporate governance in Y

81
Title: 5-Fluorouracil Delivery Using Smart Carriers
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: This study focused on creating a novel, one-pot delivery system for FU to treat colorectal cancer using methacrylate derivatives. Increasing patient compliance, lowering dosage requirements, and reducing undesired side effects can all improve the therapeutic outcome of the regimen. Six polymer-based pellets containing FU as a model drug were successfully created utilizing a thermal bulk polymerization process based on the HA and MA monomers. The drug-loaded formulations had a good drug entrapment efficiency of around 90%. The EA concentration greatly enhanced the Young's modulus, glass transition temperature, and tensile strength, but it significantly lowered the tensile elongation at the break value. By raising the crosslinker concentration, the pellets' in vitro swelling behavior was dramatically reduced. Less than 30% cumulative drug release was attained for all formulations after 5 hours of starting the release study. After 24 hours, 70% of a drug's total cumulative release was achieved. The created drug delivery system showed the ability to delay the release of 5-fluorouracil under conditions that mimicked the upper gastrointestinal tract while allowing its release in a regulated manner afterwards, which makes it promising for the prospective administration of 5-fluorouracil to the colon.

Keywords: Sustainability; Smart Carriers; Triggered Delivery; Colorectal Carcinoma

82
Title: State of the Art of Mobile Learning in Jordanian Higher Education: An Empirical Study
Author: Lamis Al-Qoran, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: A new approach to learning is mobile learning (m-learning), which makes use of special features of mobile devices in the education sector. M-learning is becoming increasingly common in higher education institutions all around the world. The use of mobile devices for education and learning has also gained popularity in Jordan. Unlike studies about Jordan, there are many studies that thoroughly analyze the situation of m-learning in other countries. Thus, it is important to understand the current situation of m-learning at Jordanian universities, especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. While there have been some studies conducted prior to COVID-19 and a few studies after COVID-19, there is a need for a comprehensive study that provides an in-depth exploration of the current situation, student adoption, benefits, disadvantages, and challenges, particularly following COVID-19. Therefore, this study utilizes a sequential exploratory mixed research method to investigate the current state of the art of m-learning in Jordanian higher education with a particular focus on student adoption, benefits, disadvantages, and challenges. Firstly, the study explores the existing literature on m-learning and conducts 15 interviews with educators and learners in three Jordanian universities to gain insights into their experiences with m-learning. The study then distributes a survey to students at four Jordanian universities, representing both public and private universities, to generalize the results from the qualitative study. Additionally, the study investigates the relationship between student enrollment in public/private universities and the adoption of m-learning. The study came to the conclusion that students have a positive opinion of m-learning and are also willing to use it. However, there are a number of disadvantages and challenges to its adoption. Additionally, there is a relationship between student enrolment in public/private universities and the adoption of m-learning. These findings have important implications for institutions that want to incorporate m-learning into their undergraduate and graduate degree programs, as they aid decision-makers in these universities in creating frameworks that may be able to meet the needs of m-learning.

Keywords: educational mobile applications; mobile learning; Jordanian higher education; perceptions; adoption

83
Title: Toward Creating Software Architects Using Mobile Project-Based Learning Model (Mobile-PBL) for Teaching Software Architecture
Author: Lamis Al-Qoran, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Project-based learning (PBL) promotes increased levels of learning, deepens student understanding of acquired knowledge, and improves learning motivation. Students develop their ability to think and learn independently through depending on themselves in searching for knowledge, planning, exploration, and looking for solutions to practical problems. Information availability, student engagement, and motivation to learn all increase with mobile learning. The teaching process may be enhanced by combining the two styles. This paper proposes and evaluates a teaching model called Mobile Project-Based Learning (Mobile-PBL) that combines the two learning styles. The paper investigates how significantly Mobile-PBL can benefit students. The traditional lecture method used to teach the software architecture module in the classroom is not sufficient to provide students with the necessary practical experience to earn a career as software architects in the future. Therefore, the first author tested the use of the model for teaching the software architecture module at Philadelphia University’s Software Engineering Department on 62 students who registered for a software architecture course over three semesters. She compared the results of using the model for teaching with those results that were obtained when using the project-based learning (PBL) approach alone. The students’ opinions regarding the approach, any problems they had, and any recommendations for improvement were collected through a focus group session after finishing each semester and by distributing a survey to students to evaluate the effectiveness of the used model. Comments from the students were positive, according to the findings. The projects were well-received by the students, who agreed that it gave them a good understanding of several course ideas and concepts, as well as providing them with the required practical experience. The students also mentioned a few difficulties encountered while working on the projects, including student distraction from social media and the skills that educators and learners in higher education institutions are expected to have.

Keywords: software architecture education; Jordanian higher education; project-based learning; mobile learning

84
Title: Laboratory Manual for Physiology. 2023, ISBN: 978-9923-0-0775-4.
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: This laboratory manual has been designed to help students master the fundamentals of Physiology and gain an understanding of physiological concepts through different experiments and activities. By conducting the experiments in this manual, the students will be able to develop skills associated with observation, analysis and interpretation of the results. Also, the students will be familiar with the equipment and tools that are used in the experiments. Further, the laboratory reports in this manual are collected to reinforce the student's understanding. Completing the reports independently is considered as important as performing the experiments. The content of this laboratory manual was extracted from different sources to create an educational manual that can help students in basic science, allied health programs and other related fields. The manual was written in a simple way. Each experiment includes the student learning outcomes (SLOs), key terms, an introduction, the principle(s) of the experiment, the procedure for conducting the experiment, the normal ranges of parameters that are used in the experiment and the clinical application of the tests. The author would like to thank the architect Maram Jaffal for designing the book cover and drawing several figures in this manual. Other figures were downloaded with permission from different companies or websites. The author thanks all those who approved using these illustrations in this laboratory manual. The author acknowledges the administrators of ADI Global Distribution and Biopac Systems Inc. for providing permission to use figures in this manual.

Keywords: Physiology, manual, laboratory, reports

85
Title: Review of Security Challenges in Mobile Cloud Computing Applications
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Mobiles and smartphones recently store huge amounts of valuable information such as personal information, financial transactions, social applications, and call records. These devices allow the transmission of data, by voice, text, or video, at anytime and everywhere. They enable easy access to the required information. The huge development of mobile devices has introduced the ability to use new and advanced applications. In several scenarios, the advanced applications require a connection to the cloud services. This affects the general environment, infrastructure, and security challenges of mobile applications. In this paper, we mainly aim to investigate the security challenges and issues of Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) applications. First, we discuss the most popular applications of MCC. Then, we present an adversary and threat model that determines the main security challenges and issues in these applications. We summarize some security techniques, that have been used to tackle these challenges and determine their main requirements. Finally, clear recommendations regarding the directions and required research in this field are given in the paper.

Keywords: Wireless communication , Threat modeling , Cloud computing , Market research , Mobile handsets , Malware , Mobile applications

86
Title: An Object Classification Approach for Autonomous Vehicles Using Machine Learning Techniques
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: An intelligent, accurate, and powerful object detection system is required for automated driving systems to keep these vehicles aware of their surrounding objects. Thus, vehicles adapt their speed and operations to avoid crashing with the existing objects and follow the driving rules around the existence of emergency vehicles and installed traffic signs. The objects considered in this work are summarized by regular vehicles, big trucks, emergency vehicles, pedestrians, bicycles, traffic lights, and traffic signs on the roadside. Autonomous vehicles are equipped with high-quality sensors and cameras, LiDAR, radars, and GPS tracking systems that help to detect existing objects, identify them, and determine their exact locations. However, these tools are costly and require regular maintenance. This work aims to develop an intelligent object classification mechanism for autonomous vehicles. The proposed mechanism uses machine learning technology to predict the existence of investigated objects over the road network early. We use different datasets to evaluate the performance of the proposed mechanism. Accuracy, Precision, F1-Score, G-Mean, and Recall are the measures considered in the experiments. Moreover, the proposed object classification mechanism is compared to other selected previous techniques in this field. The results show that grouping the dataset based on their mobility nature before applying the classification task improved the results for most of the algorithms, especially for vehicle detection.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle; object detection; object classification; Udacity dataset; BDD100K dataset; machine learning; road network

87
Title: Safe and Efficient Advising Traffic System Around Critical Road Scenarios
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Vehicles travel daily over the road networks toward their targeted destinations. The context of the road varies in terms of the geometric design and existing traffic. Accidents repeatedly occur among traveling vehicles. Some areas of road segments over the road network witness a higher rate of traffic accidents compared to other road scenarios. This is usually affected by the geometric design and pavement quality of the road, including its winding and slope. These roads that witness a higher rate of accident occurrence are referenced as critical road scenarios. In this work, an advising traffic system is proposed to recommend the best speed and basic driving behavior around these scenarios. This system considers the geometric design of the road scenario, the weather conditions, and the real-time traffic characteristics (e.g., traffic density and traffic speed) to obtain optimal recommendations for the traveling vehicles there. From the experimental results, we can infer that the proposed system enhances the safety conditions and reduces the accidental rate over the critical road. The proposed system also enhances traffic efficiency in terms of reducing fuel consumption and gas emission over the investigated critical road scenarios.

Keywords: Critical road Curvature Slope Weather conditions Traffic characteristics Traffic recommendation

88
Title: Awareness of pesticides’ residues in food and feed among students of the Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, Jordan
Author: Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: In Jordan, the public is still unaware of the fate and impact of pesticide application. This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes, knowledge and practices of undergraduate students enrolled in various academic departments at the Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, Jordan toward pesticides’ residues in food and feed. Students were questioned about their social aspects, and food and feed safety knowledge and resources. Responses have been obtained from 209 responding students. Results indicated that the cross-section through the Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, Jordan appears a satisfactory. The findings show that respondents are very highly concerned about human health, food safety, and the risk of environmental pollution, and they have a real desire to reduce the use of pesticides. Respondents had a moderate level of knowledge about food safety, pesticides’ side effects, pesticides’ residues in food or feed, and usage of pesticides in homes and gardens. According to the respondents, the most common way that people are exposed to pesticide residues is by consuming pesticide residues in food. The respondents expressed a moderate level of concern about their attitudes toward organic farming adoption. Correlations between demographic variables and knowledge of food and feed safety, involving a workshop on food/feed safety, care about human health as well as environmental pollution, and looking for information on food/feed safety were reported in the study.

Keywords: Pesticides Indiscriminate use Public awareness Pesticide residues Public health Food Animal feed Food safety attitude Jordan

89
Title: Information Security and Data Management for IoT Smart Healthcare
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: International legislation and health authorities urge and promote healthcare providers to adopt meaningful use of becoming network integrated. As a result, healthcare services are intelligently provided using the Internet of things (IoT)-based principle. However, transiting healthcare providers and organizations to electronic-based systems are vulnerable to information security attacks and cybercrimes [1]. Information security techniques protect information and systems from illegal and unauthorized admission, usage, disclosure, interference, or conversion. This is accomplished by processing the three main elements: confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information. Confident information is available or disclosed only to legal processes and only by authorized people from a healthcare perspective. Therefore, only authorized users can modify and control the integrity and protection of electronic data.

Keywords: Information Security and Data Management for IoT Smart Healthcare

90
Title: PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF INDIGENOUS CHICKENS OF JORDAN IN COMPARISON WITH NATIVE AND COMMERCIAL BREEDS FOR CONSERVATION AND BREEDING PURPOSES
Author: Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Indigenous chickens of Jordan are facing extinction and need genetic conservation because they were unable to commercially compete in the poultry industry because of low genetic ability compared to commercial layers. The study aimed to investigate phenotypic and genetic diversity of village chickens in Jordan using discriminant analyses procedures to provide a basis for sustainable genetic conservation and utilization program to overcome any possible extinction. The sampled chicken population of 578 one-year old chickens (125 males and 433 females) was phenotypically characterized for 15 biometric and plumage traits from major cities of the three regions; Middle, North, and South. The traits variations within and between breeds were detected statistically by stepwise discriminant and canonical-discriminant of uni- and multivariate analyses. The results showed the sampled population as village chickens in Jordan is comprised of indigenous (Baladi) breed (85%) and few exotic and commercial breeds. The breeds were distinct and differentiated based on phenotypic traits indicating high genetic variability. The major phenotypic traits that showed significant power to differentiate breeds were comb type, body weight, comb size, earlobe color, wattle size, face color and breast size in males and comb type and size, body weight, face and breast size, leg color and wattle size in females. Recent and past crossings, admixture or migration from exotic and commercial breeds were noted. Moreover, low levels of phylogeographic structure were observed across the studied breeds. In conclusion, there is a need to conserve the indigenous breed in situ and in vivo for its adaptive gene pool in the coming days of persisted climate change and disease threats.

Keywords: Breed conservation, Distance, Genetic diversity, Morphology, Native chickens.

91
Title: SmartLight: A smart efficient traffic light scheduling algorithm for green road intersections
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Traveling vehicles participate in emphasizing the global warming problem due to the gases produced by them. The exponential increase in the number of daily traveling vehicles has exaggerated the world pollution problem threatening the life on the planet. This encourages several environmental organizations to look for designing green vehicles. Moreover, several countries have forced green driving rules and technologies. Road intersections are considered high fuel consumption areas over the road network. This is due to the required power to stop moving vehicles and restart stopped vehicles at these intersections. This work introduces an efficient traffic light scheduling algorithm (SmartLight) that controls the competing traffic flows at the road intersections. It is designed to reduce the total consumed fuel of vehicles and thus it reduces their produced gases. The topology of the road intersection, the context of the competing traffic flows, and the real-time traffic characteristics of each flow are mainly considered to schedule the phases of each located traffic light. The phases of the traffic light cycle are primly set to allow emergency vehicles to pass through the intersection without stopping. Then, the traffic flow that contains heavy vehicles or has the highest weight among the competing traffic flows is assigned the highest priority to pass through the signalized intersection. Finally, the average waiting delay time of each flow on the signalized intersection should not exceed a pre-determined threshold to guarantee fair sharing of the signalized intersection. The scheduling time of each phase is set based on the lengths of platoons of vehicles that are scheduled during that phase from different un-conflicted traffic flows. An experimental study has evaluated the performance of the proposed algorithm (SmartLight) compared to previous traffic light scheduling algorithms in terms of total fuel consumption, gas emission, the average queuing delay time of vehicles, and the throughput of the road intersection.

Keywords: SmartLight: A smart efficient traffic light scheduling algorithm for green road intersections

92
Title: PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF INDIGENOUS CHICKENS OF JORDAN IN COMPARISON WITH NATIVE AND COMMERCIAL BREEDS FOR CONSERVATION AND BREEDING PURPOSES
Author: Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Indigenous chickens of Jordan are facing extinction and need genetic conservation because they were unable to commercially compete in the poultry industry because of low genetic ability compared to commercial layers. The study aimed to investigate phenotypic and genetic diversity of village chickens in Jordan using discriminant analyses procedures to provide a basis for sustainable genetic conservation and utilization program to overcome any possible extinction. The sampled chicken population of 578 one-year old chickens (125 males and 433 females) was phenotypically characterized for 15 biometric and plumage traits from major cities of the three regions; Middle, North, and South. The traits variations within and between breeds were detected statistically by stepwise discriminant and canonical-discriminant of uni- and multivariate analyses. The results showed the sampled population as village chickens in Jordan is comprised of indigenous (Baladi) breed (85%) and few exotic and commercial breeds. The breeds were distinct and differentiated based on phenotypic traits indicating high genetic variability. The major phenotypic traits that showed significant power to differentiate breeds were comb type, body weight, comb size, earlobe color, wattle size, face color and breast size in males and comb type and size, body weight, face and breast size, leg color and wattle size in females. Recent and past crossings, admixture or migration from exotic and commercial breeds were noted. Moreover, low levels of phylogeographic structure were observed across the studied breeds. In conclusion, there is a need to conserve the indigenous breed in situ and in vivo for its adaptive gene pool in the coming days of persisted climate change and disease threats.

Keywords: Breed conservation, Distance, Genetic diversity, Morphology, Native chickens.

93
Title: A Novel Traffic characteristics aware and Context Prediction Protocol for Intelligent Connected Vehicles
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Digital maps have been installed and attached to vehicles recently. They help with the GPS receivers to determine the relative locations of vehicles to other existing traffic and objects over the road network such as entrance/exit points, obstacles, road intersections, etc. This helps drivers or autonomous vehicles to decide the most appropriate reaction, in terms of speed, take-over, or stop operations ahead of time. Several daily traveling vehicles do not have digital maps. Besides, digital maps are vulnerable to being destroyed or inaccurate. They require regular updates due to the continuous construction and re-design of the road networks. These constructions aimed to enhance the road design and the traffic efficiency there. Moreover, accidents, broken vehicles, traffic congestion, or other ad-hoc obstacles appear unpredictably over the road network. In this paper, we aim to introduce a prediction protocol that gathers and analyzes the traffic characteristics of vehicles over the investigated road scenario using wireless transceivers in vehicles. Then, it predicts the physical and traffic context based on the analyzed traffic data. This protocol can replace the absent or broken digital maps in vehicles. It also can be used to verify the correctness of the digital map in vehicles. From the experimental results, we can infer that the proposed protocol has succeeded in predicting the road context over highways and downtown scenarios. More accurate and better predictions are acquired by increasing the percentage of wireless transceiver-equipped vehicles.

Keywords: Roads , Road transportation , Protocols , Accidents , Vehicles , Ad hoc networks , Wireless communication

94
Title: The Role of Geographical Proximity, Climate Change and Topographical Conditions in Determining Different Types of Jordanian Village Chickens in Al-Kark and Other Arid Regions of Jordan
Author: Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to determine how geographical proximity, climate, and topography influence the morphology of village chickens in Jordan’s Karak Governorate. Surveys were conducted in six regions of Karak as well as Tafilah, Madaba, Aqaba, and Al-Mafraq governarates. These governarates were included because they are geographically close to Karak Governorate and can be compared in terms of topography and climate. The morphology and biometric data of each male and female bird, including the exterior shape of the bird, body weight, colors, and measurements of body parts, were recorded during a field survey in the targeted regions. Each breeder’s information was gathered, and each chicken was photographed separately. Afterward, various statistical analyses were utilized to distinguish between morphological traits, perform clustering, and conduct differential analyses. The Mahalanobis distances (measure of the distance between a point P and a distribution D) were also calculated and estimated. The findings demonstrated that there are disparities in the phenotypic features of chickens between the sexes and between geographical areas. Village chickens are still raised in a traditional manner; as a result, there have been no genetic improvement techniques used or gene flow from geographically remote regions. Also as a result, chickens in Karak Governorate still resemble one another and their ancient ancestors in terms of morphological traits. In all regions and in both genders, the dominating traits were the pink color and single comb, the beige beak, the orange eye color, and the red earlobe with white speck. The difference in regions and height led to a significant difference in the appearance of traits in males and females.

Keywords: Indigenous or local chicken, morphology, ecotype, region topology, Jordan

95
Title: Understanding of Machine Learning with Deep Learning: Architectures, Workflow, Applications and Future Directions
Author: Mohammad Taye, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Abstract In recent years, deep learning (DL) has been the most popular computational approach in the field of machine learning (ML), achieving exceptional results on a variety of complex cognitive tasks, matching or even surpassing human performance. Deep learning technology, which grew out of artificial neural networks (ANN), has become a big deal in computing because it can learn from data. The ability to learn enormous volumes of data is one of the benefits of deep learning. In the past few years, the field of deep learning has grown quickly, and it has been used successfully in a wide range of traditional fields. In numerous disciplines, including cybersecurity, natural language processing, bioinformatics, robotics and control, and medical information processing, deep learning has outperformed well-known machine learning approaches. In order to provide a more ideal starting point from which to create a comprehensive understanding of deep learning, also, this article aims to provide a more detailed overview of the most significant facets of deep learning, including the most current developments in the field. Moreover, this paper discusses the significance of deep learning and the various deep learning techniques and networks. Additionally, it provides an overview of real-world application areas where deep learning techniques can be utilised. We conclude by identifying possible characteristics for future generations of deep learning modelling and providing research suggestions. On the same hand, this article intends to provide a comprehensive overview of deep learning modelling that can serve as a resource for academics and industry people alike. Lastly, we provide additional issues and recommended solutions to assist researchers in comprehending the existing research gaps. Various approaches, deep learning architectures, strategies, and applications are discussed in this work.

Keywords: machine learning (ML); deep learning (DL); recurrent neural network (RNN); convolutional neural networks (CNN) artificial intelligence (AI)

96
Title: The Role of Geographical Proximity, Climate Change and Topographical Conditions in Determining Different Types of Jordanian Village Chickens in Al-Kark and Other Arid Regions of Jordan
Author: Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to determine how geographical proximity, climate, and topography influence the morphology of village chickens in Jordan’s Karak Governorate. Surveys were conducted in six regions of Karak as well as Tafilah, Madaba, Aqaba, and Al-Mafraq governarates. These governarates were included because they are geographically close to Karak Governorate and can be compared in terms of topography and climate. The morphology and biometric data of each male and female bird, including the exterior shape of the bird, body weight, colors, and measurements of body parts, were recorded during a field survey in the targeted regions. Each breeder’s information was gathered, and each chicken was photographed separately. Afterward, various statistical analyses were utilized to distinguish between morphological traits, perform clustering, and conduct differential analyses. The Mahalanobis distances (measure of the distance between a point P and a distribution D) were also calculated and estimated. The findings demonstrated that there are disparities in the phenotypic features of chickens between the sexes and between geographical areas. Village chickens are still raised in a traditional manner; as a result, there have been no genetic improvement techniques used or gene flow from geographically remote regions. Also as a result, chickens in Karak Governorate still resemble one another and their ancient ancestors in terms of morphological traits. In all regions and in both genders, the dominating traits were the pink color and single comb, the beige beak, the orange eye color, and the red earlobe with white speck. The difference in regions and height led to a significant difference in the appearance of traits in males and females.

Keywords: Indigenous or local chicken, morphology, ecotype, region topology, Jordan

97
Title: Recent targeted discovery of phytomedicines to manage endocrine disorder develops due to adapting sedentary lifestyle
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Leading a sedentary lifestyle is becoming a significant public health issue nowadays. Sedentary lifestyle appears to be increasingly outspread in many nations despite being linked to a range of chronic health conditions. Most importantly, leading a sedentary lifestyle may lead to endocrinological disorders. The endocrine system is a network of glands and organs located throughout the body. The main function of the endocrine system is to regulate the range of bodily functions through the release of hormones. When the function of the endocrine system is disturbed, then it may lead to hormonal imbalance. For the management of major endocrinological disorder, many phytochemical constituents are used. This work aimed to focus on phytomedicinal herbs to target the endocrine glands. Moreover, a variety of phytoconstituents were found to be effective in the management of major endocrine disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, thyroid, hormonal imbalance. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to sedentary lifestyle, followed by a detailed study of endocrine system and hormones secreted by endocrine glands and major disorders of endocrine glands. We then focus on phytochemical constituents in the form of phytomedicinal herbs used to treat the endocrinological disorders with targeted drug delivery to endocrine glands that can be easily targeted on endocrine glands for the treatment and management of hormonal imbalance.

Keywords: Targeted discovery; Sedentary lifestyle; Endocrine disorder

98
Title: Empowering SMEs using New Forms of Digital Innovation: An Empirical Study on Fashion and Clothing Sector
Author: Abdal-Razzaq Mohammad Al-Oqool, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The fashion and clothing sector is a highly competitive industry, where small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face numerous challenges, such as limited resources, high market volatility, and the need to adapt to rapidly changing consumer preferences. However, the advent of new forms of digital innovation, such as social media platforms, e-commerce, and big data analytics, has created opportunities for SMEs to overcome these challenges and thrive in the market. The aim of this study is to explore the modern technological innovativeness through exploring three variables including social commerce constructs, brand image, and product features in e-commerce. Moreover, such study aims to propose a conceptual model that directed toward understanding how SMEs can utilized information and communication technologies in the fashion and clothing industry. This research is expected to enrich to the fashion and clothing literature by shedding the light on the importance of new ICT innovativeness in such area. The suggested model is depicted at the end of this work.

Keywords: SMEs, e-commerce, social commerce constructs

99
Title: An empirical investigation on acceptance of e-wallets in the fintech era in Jordan: extending UTAUT2 model with perceived trust
Author: Abdal-Razzaq Mohammad Al-Oqool, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The increasing popularity of smartphones has led to the rise of e-wallets, which allow users to store their payment information on their devices and complete financial transactions conveniently and securely. This research extended the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model to investigate the main factors influencing users’ intention to accept e-wallets in Jordan, where little research focused on such apps. Using a quantitative method, a sample of 181 users was utilized, and an instrument of 32 items was used. Findings revealed that price value, hedonic motivations, social influence, performance expectancy and perceived trust are major predictors of users' intention to use e-wallets apps. In contrast, facilitating conditions and effort expectancy are not significant toward the adoption process. Finally, conclusions and future work are presented in the last section of the study.

Keywords: Fintech, E-wallets, UTAUT model, Perceived trust, Behavioral intention, Jordan

100
Title: Combating Microbial Infections Using Metal-Based Nanoparticles as Potential Therapeutic Alternatives
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The nature of microorganisms and the efficiency of antimicrobials have witnessed a huge co-dependent change in their dynamics over the last few decades. On the other side, metals and metallic compounds have gained popularity owing to their effectiveness against various microbial strains. A structured search of both research and review papers was conducted via different electronic databases, such as PubMed, Bentham, Springer, and Science Direct, among others, for the present review. Along with these, marketed products, patents, and Clinicaltrials.gov were also referred to for our review. Different microbes such as bacteria, fungi, etc., and their diverse species and strains have been reviewed and found to be sensitive to metal-carrying formulations. The products are observed to restrict growth, multiplication, and biofilm formation effectively and adequately. Silver has an apt use in this area of treatment and recovery, and other metals like copper, gold, iron, and gallium have also been observed to generate antimicrobial activity. The present review identified membrane disruption, oxidative stress, and interaction with proteins and enzymes to be the primary microbicidal processes. Elaborating the action, nanoparticles and nanosystems are shown to work in our favor in well excelled and rational ways.

Keywords: metals; nanoparticles; antimicrobial action; microbicidal; biofilm formation inhibitors

101
Title: Corrosion inhibition of aluminum in HBr solutions by nonionic surfactants at different temperatures
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The influence of nonionic surfactant micelles such as Tween 80, polyethylene glycol 400, and coco glucoside on the inhibition of aluminum corrosion in hydrobromic acid solutions was investigated via weight reduction, thermometric, and electrical conductivity techniques. In the absence of inhibitors, the rise in temperature and acid levels has led to a tremendous acceleration in the aluminum corrosion in HBr solutions. Intriguingly, coco glucoside, PEG 400, and Tween 80 have shown a remarkable inhibitory action on the corrosion of aluminum in the corrosive solutions at different temperatures. The findings demonstrated that the inhibition efficacy of inhibitors and the extent of surface coverage of the micelles on aluminum rise with higher concentration of the inhibitor and decline with rising temperature. Notably, Tween 80 was a more effective inhibitor than PEG 400, and coco glucoside at all temperatures. This effect may be explained by the force and type of their micelles’ adsorption on the aluminum surface, which occurs when hydrophilic regions of coherent layers of micelles donate their electrons to the metal surface. Also, the thermodynamic factors (ΔH0, ΔS0, and Ea) for the corrosion and adsorption processes were assessed and addressed. The experimental data were best fit by models of

Keywords: corrosion inhibitor, aluminum, nonionic surfactants, micelles, adsorption isotherms.

102
Title: Household Food Insecurity and Nutritional Status of PreSchool Children Following Relaxation of COVID-19 Restrictions
Author: Yousef Abdel-Kareem Abusamra, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Studies found a high prevalence of household food insecurity (HFIS) and malnutrition and an association between them during the movement restriction period of the COVID-19 pandemic. This nutritional status should have improved by now as movement restrictions, including quarantine, have been lifted. Therefore, the goal of this cross-sectional study was to determine the current prevalence of HFIS and malnutrition and their associations and contributing factors among pre-school children (i.e., children under the age of 5 years) following relaxation of the COVID-19 restrictions in Jordan. A sample of 386 children (197 boys and 189 girls) in Irbid, Jordan, were recruited in this study following the simple random sampling method. The levels of HFIS and malnutrition were assessed using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth reference values, respectively. Relevant information were managed and measurements made and employed to calculate four major anthropometric indicators for the sample children (weight to height (WHZ), height to age (HAZ), weight to age (WAZ) and Body Mass Index to age (BMI/A) (BMI/A)). The results of analysis pointed out that prevalence of food insecurity among the sample children was 58.2%, where 19.9% of the kids were experiencing moderate food insecurity and 38.3% were suffering from severe food insecurity. On the other hand, prevalence of malnutrition among those children was 1.81%, where 1.55% of the kids were emaciated and 1.26% were severely emaciated. The results also indicated that mother’s age, number of children in the family, income of the family, monthly expenses on food and beverages and the energy expenses contributed significantly (p<0.05) to food insecurity. Moreover, the study found that HFIS had negative correlations with WHZ (r=−0.272, p=0.000), WAZ (r=−0.193, p=0.000) and BMI/A (r=−0.263, p=0.000) and a positive correlation with HAZ(r=0.041, p=0.00). The study reports high prevalence of HFIS among children under the age of 5 years in Jordan, even after relaxation of the COVID-19 restrictions on mobility. However, prevalence of malnutrition among this group of the population is low. These results spotlight the continued impact of the COVID- 19 crisis on the financial statuses of households

Keywords: Anthropometry, Household Food Insecurity, Jordan, Malnutrition, Pre-school children.

103
Title: Development and Characterization of Gel-Based Buccoadhesive Bilayer Formulation of Nifedipine
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A promising controlled drug delivery system has been developed based on polymeric buccoadhesive bilayered formulation that uses a drug-free backing layer and a polymeric hydrophilic gel buccoadhesive core layer containing nifedipine. The DSC thermogravimetric analysis confirms the drug’s entrapment in the gel layer and reveals no evidence of a potential interaction. Various ratios of bioadhesive polymers, including HPMC K100, PVP K30, SCMC, and CP 934, were combined with EC as an impermeable backing layer to ensure unidirectional drug release towards the buccal mucosa. The polymeric compositions of hydrophilic gel-natured HPMC, SCMC, and CP formed a matrix layer by surrounding the core nifedipine during compression. Preformulation studies were performed for all of the ingredients in order to evaluate their physical and flow characteristics. Ex vivo buccoadhesive strength, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro and in vivo drug release, and ex vivo permeation investigations were performed to evaluate the produced gel-based system. Rapid temperature variations had no appreciable impact on the substance’s physical properties, pharmacological content, or buccoadhesive strength during stability testing using actual human saliva. It was clear from a histological examination of the ex vivo mucosa that the developed system did not cause any irritation or inflammation at the site of administration. The formulation NT5 was the best one, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9966. The in vitro and in vivo drug release profiles were well correlated, and they mimic the in vitro drug release pattern via the biological membrane. Thus, the developed gel-based formulation was found to be novel, stable, and useful for the targeted delivery of nifedipine.

Keywords: nifedipine; buccoadhesive; triggered delivery; ex vivo permeation; polymeric gel

104
Title: Unravelling the intertwined nexus of firm performance, ESG practices, and capital cost in the Chinese business landscape
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This research explores the relationship between a company’s commitment to Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) factors and its capital equity cost (COE) in the Chinese market. Using statistical methods like regression analysis, the study aims to uncover how ESG disclosure relates to COE. Key findings reveal that environmental and social disclosures increase capital equity costs, indicating higher costs for companies with strong ESG practices. However, governance disclosures don’t significantly impact COE, suggesting that environmental and social aspects carry more weight in shaping investor perceptions and influencing costs compared to governance. The research also shows that this ESG-COE link is more significant for financially sound companies, indicating greater cost implications for strong performers. The study further demonstrates that strong ESG practices are perceived as lower risk, leading to lower capital equity costs. Chinese firms with high ESG scores tend to have lower capital costs, indicating rising investor appreciation for ESG in the Chinese market. The study’s robustness check supports these findings, reinforcing the growing importance of ESG in investment decisions. This research has implications for companies, investors, and policymakers, stressing the role of ESG in attracting investment and reducing costs. Policymakers can use these insights to encourage improved ESG practices and transparency. Overall, the study underscores ESG’s impact on capital equity costs in China, offering valuable insights for decision-makers and highlighting ESG’s relevance in financial choices.

Keywords: ESG rating score, cost of capital, firm performance, investment decisions, transparency

105
Title: The sustainable alleviation of poverty and the promotion of green development in Tibet
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This paper aims to examine the social development outcomes historically in Tibet regarding poverty eradication, education, employment, health care, and social integration. In addition, the paper will provide concrete suggestions for improving future social development work in Tibet. The main theoretical approach used is a literature and policy review of social development in Tibet. Tibet's social development strategy has been reviewed. Once Tibet's basic needs have been met, the road to progress is likely to be towards a more participatory approach, in which Tibetans will be able to contribute directly and influence their own future. This paper aims to provide a view of definitive account of recent historical development strategies and outcomes in Tibet; and, subsequently, the future prospects and challenges the region faces. It suggests increasing attention to vocational education and promoting and encouraging the maintenance of a sustainable environment, mitigating population growth, and integrating with other communities in other nearby counties and cities. Especially these factors lead in one way or another to the sustainability of poverty alleviation, development and the green environment.

Keywords: poverty alleviation, Tibet, China, Green Development, Sustainability

106
Title: The Moderating Role of Liquidity in the Relationship between the Expenditures and Financial Performance of SMEs: Evidence from Jordan
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The current paper aims to investigate the moderating role of liquidity in the relationship between accounting and advertising expenditures and the financial performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Jordan. Furthermore, the present paper highlights the importance of managing expenditures and improving financial performance. Since the performance of Jordanian SMEs is extremely critical, furthermore, the present paper explores the possibility of empowering these businesses in order to achieve profitability. This paper is based on descriptive statistics, regression, and correlation analysis in order to analyze the data, collecting secondary data from 200 SMEs. The results demonstrate that accounting expenditures are key factors for financial performance, especially in SMEs. Moreover, SMEs are more sensitive to liquidity challenges, which significantly impact their short-term expenditure and consequently influence their financial performance. It is evident that accounting expenditures moderated by liquidity have a positive effect on the financial performance of SMEs. However, our findings indicate a negative effect regarding the relationship between advertising expenditures and financial performance. According to the results of this study, regulators may offer new regulations and legislation in the future to the Ministry of Finance and the Amman Stock Exchange.

Keywords: accounting expenditure; advertising expenditure; liquidity; small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

107
Title: Target protein degradation by protacs: A budding cancer treatment strategy
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Cancer is one of the most common causes of death. So, its lethal effect increases with time. Near about hundreds of cancers are known in humans. Cancer treatment is done to cure or prolonged remission, and shrinkage of the tumor. Cytotoxic agents, biological agents/targeted drugs, hormonal drugs, surgery, radiotherapy/proton therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and gene therapy are currently used in the treatment of cancer but their cost is high and cause various side effects. Seeing this, some new targeted strategies such as PROTACs are the need of the time. Proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) has become one of the most discussed topics regarding cancer treatment. Few of the PROTAC molecules are in the trial phases. PROTACs have many advantages over other strategies such as modularity, compatibility, sub-stoichiometric activity, acting on undruggable targets, molecular design, and acts on intracellular targets, selectivity and specificity can be recruited for any cancer, versatility, and others. PROTACs are having some unclear questions on their pharmacokinetics, heavy-molecular weight, etc. PROTACs are anticipated to bring about a conversion in current healthcare and will emerge as booming treatments. In this review article we summarize PROTACs, their mechanism of action, uses, advantages, disadvantages, challenges, and future aspects for the successful development of potent PROTACs as a drug strategy.

Keywords: PROTACs, Cancer, E3 Ligases, Protein Degradation, Ubiquitination.

108
Title: The Role of Environmental Design in Preserving the Archaeological Artifacts and its Sustainability “As-Salt Archaeological Museum -Toukan House - as a Case Study”
Author: Saif Mohammad Obeidat, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: This research studies the importance of environmental development and its elements in achieving a safe environment to preserve the preservation of archaeological holdings in heritage buildings. The problem of the research lies in the lack of previous studies specialized in providing means of protection for heritage collectibles in the internal vacuum showing the role of environmental design in achieving protection for these holdings. The main question comes to clarity the role of environmental design in protecting and upright holding in the internal branches. The research is an important step to study the role of the environmental design in preserving heritage building and their replicas and provide reform and guidance to deal with the interior heritage branches is a sustainable manner. The methodology used in this research is descriptive analytical, in addition to an exploratory field visit, during which it was determined whether the internal void had an impact on the holdings inside it. The results of this research confirm that: (1) Environmental design has an important and effective role in achieving a design system based on functional and aesthetic diversity, (2) It has real importance in providing a safe and sustainable environment for archaeological holdings, (3) and has a significant impact on raising awareness among community members of the importance of preserving heritage collectibles, (4) also has a successful role in raising the levels of positive behavior among individuals, and finally (5) has a role in increasing the performance, efficiency and services of buildings.

Keywords: Environmental design, Heritage collections, Sustainability, Toukan House, As-Salt.

109
Title: Weight Optimization Based on Firefly Algorithm for Analogy-based Effort Estimation
Author: Ayman Jalal Al Mutlaq, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Abstract—Proper cost estimation is one of the vital tasks that must be achieved for software project development. Owing to the complexity and uncertainties of the software development process, this task is ambiguous and difficult. Recently, analogybased estimation (ABE) has become one of the popular approaches in this field due to its effectiveness and practicability in comparing completed projects and new projects in estimating the development effort. However, in spite of its many achievements, this method is not capable to guarantee accurate estimation confronting the complex relation between independent features and software effort. In such a case, the performance of the ABE can be improved by efficient feature weighting. This study introduces an enhanced software estimation method by integrating the firefly algorithm (FA) with the ABE method for improving software development effort estimation (SDEE). The proposed model can provide accurate identification of similar projects by optimising the performances of the similarity function in the estimation process in which the most relevant weights are assigned to project features for obtaining the more accurate estimates. A series of experiments were carried out using six real-world datasets. The results based on the statistical analysis showed that the integration of the FA and ABE significantly outperformed the existing analogy-based approaches especially for the ISBSG dataset.

Keywords: Keywords—Analogy-based estimation; firefly algorithm; software cost estimation; weight optimization

110
Title: Recent targeted discovery of phytomedicines to manage endocrine disorder develops due to adapting sedentary lifestyle
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The endocrine system is a series of glands that produce and secrete hormones that the body uses for a wide range of functions. These control many different bodily functions

Keywords: Recent targeted discovery of phytomedicines

111
Title: Development of a Polyherbal Topical Gel for the Treatment of Acne
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The present work aimed to formulate and evaluate a polyherbal gel using Aloe barbadensis and extract of Vigna radiata for the treatment of acne, a disorder of the skin in which hair follicles and sebaceous glands are blocked, causing inflammation and redness of the skin. Aloe barbadensis pulp was collected and mixed with the extract of Vigna radiata and formulated into a gel using Carbopol 940, triethanolamine, and propylene glycol as the gelling agent, viscosity modifier, and pH modifier, respectively. The gel was evaluated for its antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial agents, such as gentamycin and fluconazole, were used as the standards. The developed formulation showed promising zone of inhibition. The gel was further evaluated for its physicochemical properties. The formulation showed a promising effect on acne together with the additive effect of Aloe barbadensis on skin.

Keywords: Aloe barbadensis; Vigna radiata; Carbopol 940; polyherbal gel; acne

112
Title: Synthesis, pharmacological evaluation, and molecular modeling studies of novel isatin hybrids as potential anticancer agents
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A novel series of isatin hybrids 5a-g was designed, synthesized, and characterized spectroscopically. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) by in vitro MTT assay. Amongst the tested compounds, 5e compound bearing benzyl moiety at N4 piperazine was found to be the most active with the promising IC50 (12.47 µM). Moreover, the active compounds 5e and 5g were subjected to antitumor evaluation (in vivo) against Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma (DAL) cell line and the results suggested that the best active compound 5e can normalize the blood picture in comparison to the standard drug. An in silico molecular docking study using the crystal structure of Hsp90 protein described the role of significant protein–ligand interactions and revealed more insights into the binding mode. The drug-likeliness of the compounds was predicted based on Lipinski's rule of five and pharmacokinetic ADME parameters. Hence, the synthesized isatin hybrids could be novel starting point anticancer lead compounds demonstrating drug-like properties which can be explored further for anticancer drug discovery.

Keywords: Isatin-pyrimidine hybridAntiproliferative activityBreast cancer cell (MCF-7)Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma (DAL)Molecular docking

113
Title: Novel fluorophenyl tethered thiazole and chalcone analogues as potential anti-tubercular agents: Design, synthesis, biological and in silico evaluations
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Novel analogues of fluorophenyl tethered thiazoles 7a-k and chalcones 10a-k were designed through molecular hybridization approach. All the synthesized final compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Among the two series, compound 10g displayed potent inhibition with MIC99 of 1.56 µM against parental and isoniazid-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Further, the same compound inhibited the growth of intracellular M. tuberculosis. To gain an insight into the molecular mechanism of actions, in silico molecular docking experiments were conducted using the molecular structure of the DNA gyrase enzyme, which revealed crucial interactions. This was further substantiated through molecular dynamics simulation study of the mycobacterial DNA Gyrase protein against the lead compound 10g and the reference drug (CFX-Ciprofloxacin). Furthermore, the drug-likeliness of the synthesized compounds was computed based on Lipinski's rule of five and ADME pharmacokinetic parameters.

Keywords: Fluorophenyl-thiazoleChalconeMolecular dockingMolecular dynamicsADME properties

114
Title: Combating Microbial Infections Using Metal-Based Nanoparticles as Potential Therapeutic Alternatives
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The nature of microorganisms and the efficiency of antimicrobials have witnessed a huge co-dependent change in their dynamics over the last few decades. On the other side, metals and metallic compounds have gained popularity owing to their effectiveness against various microbial strains. A structured search of both research and review papers was conducted via different electronic databases, such as PubMed, Bentham, Springer, and Science Direct, among others, for the present review. Along with these, marketed products, patents, and Clinicaltrials.gov were also referred to for our review. Different microbes such as bacteria, fungi, etc., and their diverse species and strains have been reviewed and found to be sensitive to metal-carrying formulations. The products are observed to restrict growth, multiplication, and biofilm formation effectively and adequately. Silver has an apt use in this area of treatment and recovery, and other metals like copper, gold, iron, and gallium have also been observed to generate antimicrobial activity. The present review identified membrane disruption, oxidative stress, and interaction with proteins and enzymes to be the primary microbicidal processes. Elaborating the action, nanoparticles and nanosystems are shown to work in our favor in well excelled and rational ways.

Keywords: metals; nanoparticles; antimicrobial action; microbicidal; biofilm formation inhibitors

115
Title: Development and Characterization of Gel-Based Buccoadhesive Bilayer Formulation of Nifedipine
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A promising controlled drug delivery system has been developed based on polymeric buccoadhesive bilayered formulation that uses a drug-free backing layer and a polymeric hydrophilic gel buccoadhesive core layer containing nifedipine. The DSC thermogravimetric analysis confirms the drug’s entrapment in the gel layer and reveals no evidence of a potential interaction. Various ratios of bioadhesive polymers, including HPMC K100, PVP K30, SCMC, and CP 934, were combined with EC as an impermeable backing layer to ensure unidirectional drug release towards the buccal mucosa. The polymeric compositions of hydrophilic gel-natured HPMC, SCMC, and CP formed a matrix layer by surrounding the core nifedipine during compression. Preformulation studies were performed for all of the ingredients in order to evaluate their physical and flow characteristics. Ex vivo buccoadhesive strength, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro and in vivo drug release, and ex vivo permeation investigations were performed to evaluate the produced gel-based system. Rapid temperature variations had no appreciable impact on the substance’s physical properties, pharmacological content, or buccoadhesive strength during stability testing using actual human saliva. It was clear from a histological examination of the ex vivo mucosa that the developed system did not cause any irritation or inflammation at the site of administration. The formulation NT5 was the best one, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9966. The in vitro and in vivo drug release profiles were well correlated, and they mimic the in vitro drug release pattern via the biological membrane. Thus, the developed gel-based formulation was found to be novel, stable, and useful for the targeted delivery of nifedipine.

Keywords: buccoadhesive; triggered delivery; ex vivo permeation; polymeric gel

116
Title: Application of Passive Harmonic Filters in Power Distribution System with High Share of PV Systems and Non-Linear Loads
Author: Wasseem Hani Al Rousan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The increasing demand of non-linear loads and the revolution towards renewable energy sources connected at the utility scale, would potentially increase harmonic distortion in power distribution networks. Therefore, mitigation measures should be considered to deal with high levels of harmonics. Traditionally, a combination of passive filters has been used as an effective solution. However, the efficacy of such solution has not been investigated thoroughly in networks with high share of renewable energy sources, such as PVs. This paper analyzes harmonic distortions caused by distributed generators (PV) and non-linear loads connected to the 480 V distribution feeder. It aims to model and implement a collection of single-tuned passive filters to mitigate the harmonic levels and improve the power factor. The results have demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed collection of single-tuned passive filters in mitigating the harmonic levels and improve the power factor with high share of PV systems (i.e., 59% PV penetration scenario).They have shown that, when designed and tuned properly, single-tuned harmonic filters can significantly reduce the 5th, 7th, and the 11th current harmonic distortions from 22.71%, 12.5%, and 6.102?fore applying the filter down to 0.04199%, 0.1956%, and 0.1056%, respectively. The findings have been verified using a distribution feeder on MATLAB Simulink.

Keywords: Distributed Generators, Distribution Systems, Harmonic Filters, Power Quality, PV systems, Total harmonic distortion

117
Title: Investigating the Maximum Instantaneous Fault Current in Power Systems with High Penetration of Type-4 Wind
Author: Wasseem Hani Al Rousan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The increased attention towards Renewable Energy Sources (RESs), such as wind generation, has become a priority for systems operators and policymakers worldwide. Type-4 wind generators are considered one of the most common types of wind for large-scale integration of RESs. Type-4 wind generators employ converters for their interface to the AC grid. In such generators, the power exchange with the grid is fully controlled by the converter interface that utilizes power electronic switches of limited current-carrying capability during normal and faulty conditions. Hence, type-4 wind generators have different and limited fault current contributions compared to the traditional conventional generation units based on Synchronous Generators (SGs). In future scenarios where such RESs are extensively integrated, and the SGs are also decommissioned, the SC current behavior of the systems would be affected significantly, and a fault level reduction would be witnessed too. The maximum instantaneous SC current is one of the key SC current components that should be monitored in such scenarios due to its importance for several applications such as faults detection, proper settings of the protection settings, and the design of circuit breakers …etc. This paper is aimed at investigating the effect of the increased penetration of type-4 wind generation on the maximum instantaneous fault current in power grids with the increased penetration of type-4 wind RESs. The results and findings of this research are tested on the IEEE 9-Bus test system modeled in Matlab.

Keywords: instantaneous fault current, artificial neural network, type-4 wind generation, renewable energy

118
Title: Financial Literacy and Financial Inclusion among University Students in Jordan
Author: Mohammad Oqlah Al-Smadi, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: By providing empirical support for the relationship between financial literacy and financial inclusion among Jordanian university students, this study contributes considerably to the growing body of literature on financial education and inclusion. Policymakers, educators, and other stakeholders working to improve financial education programs and advance financial inclusion initiatives should consider the findings. This study highlights the significance of cultivating financial knowledge and skills among the youth population in Jordan and abroad because financial literacy continues to be a critical driver of financial well-being and economic stability. The analysis is supported by a thorough survey instrument that was carefully validated through expert consultation and a pilot study and was modified from the OECD/INFE. The resulting survey assesses FL and FI and demographic factors, including gender, major, age, and year of study. With a coefficient of 0.76, Cronbach's alpha test validates the instrument's dependability and internal consistency. In addition, an investigation of gender-based differences in FL scores, although observed, did not reach statistical significance, indicating the influence of other contextual factors. Using regression analysis and Spearman's rho correlation, this study discerns a strong and statistically significant positive relationship between FL and FI among university students in Jordan (89.4%, P<0.01), corroborating the central hypothesis. The study's econometric model, supported by tests for goodness-of-fit, exhibits statistical significance, underscoring its potency in clarifying the intricate dynamics of FL and FI in this situation. The study emphasizes the critical part financial literacy plays in promoting financial inclusion and the demand for customized strategies that consider the variety of students' academic backgrounds. The findings substantially contribute to the global conversation on financial inclusion and education, highlighting their critical role in fostering economic stability and progress.

Keywords: financial literacy, financial inclusion, university students, Jordan

119
Title: Examining the Impact of Corporate Governance on Investors and Investee Companies: Evidence from Yemen
Author: Jafer Maroof Al Sawalhah, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: : The purpose of this study was to determine whether corporate governance is an important and effective technique for enhancing investors’ confidence in existing and prospective companies and for creating opportunities for safe investment in Yemen. A survey was conducted among certified public accountants to assess the importance of corporate governance. We employed regression analysis to test our hypothesis. According to the results of the study, corporate governance is an essential component of success for companies, and those firms that apply corporate governance best practices are highly regarded. Additionally, the findings suggest that regulators, policymakers, and standard-setters should raise awareness of the importance of protecting shareholders’ rights by providing seminars and courses for Yemeni media, unions, and professional associations. Moreover, in an environment of uncertainty there is a reluctance to invest and a prevalent tendency to invest in real estate. Furthermore, the results indicate that corporate governance is not practiced by all companies but only to a limited extent by some joint-stock companies. Most of the Yemeni companies that have adopted CG are joint-stock companies, so investors prefer to invest in these companies. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for regulators, practitioners, and academicians. We recommend that this survey be extended to a larger sample, including supervisory managers of companies. This study provides an insightful contribution, because it clarifies the importance of corporate governance for Yemeni investors and investee companies.

Keywords: transparency; awareness; disclosure; investee companies; investor protection; corporate governance in Yemen

120
Title: The role of artificial intelligence in supply chain analytics during the pandemic
Author: Heba Mohammad Ahmad Hatamlah, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The global supply networks have been disrupted and weak connections exposed to an extent that few people have ever seen in their lifetime due to the COVID-19 epidemic. As a result of the severity of the crisis, every country and industry is feeling the effects, and the massive shifts in demand and supply that have happened throughout the epidemic are easily distinguishable from the effects of previous crises. We looked into the adaptability of alliance management and AI-driven supply chain analytics in the context of an ever-changing external environment. We examined four hypotheses in this area using survey data from the American auto components manufacturing industry. To do the analysis, we used Smart PLS. Alliance management capabilities, mediated by AI-powered supply chain analytics capacity, have been found to increase an organization's operational and financial performance. We also discovered, with environmental dynamics as a moderating factor, that alliance management capability has a substantial impact on AI-powered supply chain analytics capabilities. Based on our findings, we have a deep appreciation for the interplay between dynamic capacities and the relational view of organization. Finally, we pointed up the limitations of our study and offered a number of directions for future investigation that might help address some of the concerns that our results raise.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Supply chain analytics, Alliance management, Environmental dynamism, Dynamic capability view

121
Title: The Moderating Role of Liquidity in the Relationship between the Expenditures and Financial Performance of SMEs: Evidence from Jordan
Author: Qasim Ahmad Alawaqleh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract: The current paper aims to investigate the moderating role of liquidity in the relationship between accounting and advertising expenditures and the financial performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Jordan. Furthermore, the present paper highlights the importance of managing expenditures and improving financial performance. Since the performance of Jordanian SMEs is extremely critical, furthermore, the present paper explores the possibility of empowering these businesses in order to achieve profitability. This paper is based on descriptive statistics, regression, and correlation analysis in order to analyze the data, collecting secondary data from 200 SMEs. The results demonstrate that accounting expenditures are key factors for financial performance, especially in SMEs. Moreover, SMEs are more sensitive to liquidity challenges, which significantly impact their short-term expenditure and consequently influence their financial performance. It is evident that accounting expenditures moderated by liquidity have a positive effect on the financial performance of SMEs. However, our findings indicate a negative effect regarding the relationship between advertising expenditures and financial performance. According to the results of this study, regulators may offer new regulations and legislation in the future to the Ministry of Finance and the Amman Stock Exchange.

Keywords: Keywords: accounting expenditure; advertising expenditure; liquidity; small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

122
Title: Settlement of Documentary Credit Disputes under DOCDEX System
Author: Noor Saleh Al-Zyoud, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Law

Abstract: This study aims to present the unique product of the International Chamber of Commerce for dispute resolution in the area of trade finance, namely Documentary Instruments Dispute Resolution Expertise (DOCDEX). The ICC Banking Commission, together with ICC International Court of Arbitration, has designed these distinct set of rules for documentary credit issues, specifically adapted to resolve disputes over interpretation and monitoring of documentary credit implementations. The DOCDEX took effect in 1997 and was reviewed with effect from 2002. According to the DOCDEX, the ICC will engage independent experts who will make their decision. This decision will be considered by the ICC Banking Commission’s technical adviser to ensure that it is in line with the other opinions of the ICC. The decision will be made on the basis of the material provided by the parties, including their arguments. The study discusses the functioning of the DOCDEX Rules, how a DOCDEX decision is made and what law is applicable on the system. Moreover, attention is devoted to an exploration of the difference between DOCDEX system and arbitration. Lastly, the study found that the DOCDEX decision is not binding on the parties but can even more likely be used as evidence if the dispute is referred to a court or an arbitration tribunal.

Keywords: Credit Disputes, DOCDEX System.

123
Title: Legal Regulation of Civil Liability for Environmental Damage: How Appropriate are Civil Liability Provisions with the Privacy of Environmental Damage?
Author: Noor Saleh Al-Zyoud, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Law

Abstract: The study analyzes the nature of civil liability resulting from environmental damage, because the risk of environmental pollution is one of the dangers that cannot be counted or predicted. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the legal basis on which it is based in the field of pollution. Traditional wrong-based liability rules do not respond to the tortbased environmental policy objectives in order to avoid environmental damage and ensure effective protection for those affected. This made the provisions of civil liability in the Jordanian Civil Law no longer commensurate with the specificity of environmental damage, especially since the situation requires compensation for damage to the environment itself and to the health and property of individuals. In addition, it is not hidden that there are shortcomings in the provisions of the Jordanian Environment Protection Law No. (6) of 2017. Its provisions included preventive and remedial measures for environmental pollution without considering the issue of compensation for environmental damage in a manner consistent with the nature and specificity of this damage. This requires the development of these rules in a way that commensurate with the nature of environmental damage.

Keywords: pollution; environmental damage; civil liability; compensation; civil law.

124
Title: Transformational leadership impact on innovative behaviour as perceived by healthcare workers in private hospitals in Jordan
Author: Atef Al-Raoush, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Because of globalization and the ever-changing nature of businesses, particularly healthcare organizations, leaders need to determine the most effective method for bringing change that will help the organization achieve its objectives. Understanding how to encourage followers to reach organizational goals through leadership techniques adequately has become a concern for the healthcare business. Consequently, the significance of transformational leadership can be observed in bringing about that type of change in any business and understanding how to motivate followers to reach corporate goals effectively. As a result, the main objective of this study is to determine the influence of transformational leadership on healthcare workers' innovative behavior in Jordan's private hospitals as perceived by healthcare workers. This research employs a cross-sectional study design involving a quantitative method of data collection. In total, 412 healthcare workers from Jordanian private hospitals were included in the sample. Using simple linear regression analysis, the research findings revealed a significant transformational leadership impact on healthcare workers' innovative behavior; the findings highlight the importance of hospital leaders adopting a transformational leadership style, which is crucial for motivating healthcare employees to engage in innovative behavior, In addition, Hospital leaders should focus on fostering a workplace that encourages innovation, motivates staff to gain new knowledge and skills and gives them chances to transfer their knowledge and skills into practice.

Keywords: Transformational leadership; Leadership style; Innovative behavior; Private hospitals; Healthcare; Jordan.

125
Title: Maxillofacial prosthetics and digital technologies: Cross-sectional study of healthcare service provision, patient attitudes, and opinions
Author: Heba Mohammad Ahmad Hatamlah, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Purpose: Digital technologies are continuously improving the accuracy and quality of maxillofacial prosthetics, but their impact on patients remains unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the impact of facial prosthetics service provision, patients' perception, and digital technology on prostheses construction. Materials and methods: All patients who presented for evaluation and management of facial defects between January 2021 and December 2021 at the ENT clinic were eligible for study enrollment. Patients requiring prosthetic reconstruction of their missing facial parts were included in the study. Forty-five questionnaires were delivered, inquiring about the patients' prosthetic demographics, prosthesis manufacture using 3D technologies, and their perceptions and attitudes. Results: A total of 37 patients responded (29 males, eight females; mean age 20.50 years). The congenital cause was the highest among other causes (p = 0.001) with auricular defects being the highest (p = 0.001). A total of 38 prostheses were constructed and 17 prostheses were retained by 36 craniofacial implants (p = 0.014). The auricular and orbital implants success rates were 97% and 25%, respectively. The implant locations were digitally planned pre-operatively. Digital 3D technologies of defect capture, data designing, and 3D modeling were used and perceived as helpful and comfortable (p = 0.001). Patients perceived their prosthesis as easy to handle, suited them, and they felt confident with it (p = 0.001). They wore it for more than 12 h daily (p = 0.001). They were not worried that it would be noticed, and found it comfortable and stable during various activities (p = 0.001). Implant-retained prosthesis patients were more satisfied with it, and found it easy to handle and stable (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Congenital defects are the main cause of facial defects in the study country. The overall acceptance of maxillofacial prostheses was good, showing high patient perception and satisfaction. Ocular and implant-retained silicone prostheses are better handled, more stable, and the latter is more satisfying than traditional adhesive prostheses. Digital technologies save time and effort invested in manufacturing facial prostheses.

Keywords: computer-aided design; congenital microtia; ear deformities; implantation; maxillofacial prosthesis; prostheses and implants; prosthesis design; silicones; spectrophotometry; surveys and questionnaires; treatment outcome.

126
Title: Development of a Novel, Ecologically Friendly Generation of pH-Responsive Alginate Nanosensors: Synthesis, Calibration, and Characterisation
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Measurement of the intracellular pH is particularly crucial for the detection of numerous diseases, such as carcinomas, that are characterised by a low intracellular pH. Therefore, pH-responsive nanosensors have been developed by many researchers due to their ability to non-invasively detect minor changes in the pH of many biological systems without causing significant biological damage. However, the existing pH-sensitive nanosensors, such as the polyacrylamide, silica, and quantum dots-based nanosensors, require large quantities of organic solvents that could cause detrimental damage to the ecosystem. As a result, this research is aimed at developing a new generation of pH-responsive nanosensors comprising alginate natural polymers and pH-sensitive fluorophores using an organic, solvent-free, and ecologically friendly method. Herein, we successfully synthesised different models of pH-responsive alginate nanoparticles by varying the method of fluorophore conjugation. The synthesised pH nanosensors demonstrated a low MHD with a relatively acceptable PDI when using the lowest concentration of the cross-linker Ca+2 (1.25 mM). All the pH nanosensors showed negative zeta potential values, attributed to the free carboxylate groups surrounding the nanoparticles’ surfaces, which support the colloidal stability of the nanosensors. The synthesised models of pH nanosensors displayed a high pH-responsiveness with various correlations between the pH measurements and the nanosensors’ fluorescence signal. In summation, pH-responsive alginate nanosensors produced using organic, solvent-free, green technology could be harnessed as potential diagnostics for the intracellular and extracellular pH measurements of various biological systems.

Keywords: pH nanosensors; ecologically friendly; MHDs; PDI; fluorophore conjugation; fluorescence intensity

127
Title: Challenges to Female Engineers’ Employment in the Conservative and Unstable Society of Taiz State, Yemen: A Survey Study
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Typically, the underrepresentation of female engineers in education, employment, and leadership is a worldwide social issue. The present study investigates the critical employment challenges and barriers for female engineers in Yemeni’s unstable, conservative, and poor society. The quantitative methodology was based on two constructed questionnaires targeting female engineering graduates from 2012 to 2021 at Taiz University and executive HR managers. The results indicated that the ongoing civil war, employability attributes, personal attitudes, low wages, the conservative society, and marriage–family beliefs are the most apparent barriers to female engineers’ employment in Yemen. Nearly 40% of female engineers are frustrated with not having a job, almost the same percentage stopped seeking a job, and about two-thirds did not register with government employment offices. This study prompts engineering colleges to frequently update their programs to cope with rapid developments and to include employability courses in their curricula. Furthermore, this study advises female engineers to consult experts before enrolling in engineering programs and to practice training and employability skills immediately after graduation. We want to encourage such social studies in Yemen that are concerned with female issues to underpin their participation in society and to make use of unutilized resources.

Keywords: women engineers; gender discrimination; engineering profession; employability skills; workforce

128
Title: Challenges to Female Engineers’ Employment in the Conservative and Unstable Society of Taiz State, Yemen: A Survey Study
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Typically, the underrepresentation of female engineers in education, employment, and leadership is a worldwide social issue. The present study investigates the critical employment challenges and barriers for female engineers in Yemeni’s unstable, conservative, and poor society. The quantitative methodology was based on two constructed questionnaires targeting female engineering graduates from 2012 to 2021 at Taiz University and executive HR managers. The results indicated that the ongoing civil war, employability attributes, personal attitudes, low wages, the conservative society, and marriage–family beliefs are the most apparent barriers to female engineers’ employment in Yemen. Nearly 40% of female engineers are frustrated with not having a job, almost the same percentage stopped seeking a job, and about two-thirds did not register with government employment offices. This study prompts engineering colleges to frequently update their programs to cope with rapid developments and to include employability courses in their curricula. Furthermore, this study advises female engineers to consult experts before enrolling in engineering programs and to practice training and employability skills immediately after graduation. We want to encourage such social studies in Yemen that are concerned with female issues to underpin their participation in society and to make use of unutilized resources.

Keywords: women engineers; gender discrimination; engineering profession; employability skills; workforce

129
Title: Corporate environmental responsibility and corporate performance in Jordan
Author: Ali Ahmad Masadeh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This research sought to assess how Jordan's corporate environment affected corporate performance. The population is made up of (182) businesses. Using simple random sampling, 384 respondents from companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange were given questionnaires as part of a quantitative approach. To confirm the correlations between the variables, the data were analyzed using AMOS; the study relied on the descriptive analytical method. The study's most notable findings demonstrated that corporate environmental performance had a favorable and considerable impact on corporate performance.

Keywords: Corporate environmental, Corporate performance, Amman stock exchange

130
Title: Examining Weight Stigmatization toward Obese Individuals among Nutrition and Dietetic Students using the Attribution Theory
Author: Zaher Qassim Al-Bashabsheh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, negative attitudes toward obese individuals are widespread. Health‑care providers, including dietetics and nutritionists, are not exempt from showing bias toward obese individuals, which may lead to subsequent psychological and health problems. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure the extent of weight bias among dietetics and nutrition students and investigate its determinants. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional survey (316) was conducted among undergraduate dietetics and nutrition students at a large Midwestern University to assess weight bias using the Fat Phobia Scale. Eating competence was measured using the ecSI 2.0 and body dissatisfaction using the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale. Other variables included experience with obesity, media exposure to health and nutrition information, and demographic characteristics. Results: About 36% of the participants had weight bias, 64% were unsatisfied with their body image and none of the participants had eating competence. Media exposure to health information, body dissatisfaction, and eating competence was related to fat phobia (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings highlight that weight bias is an apparent issue among students enrolling in health‑related programs. Considering their future role in clinical and community settings, this issue should be addressed properly

Keywords: Determinants of weight bias, health communication, obesity, weight bias, weight bias in health care

131
Title: Household Food Insecurity and Nutritional Status of PreSchool Children Following Relaxation of COVID-19 Restrictions
Author: Zaher Qassim Al-Bashabsheh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: - Studies found a high prevalence of household food insecurity (HFIS) and malnutrition and an association between them during the movement restriction period of the COVID-19 pandemic. This nutritional status should have improved by now as movement restrictions, including quarantine, have been lifted. Therefore, the goal of this cross-sectional study was to determine the current prevalence of HFIS and malnutrition and their associations and contributing factors among pre-school children (i.e., children under the age of 5 years) following relaxation of the COVID-19 restrictions in Jordan. A sample of 386 children (197 boys and 189 girls) in Irbid, Jordan, were recruited in this study following the simple random sampling method. The levels of HFIS and malnutrition were assessed using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth reference values, respectively. Relevant information were managed and measurements made and employed to calculate four major anthropometric indicators for the sample children (weight to height (WHZ), height to age (HAZ), weight to age (WAZ) and Body Mass Index to age (BMI/A) (BMI/A)). The results of analysis pointed out that prevalence of food insecurity among the sample children was 58.2%, where 19.9% of the kids were experiencing moderate food insecurity and 38.3% were suffering from severe food insecurity. On the other hand, prevalence of malnutrition among those children was 1.81%, where 1.55% of the kids were emaciated and 1.26% were severely emaciated. The results also indicated that mother’s age, number of children in the family, income of the family, monthly expenses on food and beverages and the energy expenses contributed significantly (p<0.05) to food insecurity. Moreover, the study found that HFIS had negative correlations with WHZ (r=−0.272, p=0.000), WAZ (r=−0.193, p=0.000) and BMI/A (r=−0.263, p=0.000) and a positive correlation with HAZ (r=0.041, p=0.00). The study reports high prevalence of HFIS among children under the age of 5 years in Jordan, even after relaxation of the COVID-19 restrictions on mobility. However, prevalence of malnutrition among this group of the population is low. These results spotlight the continued impact of the COVID19 crisis on the financial statuses of households

Keywords: Anthropometry, Household Food Insecurity, Jordan, Malnutrition, Pre-school children.

132
Title: Online reinforcement learning control of robotic arm in presence of high variation in friction forces
Author: Mohammed Bani Younis, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The operation and accuracy of industrial robotic arms can be negatively affected by significant fluctuations in friction forces within their joints, potentially resulting in financial and operational losses. To mitigate these issues, an online model-free reinforcement learning controller specifically designed to handle high variations in joints’ friction forces. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time where reinforcement learning controller is used to handle high friction variations in a robotic arm. Initially, the dynamic equations of the robotic arm are derived, verified and validated to ensure an accurate representation of real-world behaviour. The stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed using the Lyapunov second method. The performance of the proposed controller in terms of position tracking is compared against four commonly used controllers found in literature for similar applications: (i) nonlinear model-based computed torque controller, (ii) proportional-derivative controller, (iii) adaptive iterative learning controller and (iv) radial basis function neural network adaptive controller. Simulation results demonstrate that the reinforcement learning controller outperforms the other controllers in terms of tracking performance, even in the presence of significant variations in joint friction forces.

Keywords: Reinforcement learning, controlrobotic arm, high friction variation, online learning

133
Title: A Critical discourse Analysis of Al Jazeera's reporting of the 2021 Israel Palestine Crisis
Author: Hanan Ali Amaireh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: crisis as reported by Al Jazeera English. In this corpus-based study, 50 news reports were analysed using Van Dijk’s ‘ideological square’as the theoretical framework. The findings suggest that the Al Jazeera reporters reflected their personal ideology in their lexical choices, or lexicalisation, displaying either a positive or negative stance towards the crisis, with Palestinians being the ‘in-group’and Israelis the ‘out-group’. The news reporters also framed the Palestinians—‘us’—as the innocent victims of colonisation, while the ‘other’Israelis were negatively represented as victimisers, racists, and colonisers through an emphasis on syntactic agency. One key observation is that the Al Jazeera reporters emphasised the Palestinian narrative while also radiating personal feelings and attitudes towards the crisis. At the same time, the Israelis were silenced and derogatorily portrayed

Keywords: Al Jazeera network, corpus analysis, critical discourse analysis, ideological square, 2021 Israel-Palestine crisis

134
Title: Social Media Platforms and Political Participation: A Study of Jordanian Youth Engagement
Author: Abdelsalam Mohammad Al-Odat, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The wide adoption of social media platforms has altered how people communicate, obtain information, and participate in society. Regarding political participation, social media has emerged as a novel venue for people to voice their opinions, connect with others who share their viewpoints, and engage in activism. As a result, knowing the effect of social media on political participation is critical, particularly in developing nations like Jordan. This research investigates the moderating effect of certain factors on the impact of social media on political involvement among Jordanian youth. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) approach is used to analyze data from a survey of 334 young people. The findings show that social media has a favorable and considerable impact on political participation. Gender was also discovered to have a strong moderating effect on the relationship between social media use and political participation. According to the analysis, gender positively moderates the effect of the frequency of social media use on political participation, while gender negatively moderates the effect of the purpose of social media usage on political participation. The study sheds light on the significance of social media in young people’s political participation in Jordan, emphasizing the need to take differences in gender into account when developing effective tactics to engage young people in the political processes.

Keywords: Jordan; PLS-SEM; political participation; social media platforms; gender

135
Title: Impact of Processing and Preservation Methods and Storage on Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Activities of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)
Author: Hani Jameel Mohammad Hamad, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Abstract: Very few studies have thus far evaluated the impact of various processing and preservation techniques (blanching, frying, freezing, dehydration, and sun drying) on the levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of okra. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different processing and preservation methods on the levels of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of okra. The ethanolic extracts of each sample were analyzed before and after preservation and storage for a period of three months. The results showed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in total phenolic content (134.1 mg GAE/100g) and DPPH (1-1-diphenyl1-2- pricrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity (IC50 value of 3.0 mg/mL) in blanched okra when compared to fresh okra (86.35 mg GAE/100g and IC50 value of 3.8 mg/mL, respectively). Fresh okra exhibited the highest flavonoid content (105.75 mg QE/100g), while sun-dried okra samples stored for three months exhibited a decrease in total phenolic content (14.45 mg GAE/100g), total flavonoid contents (13.25 mg QE/100g), reducing power activity (23.30%), and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 value of 134.8 mg/mL). The DPPH inhibition activities of all okra treatments showed a significant and positive correlation with the okra phenolic and flavonoid content (r = 0.702 and 0.67, respectively). The reducing power activity (%) of okra treatments exhibited a strong correlation (r) with phenolic contents (r = 0.966), and the correlation with flavonoid contents was 0.459. Generally, different processing and preservation methods of okra revealed that the impact on total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activities, was slightly significant among samples preserved using the same method during storage. In addition, blanched and frozen okra resulted in the highest retention of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities.

Keywords: Okra; phenolic; DPPH; preservation; antioxidant activity

136
Title: Electronic health records perception among three healthcare providers specialties in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
Author: Fuad Abdul Rahman Taha Abdulla, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Worldwide, more health care facilities are adapting the use of electronic health record (EHR). Healthcare providers (HCP) have different perceptions toward the use of EHR. To investigate the perception of three classes of HCP in Saudi Arabia toward using EHR, a questionnaire (targeting satisfaction, easiness, and benefits of use as major perception indicators) was prepared. The questionnaire was assessed by an expert panel for content validity. The questionnaire internal consistency was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. 108 physicians, physical therapists (PT) and respiratory care therapists (RT) from different hospitals in Saudi Arabia answered the questionnaire. Most of respondents perceived EHR systems as beneficial and made work easier. Most HCP were satisfied with the use of EHR, however, with the use of EHR more time was needed to finish the work. Age, experience, job, and job rank of HCP are of different importance in determining responses, perception, and obstacles of using EHR. Moreover, the perception of using EHR seems to be field specific. There is a positive perception among Saudi Arabia HCP about EHR use.

Keywords: Electronic health records, perception, healthcare providers, physical therapy, respiratory care therapist

137
Title: Electronic health records perception among three healthcare providers specialties in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
Author: Fuad Abdul Rahman Taha Abdulla, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Worldwide, more health care facilities are adapting the use of electronic health record (EHR). Healthcare providers (HCP) have different perceptions toward the use of EHR. To investigate the perception of three classes of HCP in Saudi Arabia toward using EHR, a questionnaire (targeting satisfaction, easiness, and benefits of use as major perception indicators) was prepared. The questionnaire was assessed by an expert panel for content validity. The questionnaire internal consistency was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. 108 physicians, physical therapists (PT) and respiratory care therapists (RT) from different hospitals in Saudi Arabia answered the questionnaire. Most of respondents perceived EHR systems as beneficial and made work easier. Most HCP were satisfied with the use of EHR, however, with the use of EHR more time was needed to finish the work. Age, experience, job, and job rank of HCP are of different importance in determining responses, perception, and obstacles of using EHR. Moreover, the perception of using EHR seems to be field specific. There is a positive perception among Saudi Arabia HCP about EHR use.

Keywords: Electronic health records, perception, healthcare providers, physical therapy, respiratory care therapist

138
Title: The mediating role of perceived value on electronic service quality and customer satisfaction: Evidence from Malaysia
Author: Mohammad Khalel Ibrahim Okour, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of customers’ perceived value in mediating the relationship between Electronic Service Quality (ESQ) and customer satisfaction in online banking in Malaysia. The research model is developed based on the disconfirmation theory. Non-probability purposive sampling was adopted for data collection. A cross-sectional technique with a self-administered questionnaire was applied. The unit of analysis in this study is bank customers using online banking in Selangor, Malaysia. One hundred twenty-eight usable responses were received and analyzed. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was applied to analyze the data. Findings showed that the variance in customer satisfaction can be significantly explained via E-service quality dimensions (R2 = 0.52). The ease of use, security, reliability, responsiveness (ESQ) have a significant and positive impact on customer satisfaction among online banking users (p = 0.000). Furthermore, it was found that the customers’ perceived value significantly mediates the relationship between E-service quality and customer satisfaction (p-value = 0.0004). The experimental findings for this paper strengthen and expand the theoretical understanding of the relationship between ESQ, customer perceived value, and customer satisfaction that helps the banks in Malaysia to perform more successfully in the rapid business environment.This study also contributed to diminishing the gap in the ESQ literature between developed and developing countries, especially in the Malaysian context.

Keywords: ESQ, ease of use, security, reliability, responsiveness, online banking

139
Title: The mediating role of perceived value on electronic service quality and customer satisfaction: Evidence from Malaysia
Author: Mohammad Khalel Ibrahim Okour, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of customers’ perceived value in mediating the relationship between Electronic Service Quality (ESQ) and customer satisfaction in online banking in Malaysia. The research model is developed based on the disconfirmation theory. Non-probability purposive sampling was adopted for data collection. A cross-sectional technique with a self-administered questionnaire was applied. The unit of analysis in this study is bank customers using online banking in Selangor, Malaysia. One hundred twenty-eight usable responses were received and analyzed. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was applied to analyze the data. Findings showed that the variance in customer satisfaction can be significantly explained via E-service quality dimensions (R2 = 0.52). The ease of use, security, reliability, responsiveness (ESQ) have a significant and positive impact on customer satisfaction among online banking users (p = 0.000). Furthermore, it was found that the customers’ perceived value significantly mediates the relationship between E-service quality and customer satisfaction (p-value = 0.0004). The experimental findings for this paper strengthen and expand the theoretical understanding of the relationship between ESQ, customer perceived value, and customer satisfaction that helps the banks in Malaysia to perform more successfully in the rapid business environment.This study also contributed to diminishing the gap in the ESQ literature between developed and developing countries, especially in the Malaysian context.

Keywords: ESQ, ease of use, security, reliability, responsiveness, online banking

140
Title: The Role of Business Intelligence adoption as a Mediator of Big Data Analytics in the Management of Outsourced Reverse Supply Chain Operations
Author: Heba Mohammad Ahmad Hatamlah, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The fluctuating and disorganized state of todays global markets is the result of several factors. COVID-19 is an illustration. Supply chain managers should re-evaluate their competitive strategy and leverage big data analytics in light of the rising volatility in demand and supply, rivalry among supply chain partners, and the requirement to deliver tailored goods and services (BDA). Supply chain firms require sophisticated BDA processes and procedures to provide useful insights from big data to better decision-making and supply chain operations, as many leaders in the sector have acknowledged the necessity for improving with data" (SCO). This research gives theoretical justification for the influence that BDA has on SCO.

Keywords: Business Intelligence; Big Data Analytics; Reverse Supply Chain

141
Title: Assessing the Moderating Effect of Innovation on the Relationship between Information Technology and Supply Chain Management:An Empirical Examination
Author: Heba Mohammad Ahmad Hatamlah, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This study examines how innovation (INN) influences the relationship between supply chain management and information technology in Jordan. 211 employees of Jordanian industrial enterprises who work in the Operations Department provided information for the study, which examines this subject. The findings indicate a close connection between information technology and supply chain management. Innovation also dramatically modifies the interaction between supply chain management and information technology. Management help may be the subject of future research.

Keywords: Innovation, Information technology, Supply chain management

142
Title: Influence of Six Weeks Eye Exercise Program on the Severity of Digital Eye Strain Among Primary School Students.
Author: Zaher Qassim Al-Bashabsheh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Literature suggest that treatment of digital eye strain (DES) prescribed by health professionals is not highly effective in reducing the symptoms of it. This demands an additional management to be prescribed along with the current treatment for DES. Exercise is one of the potential emerging additional strategies in the conservative management of DES. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of eye exercise (EE)among primary school students with DES. Methodology: A Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q) score of 6 was used to identify the subjects with DES, followed by ophthalmologist examination. Then, the subjects were allocated into two groups. Group A (n = 15) received conventional therapy (CT) (artificial tears and the 20-20-20 rule) and EE (pencil push-ups, eye-rolling, and palming). Group B (n = 11) received CT. Both groups underwent treatment for a period of six weeks. Before and after treatment, CVS-Q was administered to all participants. Treatment outcome was analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Findings: The results revealedtatistical significance within group A (p = 0.001), and across groups (p = 0.006), and statistical non-significant within group B (p = 0.104).These results suggest that exercise is beneficial in lessening the severity of DES among school students. Conclusion: The EE may be prescribed along with the CT to reduce the severity of DES among primary school students.

Keywords: Digital eye strain, eye exercise, computer vision syndrome, primary school students, severity of eye strain

143
Title: pH-responsive LBL coated silica nanocarriers for controlled release of chlorhexidine
Author: Yazan Mohammad Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: As resistant microbial strains continue to appear, antibiotic-based therapies become less effective. Hence, development of non-antibiotic antimicrobial delivery systems, such as those containing chlorhexidine, is urgently needed for the prevention and treatment of infections. For many biological applications as well as for efficient therapy, controlling the release kinetics of these antimicrobials is crucial. In this study, chlorhexidine was loaded into silica nanoparticles via layer-by-layer (LbL) coating technique. Different polyelectrolytes including polyacrylic acid (PAA), poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA), poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS) were utilized in LbL coatings. Three types of coatings were studied: (1) PSS and PDDA (2) PAA and PAH (3) PSS and PAH. Zeta potential, transmission electron microscope, and a thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the nanoparticles. Acetate buffer pH 5 and PBS pH 7.4 were used as release media to assess the chlorhexidine release from nanoparticles. The chlorhexidine LbL-coated nanoparticles were effective in extending the duration of the medication release to 40 days. Chlorhexidine release was affected by pH of the release media and type of LbL coating, with a greater release at pH 5. PAA and PAH LbL coating had the highest amount of chlorhexidine release. This work illustrates that the LbL coating is an efficient technique for controlling the release of chlorhexidine from silica nanocarriers, with PAA and PAH coat

Keywords: Silica, Nanoparticles, Layer-by-layer, Chlorhexidine, PAH, PAA, PDDA,PSS

144
Title: Automatically generated goal models from requirements: Toward an enhanced formalism.
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The Goal Model (GM) of software is one of the important concepts in the software requirements specification, as it helps in representing the software goals and the relationships between them. Several research works were conducted to generate GM of software from its requirements document. However, the generated GMs merge behavior and soft goals aspects. This merging leaded to tangled and complex generated GMs that are difficult to maintain. The work presented in this paper proposes a GM formalism handling this insufficiency. It is part of an automated GM generating project where it focuses on the target GM. Thus, in this work, different recent techniques that automatically generate GMs are analyzed, their merging, tangling, and complexity of maintenance were stated, and a GM formalism facing these challenges is proposed. It separates goals clearly into behavior goals, soft goals, and constraints aspects. An evaluating case study, which is a partial concrete and real word domain requirements specification, is presented. This separation of concerns leaded to valuable results: complexity reduction, improvement of the understandability, simplicity of maintenance, and raising up the expressiveness power.

Keywords: Goal Model (GM), Behavior goal, Soft goal, Requirement specification, Automated goal model generation, Aspect separation, maintenance

145
Title: BLIND COLOR USER INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS: A UML SPECIFICATION
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Color blindness, or color vision deficiency, is an inability to see the difference between certain colors. Men are more likely to be born with color blindness. Most people with color blindness can't distinguish between certain shades of red and green. Less commonly, people with color blindness can't distinguish between shades of blue and yellow. For that it’s a significant barrier to effective computer use. Several research works dealing with blind color user interfaces are currently conducted. However, requirements engineering for such interfaces is still missing. The work presented in this paper is part of an automated blind color user interface generation project which explores suitable input requirements document notations, simplifies the generating process, and outputs generated color blind user interface. It aims to define functional and nonfunctional requirements for powerful color blind user interface and their UML specification. Thus, different recent techniques that deal with these interfaces are selected according to their relevance and up to date, then they are analyzed, the lack of requirements engineering for these interface was stated, and a solution is proposed. It consists of requirements elicitation and specification with UML notations. A case study evaluating the proposed approach is presented. The obtained results confirm the power and positive impact of such requirements engineering on researches in this domain.

Keywords: color vision deficiency (CVD), color blindness requirements, color blindness user interface

146
Title: Toward Automated Feature Model Generation from UML Use Case and Class Diagrams
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The Feature Model is one of the most important concepts in the Software Product Line development process, as it helps to represent commonalities and variabilities between software products. Several research works are currently conducted to generate feature model of a software product line from its requirements document. However, the generated feature models do not include data and actor aspects which are essential parts of any software product line. The work presented in this paper proposes an approach handling this insufficiency. This approach defines a methodology toward automated feature model generation from requirement documents limited to Unified Modelling Language use case and class diagrams. The use case is specified with a use case description template enhanced with information required for feature model. The class diagram is specified in a textual form obtained by translating the diagram into java programming language. The target generated feature model is enhanced by the introduction of data and actor concepts. An evaluating real case study (quality assurance at Philadelphia University), was used to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approach and obtained results show its practical benefits.

Keywords: Feature model (FM), software production line (SPL), unified modelling language (UML) use case, UML class diagram, feature model generation approach

147
Title: Towards Automated Goal Model Generation from UML Use Case and Swimlane Diagrams
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The Goal Model of software is one of the important concepts in the goal-based requirements engineering. It helps in specifying the software goals and the relationships between them. Several research works were conducted to generate Goal Model of software from its requirements documents. However, the generated Goal Models merge behavior and soft goals into a single model unit. This merging leads to tangled and complex generated Goal Models. Therefore, the maintenance of these models is hard and costly. The work presented in this paper proposes an approach splitting the generated Goal Model into three separated concerns (aspects) models (behavior, soft, and constraints) that facilitate its evolution and maintenance. The proposed approach is semi-automated, taking UML use case and Swimlane diagrams as inputs and generating a separated aspects model GM as output. The separation of Goal Model aspects led to adding new required information in input requirements specification documents. The feasibility of the proposed approach was validated on a concrete business case (Philadelphia University Quality Assurance Agenda). Its implementation was demonstrated through processes programming with algorithms and UML. Its contribution was demonstrated through its comparison with similar works. According to the observed results, this approach could be valuable in any goal-oriented requirements engineering application.

Keywords: Goal model (GM), behavior goal, soft goal, unified modeling language (UML), UML use case diagram, UML swim lane diagram, goal model generation, goal model maintenance, separation of concerns, aspects programming

148
Title: Building Trust in Fintech: An Analysis of Ethical and Privacy Considerations in the Intersection of Big Data, AI, and Customer Trust
Author: Hassan Hamad Aldboush, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract: This research paper explores the ethical considerations in using financial technology (fintech), focusing on big data, artificial intelligence (AI), and privacy. Using a systematic literature review methodology, the study identifies ethical and privacy issues related to fintech, including bias, discrimination, privacy, transparency, justice, ownership, and control. The findings emphasize the importance of safeguarding customer data, complying with data protection laws, and promoting corporate digital responsibility. The study provides practical suggestions for companies, including the use of encryption techniques, transparency regarding data collection and usage, the provision of customer opt-out options, and the training of staff on data-protection policies. However, the study is limited by its exclusion of non-English-language studies and the need for additional resources to deepen the findings. To overcome these limitations, future research could expand existing knowledge and collect more comprehensive data to better understand the complex issues examined.

Keywords: Keywords: fintech; big-data analytics; artificial intelligence (AI); data security and privacy; corporate digital responsibility (CDR); customer trust; ethical considerations

149
Title: Design, Synthesis, Anticancer Screening and Molecular Modelling Studies of Novel Thiazoles
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Science

Abstract: A library of 25 novel thiazole-chalcone hybrids were designed and synthesized. Anticancer activity was conducted using breast (MCF-7 and MDA-AMB-231), colon (Caco-2) and lung (A549 and H1299) cancer cell lines. Compounds (E)-N-(5-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide and (E)-N-(5-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide showed 88.56 % and 84.36 % inhibition and IC50 values of 44.00 μM, 58.88 μM against MCF-7 cell line, respectively. Compounds (E)-N-(5-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide and (E)-N-(5-(3-oxo-3-phenylprop-1-en-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide exhibited 75.83 % and 72.91 % inhibition against MDA-AMB-231 cell line.

Keywords: Anticancer activity, Thiazoles

150
Title: Secure Protocols in VANETs: Availability Considerations
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The vehicular network technology provides several intelligent applications over road networks. These applications are classified into safety, efficiency, and infotainment based on their functionalities. Several studies have been proposed recently in this field where advanced and intelligent applications are developed for connected vehicles. This field of research seeks intensive and dedicated studies to enhance the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the connecting network. In this work, we investigate the availability feature for vehicular network applications. First, we define the denial of service (DoS) attack and its different types. Then, we explore several possible DoS scenarios in the vehicular network environment. After that, we study the previous secure protocols that have generally considered and tackled the DoS attack on the vehicular network. Finally, we remark on the performance and functionalities of previous studies illustrating the main limitations and required work in this field. Thus we recommend future required work and studies in this field.

Keywords: Availability, DoS, VANETs, Applications

151
Title: Design, Synthesis, Anticancer Screening and Molecular Modelling Studies of Novel Thiazoles
Author: Mohammad Jamal Abu Nuwr, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A library of novel benzamide-thiazolyl-chalcone compounds was synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt reaction and spectroscopically characterized using FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, LC–MS, and HR-MS. The synthesized compounds were biologically evaluated using in vitro MTT assay against different cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-AMB-231, Caco-2, A549, and H1299). Amongst all compounds screened, (E)-N-(5-(3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide and (E)-N-(5-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide showed potent anti-proliferation against breast (MCF-7) and colon cancer cell lines reaching 88.56 % and 84.36 % with IC50 values of 44.00 μM and 58.88 μM, respectively. All synthesized compounds exhibited no significant cytotoxicity to normal cells. Structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated the effect of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups on the anticancer activity of the molecules under investigation. This was also corroborated by theoretical DFT studies. Thus, these molecules may serve as potential lead candidates for further development of novel anticancer agents against breast and colon cancers.

Keywords: Anti-cancer · Chalcone · DFT · Molecular modelling · Thiazole

152
Title: Hybrid RNN and metaheuristic approach for modeling and optimization of seismic behavior in thin‑walled rectangular hollow bridge piers
Author: Sawsan Mohammad Alkhawaldeh, Published Year: 2023
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: In seismic structural engineering, there is a significant issue in comprehending the behavior of thin-walled rectangular hollow bridge piers within the context of dynamic phenomena. This research aimed to investigate a complex behavior using recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in conjunction with metaheuristic algorithms, namely the charged system search (CSS) and the black hole algorithm (BHA), to optimize the analysis. The approach used in this study included a rigorous process of data preprocessing to enhance the quality of seismic datasets and the development of an RNN model optimized utilizing the metaheuristics above. The results of the study were significant. The combined use of the RNN-CSS and RNN-BHA models showed enhanced prediction capacities compared to solo RNNs, thereby emphasizing the effectiveness of integrating neural networks with global optimization approaches. In addition, the convergence, diversity, search space, and sensitivity studies provided further insights into the modeling technique’s stability, comprehensiveness, and dependability. In summary, our study signifies a novel shift in seismic structural modeling, emphasizing the prospects of using multidisciplinary approaches to forecast and comprehend the hysteresis characteristics of bridge piers subjected to seismic stresses.

Keywords: Seismic structural engineering · Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) · Charged system search (CSS) · Black hole algorithm (BHA) · Thin-walled rectangular hollow bridge piers · Metaheuristic optimization

153
Title: Reliability and preliminary reference values for the Total Faulty Breathing Scale (TFBS): A cross-sectional study
Author: Madhanagopal Jagannathan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Background and Aims The evaluation of breathing function is crucial in the clinical examination of the respiratory system. The Total Faulty Breathing Scale (TFBS) could be used in clinical settings to quantify the measurement of breathing dysfunction. Reliability data for the TFBS are available for males, but there is a requirement to determine reliability for females and to develop reference values. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the reliability in females and to establish the preliminary reference values for the TFBS. Methods Twenty-three healthy female participants for reliability and 44 (7 male and 37 female) participants for preliminary reference values participated in this cross-sectional study. For both aspects of the study, participants were instructed to breathe at their own pace with no specific instruction. Then each participant was observed carrying out normal breathing for a period of 10 breaths and deep breathing for a period of 10 breaths while being assessed with the TFBS. Results Intrarater and interrater reliability of the TFBS showed a kappa value of 0.769 and 0.751, respectively, indicating substantial agreement for female participants. The preliminary reference categories for TFBS were reported to be normal for 20 (45.5%) participants and mild faulty breathing for the remaining 24 (54.4%) participants. Conclusions The findings of this study suggested that TFBS was reliable to measure breathing function among female participants, and the reference categories may be helpful in the identification of normal and faulty breathing.

Keywords: breathing function, interrater reliability, intrarater reliability, scale.

154
Title: Impact of Aerobic and Strengthening Exercise on Quality of Life (QOL), Mental Health and Physical Performance of Elderly People Residing at Old Age Homes
Author: Madhanagopal Jagannathan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 infection spread rapidly in Malaysia, and elderly people with underlying comorbidities were affected most. The study aimed to determine the effect of exercise on QOL and mental health among elderly people residing in old age homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Out of 178 older adults from old age homes in Kedah and Penang States, 39 respondents undertook aerobic and strengthening exercises. A single group pre-test and post-test study was conducted in one government home and nine private homes in the northern region of Malaysia. The DASS-21 scale was used to assess mental health, and the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to evaluate QOL. Results: After 12 weeks of the exercise programme, scores for the physical domain increased from 53.1 to 61.8, for the psychological domain from 51.8 to 59.3, for the social domain from 53.2 to 60.5 and for the environmental domain from 67.2 to 72.1. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in the depression score from 6.2 to 4.4, the anxiety score from 3.5 to 2.2 and the stress score, from 4.6 to 2.8. Conclusion: Performing aerobic and strengthening exercises for a minimum of 12 weeks may have helped to improve mental health among the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic, and it may also improve the quality of life for those who are residing in old age homes

Keywords: exercise; elderly; quality of life; mental health

155
Title: Navigating the case-based learning multimodal learning environment: a qualitative study across the first-year medical students
Author: Madhanagopal Jagannathan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Case-based learning (CBL) is a popular instructional method aiming to bridge theory and clinical practice. This study aims to explore how the CBL mixed modality curriculum influence students’ learning styles and support-learning strategies. We employed an explanatory sequential mixed method with an initial 44-itemed Felder-Silverman’s Index of Learning Style (ILS) questionnaire distributed to the first-year medical students (n = 142) using convenience sampling to describe preferred learning styles. The qualitative phase utilised three focus group discussions (FGDs) to explore the multimodal learning style exhibited by students in depth. Most students preferred a combination of learning styles reflective, sensing, visual and sequential (i.e., the RSVISeq style, 24.64%) from the ILS analysis. The frequency of learning preference from processing to understanding were well balanced: sequential-global domain (66.2%), sensing–intuitive (59.86%), active–reflective (57%) and visual verbal (51.41%). The qualitative data reported three major themes, namely, Theme 1: CBL mixed modalities navigates learner’s learning style, Theme 2: Learners active learning strategies from the CBL modalities supports learning and Theme 3: CBL modalities facilitating theory into clinical knowledge. Many quantitative and qualitative studies have reported the multimodal learning style of the first-year medical students. Medical students utilise multimodal learning styles to attain clinical knowledge when learning with CBL mixed modalities. Educators’ awareness of the multimodal learning style is crucial in delivering the CBL mixed modalities effectively, considering strategic pedagogical support for students to engage and learn CBL in bridging theoretical knowledge and clinical practice.

Keywords: Case-based learning, Learning style, Medical students, Multimodal learning style

156
Title: Prevalence of Depression, Stress and Anxiety and Impact of Exercise on Mental Health and Physical Performance among Institutionalised Older Adults of Northern Malaysia
Author: Madhanagopal Jagannathan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Ageing population around the world is increasing dramatically and mental health is the second biggest health problem in Malaysia. Avoiding sedentary lifestyle and regular physical activity were important for healthy ageing. This study aimed to determine the exercise and mental health among Malaysian elderly in old age homes. Single group pre-test and post-test design was chosen. Status of mental health was assessed before and after exercise programme by using DASS-21 questionnaire. Single group pre-test and post-test study was conducted among old age homes of northern Malaysia and prevalence of mental health was assessed among 178 elderly and strengthening and aerobic exercises were introduced to 39 respondents with mild to moderate depression. The prevalence of depression was 23.6%, anxiety was 18.5% and stress was 7.9%. Significant improvement in physical performance was identified by the Short Physical Performance battery (SPBB) score at week1, 6, 9 and 12 of the exercise programmes (p= 0.000). Depression, anxiety, and stress scores were significantly reduced after the exercise intervention as compared to scores before the exercise (p= 0.000). Social support and emotional support are required to promote the better exercise habits among the elderly. Regular review of the elderly home facilities and exercise activities will help to support healthy aging and active lifestyle among Malaysian elderly residing in old age homes.

Keywords: Exercise, Mental Health, Elderly, Old age home

157
Title: الجرافيک المتحرک وانماطه وبرمجيات تنفيذه
Author: Anas Ibrahim Al-Najjar, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: قام البحث بدراسة مشکلة الوعي وأدراک الجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في تبسيط المواضيع المعقدة ومدى أهميته لکافة مستخدمي الوسائط المتعددة وأيضا تم دراسة محتوا الرسائل التي توجهها المؤسسات الحکومية والقطاع الخاص سواء في الجوانب الارشادية وتطبيقات الحياة العملية والأکاديمية والعلمية، وتناول البحث مفهوم الجرافيک المتحرک واهميته في معرفة عناصر الجرافيک المتحرک واستخداماتها الفعالة في التصميم الواحد و إدراک أهمية الجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في إيصال المحتوي الفعال في الحياة اليومية کوسيلة اتصال تقوم بتبسيط المفاهيم وبعض القضايا التي تهم المتلقي، کما هدف الى توعية المتلقي بالجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في حياتنا اليومية والعمل على إدراک مکونات وأنواع الجرافيک المتحرک وتقنيات تنفيذه و تناول البحث محتويات الجرافيک المتحرک من عناصر والتي تمثلت في الاشکال والصور والنصوص والايقونات والشعارات والاصوات ومؤثراتها، کما تناول البحث أنواع الجرافيک المتحرک ثنائي وثلاثي الابعاد واهم البرمجيات المستخدمة في عملية التنفيذ.

Keywords: الجرافيک المتحرک الرسوم المتحرکة برامج تصميم الجرافيک المتحرک

158
Title: التنمية المستدامة وقضايا النوع الاجتماعي (المنظور التربوي الجندري)
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: تأتي أهمية الكتاب في ضوء الانتباه لقضايا التنمية المستدامة وجهود الحركات النسوية من أجل التنمية المستدامة. فتببين الدكتورة أماني جرار ان كيف ان المضطلع على جهود الحركة النسوية عموما والجهود التنموية خصوصا ، لابد ان يرى ضرورة وأهمية العمل من أجل المساهمة بشكل أفضل لخدمة قضايا التنمية المستدامة ومراعاة قضايا المرأة محليا ودوليا ، ولعل أهمها اقتراح منظومة بيئية سياسية وثقافية واقتصادية واجتماعية داعمة للمرأة عموما والأردنية خصوصا، من أجل تمكينها من خدمة المجتمع سواء محليا أو عالميا بشكل أفضل. وتأتي هنا أهمية اقتراح منظومة فكرية نسوية إنسانية تقدمية تنويرية تفرض ذاتها للتصدي لكافة أشكال التحيز النوعي في العالم عموما، من هنا كان لابد من التفكير في منظومة تربوية تتواءم مع متطلبات التنمية المستدامة وتلبي احتياجات المرأة من منظور النوع الاجتماعي . من هنا فقد قدم الكتاب محاولة متواضعة لتوضيح قضايا النوع الاجتماعي وقضايا التنمية المتقاطعة معها،حيث قدم استراتيجيات من أجل تفعيل سبل مشاركة المرأة الايجاية والفاعلة لخدمة المجتمع الدولي والمحلي الاردني . تحاول الدكتورة في هذا الكتاب تقديم رؤية علمية للارتقاء بالوعي الجندري ومعالجة قضايا التنمية المستدامة من خلال التركيز على البعد التربوي الذي يمكن المرأة بفاعلية للمساهمة الفضلى في تحقيق أهداف التنمية المستدامة لتمكينها من خدمة المجتمع محليا وعالميا بشكل أفضل. لاسيما وان لتهميش دور المرأة الفاعل في المجتمعات الإنسانية والعربية عموما وفي الاردن خصوصا أثره الواضح على تراجع الشأن التنموي ، الأمر الذي يؤكد أنه لا تنمية مستدامة حقيقية دون تواجد حقيقي فاعل للمرأة وفهم عميق لقضايا المرأة وقضايا النوع الاجتماعي، والذي بدوره لا يتأتى بعيدا عن المنظومة التربوية الداعمة ، باعتبارها الإطار والبنية التحتية التأسيسية للارتقاء بأوضاعها ، من أجل توسيع دائرة مشاركتها ومساهمتها في خدمة المجتمع المحلي والإنساني الدولي على السواء . ويتميز هذا الكتاب بكونه تناول بشكل أكاديمي موضوعي عقلاني فلسفي كافة مشكلات المرأة ذات المدلول التنموي والتي بحث فيها أيضا معضلات تنموية وقضايا جندرية أصيلة ، فقد بحثت الدكتورة جرار في كتابها هذا أسس إدماج المرأة في التنمية ، وكيفية التعامل مع قضايا المرأة بشكل يمكنها أكثر لخدمة الأهداف التنموية . ويقدم الكتاب لرسالة يطرحها على عاتق كل تنموي يهتم بقضايا المرأة والنسوية ، ليسعى الى القضاء على جميع أشكال التمييز ضد المرأة والتصدي لكافة أشكال العنف ضدها ، ليس انطلاقا من كون الفرد نسويا فحسب بل من منظور تربوي وأخلاقي بحت. يتناول الكتاب التنمية المستدامة وقضايا النوع الاجتماعي من المنظورين التربوي والجندري . ويتشكل الكتاب من ثلاثة فصول. يبحث المحور الأول التنمية المستدامة ، فيلقي الضوء على فلسفة التنمية،ويوضح التنمية البشرية في مقارنة مع مفهوم التنمية المستدامة ، ويعالج أشكال النمو والتنمية الاقتصادية ، ثم يستعرض الكتاب النظريات التنموية، والنظريات التفسيرية للتخلف والتنمية ،ونظريات التنمية الكلاسيكية،ونظريات التطور التاريخي ،ونظريات التنمية الاقتصادية . ويتناول الكتاب بعض تجارب التنمية في الوطن العربي، ويركز على الأردن وخصوصيتها لا سيما في تناول المؤشرات الدولية للتنمية ووضع الأردن فيها مقارنة بالدول الأخرى، ويحاول هذا الفصل الإجابة عن السؤال (كيف يمكننا الإستفادة من التجارب العالمية من أجل التخطيط التنموي في الاردن ؟). أما المحور الثاني فيعالج قضايا النوع الاجتماعي عموما بكافة أبعادها ،ليشمل مفهوم الجندر والنوع الاجتماعي،مشيرا إلى النشأة التاريخية وبدايات الوعي بالمفهوم ،بالعودة إلى ركائز مفهوم الجندر،وبيان طبيعة العلاقة بين الرجل والمرأة وتحليلها من حيث توزيع الادوار الاجتماعية. كما تناول هذا الفصل الحركات النسوية تاريخها وأهدافها ونظرياتها . وتطرق أيضا إلى تاريخ التحليل النفسي النسوي،وتاريخ الحركة النسوية والنوع الاجتماعي ونظرياته. فاستعرض الاتجاهات الفكرية وموجات الحركة النسوية،وبين الموجات النسوية في الفكر النسوي الغربي، ثم كيف استفادت النسوية في العالم العربي من تلك التجارب لفهم الجندر والمساواة بين الجنسين. وقد استعرض الكتاب مفاهيم النسوية المختلفة وأهم مصطلحاتها القائمة على تحليل الدور الجنساني ، وتحليل بيانات التعداد من منظور النوع الاجتماعي وعلم النفس النسوي،واستعراض لأهم مفاهيم الجندر الواردة في الأدب النظري . وقد تناول الكتاب مؤشرات التنمية المستدامة في المساواة الجندرية، والآليات والهياكل المؤسسية لتعزيز المساواة بين الجنسين (وفق منهاج عمل بيجين +15)،حيث ألقى الفصل مزيدا من الضوء على آليات التمكين الاقتصادي للمرأة لتساهم بشكل فعال في التنمية الاقتصادية، وكيف تعمل المجتمعات المتقدمة على تمكين المرأة لاسيما في دعمها في الأعمال الريادية . يوضح الكتاب كيف تقوم المؤسسات المدنية والمجتمع المدني على ضمان توفر آليات الدعم والمساندة والمناصرة من أجل المساواة بين الجنسين وتمكين النساء والفتيات ، بدءا من ضمان المساواة في الأجور بين الجنسين ،وكذلك العمل على تحقيق هدف المساواة الجندرية وتقليل او ردم الفجوة الجندرية الاقتصادية. كما تناول هذا الفصل خصائص المرأة القيمية لاسيما المتعلقة بقيم المحبة والسلام وروح التسامح. وعكف الكتاب على توضيح أهمية محاربة ظاهرة العنف والتمييز ضد المرأة وظاهرة التحرش في حقها . من هنا كان لابد من بحث قضايا المرأة المتعلقة بالحماية الاقتصادية والاجتماعية ،والمطالبة بسياسات وبرامج الحماية الاجتماعية للنساء،من أجل إستقلال المرأة ووصولها الى مواقع صنع القرار، وكذلك حماية مشاركتها السياسية، سواء الوزارية أو البرلمانية وغيرها من أشكال المشاركة ،حيث تناول الفصل أيضا مشكلة فجوة الأجور في المواقع القيادية لدى المرأة . وقد تناول هذا الفصل واقع منظمات المرأة العاملة في خدمة المجتمع المحلي مصنفة ضمن مجالات العمل الاجتماعي والاقتصادي والسياسي والثقافي والبيئي وغيرها من مجالات التنمية المستدامة . ومن الجدير بالذكر ان هذا الكتاب يطرح خارطة المشاركة السياسية لنساء العالم ، مسلطا الضوء على أهمية السعي نحو التغيير المنشود للرقي الإنساني في المجتمعات المختلفة . فقد تناول مسألة أهمية التغيير،لاسيما التغيير الاجتماعي. من هنا فقد تناول المحور الثاني هذا موضوع تحليل النوع الاجتماعي، وبحث العلاقة بين التنمية والنوع الاجتماعي . وقد بين الكتاب أيضا النظرة التقليدية لدور المرأة التي أغفلت قدرتها على المشاركة في التنمية. من هنا عكفت الدكتورة أماني جرار في كتابها هذا على تبيان أسس ادماج المرأة في التنمية، واستعراض لأهم قضايا المرأة وتحليل لواقعها،وكيف نعمل على تمكين المرأة من أجل المساهمة في تحقيق الأهداف الإنمائية. يناقش هذا الفصل أيضا كيفية تعزيز القدرات الاقتصادية للمرأة ،ومأسسة وتحفيز الوعي بالنوع الاجتماعي. حيث يحاول الكتاب التصدي لمواجهة فكرة تابعية الجندر من خلال توضيح حقيقة مفاهيم الجندر ،وكيف تسعى المجتمعات المتقدمة إلى تحقيق التوازن بين المرأة والرجل في المؤسسات ومراكز صنع القرار،بحيث تتوخى القضاء على جميع أشكال العنف ضد المرأة أولا ، وإزالة كافة معوقات تحقيق اهداف الجندر العادلة ، بدءأ من التنشئة الاجتماعية وضمان عدم التمييز ضد المرأة، والحد من انتشار الأمية بين الفتيات والنساء لاسيما في الدول النامية. وقد استعرض الكتاب المؤتمرات الدولية والاقليمية ذات الصلة بالمرأة والجندر، وتبيان أهمية الاستفادة منها من أجل بذل مزيدا من الجهود في تحليل المقررات ذات الصلة بالجندر ،مع الاحتفاظ بنظرة نقدية للمؤتمرات الدولية ذات الصلة بالمرأة والجندر،وتناول أيضا حقوق المرأة عبر المواثيق الدولية . وقد ارتكز هذا الكتاب على استخدام اللغة الجندرية ومصطلحات الجندر،وتوضيح إشكالات التطبيق ،من أجل تقويم مفهوم الجندر، وتبيان كل ما يطرحه المؤيدون والمعارضون،وتقويم برامج النوع الاجتماعي،وحسن المتابعة باستخدام آليات النجاح الممكنة . كما بحث الكتاب قضايا المرأة في المجتمعات النامية والأردن بشكل خاص ، مستعرضا جهود اللجنة الوطنية الأردنية لشؤون المرأة ،باعتبارها المرجعية الأولى . ووثق الفصل هذا للمهام والأهداف الأساسية للجنة الوطنية لشؤون المرأة منذ تأسيسها، وكذلك اللجان والشبكات العاملة تحت مظلة اللجنة الوطنية الأردنية لشؤون المرأة. كما استعرض الكتاب منظومة حقوق الإنسان ودور اللجنة الوطنية الاردنية لشؤون المرأة في ذلك ، وأهم الإنجازات المتعلقة بالمرأة الأردنية . وقد تصدى الكتاب أيضا لدراسة أهم المشكلات والتحديات أمام المرأة الأردنية. وقد خصص الكتاب جزءا لتناول التشريعات الخاصة بالمرأة الأردنية . وبحث أيضا في شؤون مشاركتها الإقتصادية ،مستعرضا حركة النضال الوطني للمرأة الأردنية ،وكذلك التقرير الوطني للمملكة الأردنية الهاشمية وفق بيجين +15 ،ودور حكومة المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية في دعم المرأة الأردنية، وكذلك أهم المبادرات في هذا الشأن ، كمبادرة (حتماا) من أجل النهوض بالمرأة الأردنية. وقد عكف الفصل هذا على تناول محاور عمل منهاج بيجين +15 ،مشيرا إلى أهم الإنجازات ، دون إغفال دراسة مشكلات المرأة الأردنية في كافة المجالات. وقد تضمن الكتاب إحصائيات مشاركة المرأة الأردنية،ووصف لحالة البلاد في محور المرأة بشكل تفصيلي وفقا للتقارير الدورية. هذا وقد تناول الكتاب أيضا كيفية تطبيق الإستراتيجية الوطنية للمرأة، ودور الإعلام في دعم قضايا مناصرة المرأة الأردنية، وكيف تعمل التشريعات من أجل تحقيق العدالة في قضايا المرأة ،وكيف يتم تمكينها في مواقع صنع القرار. فتحاول الدكتورة جرار إيجاز لأهم الدروس المستفادة في العمل النسوي ،من أجل تحسين وضع المرأة وتحقيق الرفاه ،وضمان العدالة الاجتماعية للمرأة الأردنية. حيث تناول الكتاب محاربة العنف ضد النساء سواء في الأردن او في الدول النامية عموما. فتناول بحث العنف ضد المرأة اصطلاحا ،وكذلك مشكلة انتهاك حقوقها، وأهمية القضاء على جميع أشكال التمييز ضد المرأة، واتباع سبل العدالة الانتقالية ،وبحث أنظمة العدالة والتقاضي لاسيما من منظور النوع الإجتماعي، وتمكين المرأة من أجل القيادة . ولم تغفل الباحثة د. جرار تناول أثر جائحة كورونا على تحقيق اهداف التنمية المستدامة في الأردن لا سيما من منظور جندري وفقا لأهداف التنمية المستدامة (2030) المتعلقة بقضايا الجندروفقا لما جاء في التقارير الدولية ، فقد تناول الفصل هذا أيضا أدوات تمكين النساء لتحقيق أهداف التنمية المستدامة لعام 2030 . أما المحور الثالث للكتاب بعنوان( المرأة والتعليم) ، فقد تناول موضوع التعليم من منظور جندري ، باعتباره السبيل لدعم المرأة وتمكينها من حقوقها ، لتمتين نقاط القوة وفرصها المتاحة من أجل المساهمة الفاعلة في تحقيق أهداف التنمية المستدامة . وللحديث عن ذلك عكفت الباحثة جرار على توضيح دور المرأة في التعليم في الدول النامية، وتناول المرأة في المنظومة التربوية ،موضحة التغيير المنشود في هذا المجال . وقد تناول الفصل هذا أهم مزايا المرأة المتعلقة بالذكاءات المتعددة والذكاء الوجداني الذي تتميز به .حيث بحث ذلك من منظور النوع الاجتماعي، حيث تناول الفصل بعض أشكال الإبداع لدى المرأة ، وأهم الإنجازات النسوية، مثال ذلك العبقرية والإبداع في الفنون النسوية . كما تناول الكتاب في هذا الجزء العقل النسوي العربي في الحركة النسوية . كما تطرق الكتاب إلى واقع المرأة الأردنية في الأكاديميا وخدمة المجتمع المحلي والدولي، ودورها في البحث العلمي وفي الصناعة والابتكار. وبينت الباحثة كيف تعمل التربية الديموقراطية والتعليم والتمكين السياسي من أجل خدمة المرأة وقضاياها . وأخيرا فقد قدم الكتاب محاولة متواضعة من أجل التخطيط والتطوير التربوي المراعي لقضايا الجندر،وفق رؤية استرراتيجية لتطوير التعليم وفق منظور جندري يراعي المساواة الجندرية القائمة على دعائم الإنسانية وقيمها . وهو بمثابة دراسة أكاديمية في الشأن التنموي والجندري معا ، حيث بينت الدكتورة أماني جرار أنه ليس بالامكان تحقيق ذلك عمليا دون ضمان تربية أخلاقية إنسانية تعتمد أسس المساواة الإنسانية وتتمثل قيم المحبة والسلام والتسامح . وهي بمجملها قيم تراعي عدالة قضايا الجندر واستدامة قضايا التنمية على السواء. فالمرأة هي النظير للرجل وهي المعين والنصير والداعم ، تتساوى معه بالضرورة الإنسانية من منطلق العقلانية والموضوعية ، فيكمل كل منهما الآخر ، وهي تتشارك معه في المسؤولية والدور الإنساني البناء . فهي الأرض المحبة والطبيعة الخلاقة المبدعة ، بها تتلاقى مكنونات النفس الخلاقة من أجل تحقق إبداع مخيلتها وتجسد إنسانيتها الكامنة . فالمرأة والرجل متساويان في الحقوق والكرامة الإنسانية ، يتكاملان ويشتركان في عهد إنساني دائم . وهكذا فقد عرض الكتاب لكيفية احترام الاختلاف والتنوع الانساني ومراعاة قضايا التنمية المستدامة ، وذلك بالاهتمام بشؤون المرأة وقضايا الجندر والنوع الاجتماعي ، من خلال التركيز على التعليم الجيد للمرأة وتنمية الوعي بقضايا الجندر ، بشكل يراعي قضايا الإنسانية والتنمية المستدامة عموما . https://petra.gov.jo/Include/InnerPage.jsp?ID=206010&lang=ar&name=news https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=701824991176541

Keywords: التنمية المستدامة ، النوع الاجتماعي ، التربية

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Title: الإعلان الالکتروني في وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي
Author: Anas Ibrahim Al-Najjar, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: عني البحث الحالي بدراسة الإعلان الإلکتروني فى وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي، وحدد الباحث مشکلة البحث التى ترکزت من خلال السؤال التالي ( ما هي أثار الإعلان الإلکتروني في وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي على المستهلک و الشرکات المنتجة )، وانطوت أهمية البحث فى التعريف بالإعلان بشکل عام و الإعلان الإلکتروني بشکل خاص وأثره على المستهلک و المنتج، و تحددت أهداف البحث فى دراسة تطور الإعلان من الإعلان المطبوع إلى الإعلان الإلکتروني أثارهم على عملية التسويق والاستهلاک وذلک خلال الفترة المحددة 2000-2021م حول العالم، وجاءت الدراسة محددة فى عدة نقاط أساسية للتعريف بالأثار الناتجة من الزخم الإعلاني المتراکم من خلال وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي الذى أحدثت ثورة في عالم الاستهلاک الضروري وغير الضروري على کافة فئات المجتمع الواحد ومدى إسهام ذلک في تغيير اتجاهات السوق والاستهلاک مما أدى إلى توجيه الفئات غير المقتدرة على عمليات الشراء التي لا يحتاجونها أساساً وانعکست الفائدة فقط على الشرکات المصنعة والمروجة للسلع والخدمات، وتناول البحث أيضا دور الإعلان في عملية التسويق و أثره على الاستهلاک، و تضمنت الدراسة تطور الإعلان من الإعلان المطبوع إلى الإعلان في الإنترنت وکذلک أهمية وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي وهي الوسيط الأکثر انتشاراً وتداولاً بين فئات المجتمع الواحد وفي جميع أنحاء العالم، وتأسيساً لما سبق وثقت الدراسة ببعض الرسومات البيانية التي تشير إلى أعداد مستخدمي وسائل التواصل الاجتماعى ، وتضمن البحث استخلاص النتائج التى کان من أهمها عملية التحول من الإعلان المطبوع إلى الإعلان المرئي الذى سار في تسارع هائل وأثار مدوية ذات مخاطر تعرضت لها کافة فئات المجتمع بسبب الزخم الإعلاني الذي يتفاعلون مع محتواه الإعلاني لمنتجات وخدمات هم بغنى عنها.

Keywords: الإعلان الإلکتروني الإعلان المرئي الإعلان في وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي

160
Title: المشاركة السياسية والتنمية المستدامة (المنظور الجندري)
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: صدر للدكتورة أماني غازي جرار الأستاذة المشاركة في جامعة فيلادلفيا كتاب بعنوان (المشاركة السياسية والتنمية المستدامة - المنظور الجندري). يأتي الكتاب الصادر عن دار صايل للنشر في ثلاثة فصول. يتميز هذا الكتاب بكونه تناول بشكل موضوعي فلسفي كافة مشكلات المرأة ،لاسيما المشكلات السياسية التي تعاني منها المرأة ، والتي لها الأثر الأكبر على استحقاقات التنمية. فقد ركز الكتاب على بحث أهم المعضلات والتحديات في الشأن السياسي والقانوني والثقافي التي تؤثر في مستوى مشاركة المرأة سياسيا . بتناول الكتاب قضايا المشاركة السياسية وقضايا التنمية المستدامة من منظور جندري،فيبحث المحور الأول التنمية المستدامة، حيث يلقي الضوء على فلسفة التنمية، ويوضح التنمية البشرية في مقارنة مع مفهوم التنمية المستدامة، ويعالج أشكال النمو والتنمية الاقتصادية . وقد استعرض الكتاب النظريات التنموية، والنظريات التفسيرية للتخلف والتنمية، ونظريات التنمية الكلاسيكية، ونظريات التطور التاريخي، ونظريات التنمية الاقتصادية. ويتناول الكتاب بعض تجارب التنمية في الوطن العربي، ويركز على الأردن وخصوصيتها لا سيما في تناول المؤشرات الدولية للتنمية ووضع الأردن فيها مقارنة بالدول الأخرى، وينهي هذا الفصل في محاولة الإجابة عن السؤال (كيف ممكن الإستفادة في ضوء التحليل والتجارب من أجل التخطيط التنموي في الأردن؟) أما المحور الثاني فيعالج قضايا النسوية والنوع الاجتماعي وعلاقتها بالتنمية المستدامة عموماً وبكافة أبعادها، ليشمل توضيح مفهوم الجندر، والنوع الاجتماعي، مشيراً إلى النشأة التاريخية وبدايات الوعي بالمفهوم، بالعودة إلى ركائز مفهوم الجندر، وبيان طبيعة العلاقة بين الرجل والمرأة وتحليلها من حيث توزيع الادوار الاجتماعية. كما تناول هذا الفصل الحركات النسوية تاريخها وأهدافها ونظرياتها. وتطرق الفصل إلى تاريخ التحليل النفسي النسوي، وتاريخ الحركة النسوية والنوع الاجتماعي ونظرياته. فاستعرض الاتجاهات الفكرية وموجات الحركة النسوية، وبين الموجات النسوية في الفكر النسوي الغربي، ثم كيف استفادت النسوية في العالم العربي من التجارب لفهم الجندر والمساواة بين الجنسين. وقد استعرض الكتاب مفاهيم النسوية المختلفة وأهم مصطلحاتها، والقائمة على تحليل الدور الجنساني، وتحليل بيانات التعداد من منظور النوع الاجتماعي وعلم النفس النسوي، وكذلك النظريات النفسية النسوية، وصولاً لطرح أهم مفاهيم الجندر الواردة في الأدب النظري. وقد بحث الفصل هذا في مؤشرات التنمية المستدامة في المساواة الجندرية، والآليات والهياكل المؤسسية لتعزيز المساواة بين الجنسين (وفق منهاج عمل بيجين +15). وقد ألقى الفصل مزيداً من الضوء على آليات التمكين الاقتصادي للمرأة لتساهم بشكل فعال في التنمية الاقتصادية، وكيف تعمل المجتمعات المتقدمة على تمكين المرأة لا سيما في دعمها في الأعمال الريادية. فتقوم المؤسسات المدنية والمجتمع المدني على ضمان توفر آليات الدعم والمساندة والمناصرة من أجل المساواة بين الجنسين وتمكين النساء والفتيات، لا سيما بضمان المساواة في الأجور بين الجنسين. إضافة إلى العمل على تحقيق هدف المساواة الجندرية وتقليل أو ردم الفجوة الجندرية الاقتصادية. وقد بحث الفصل أيضاً خصائص المرأة لا سيما المتعلقة بقيم المحبة والسلام وروح التسامح. وعكف الكتاب على توضيح أهمية محاربة ظاهرة العنف والتمييز ضد المرأة. كما بحثت قضايا المرأة المتعلقة بالحماية الاقتصادية والاجتماعية، والمطالبة بسياسات وبرامج الحماية الاجتماعية للنساء، من أجل استقلال المرأة ووصولها إلى مواقع صنع القرار، وكذلك حماية مشاركتها السياسية، سواء الوزارية أو البرلمانية وغيرها من أشكال المشاركة،وكذلك فجوة الأجور في المواقع القيادية لدى المرأة. وقد وضح الفصل هذا واقع منظمات المرأة العاملة في خدمة المجتمع المحلي مصنفة ضمن مجالات العمل الاجتماعي والاقتصادي والسياسي والثقافي والبيئي وغيرها من مجالات التنمية المستدامة. وتناول الكتاب أيضاً خارطة المشاركة السياسية لنساء العالم ، مسلطاً الضوء على أهمية السعي نحو التغيير المنشود للرقي الإنساني في المجتمعات المختلفة. فقد تناول مسألة أشكال التغيير، ولاسيما التغيير الاجتماعي، حيث تم تحديد أسباب وأشكال مشكلة عدم التوازن في العلاقة بين الرجل والمرأة. من هنا فقد تناول هذا المحور موضوع تحليل النوع الاجتماعي، وقد بحثت العلاقة بين التنمية والنوع الاجتماعي. وقد بين الكتاب النظرة التقليدية لدور المرأة التي أغفلت قدرتها على المشاركة في التنمية. وقد عكف الكتاب على تبيان أسس إدماج المرأة في التنمية، واستعراض لأهم قضايا المرأة، وكيف نعمل على تمكين المرأة من أجل المساهمة في تحقيق الأهداف الإنمائية. فناقش هذا الفصل أيضاً كيفية تعزيز القدرات الاقتصادية للمرأة، ومأسسة وتحفيز الوعي بالنوع الاجتماعي. حيث يسعى الكتاب إلى التصدي لمواجهة فكرة تابعية الجندر من خلال توضيح حقيقة مفاهيم الجندر، وكيف تسعى المجتمعات المتقدمة إلى تحقيق التوازن بين المرأة والرجل في المؤسسات ومراكز صنع القرار، بحيث تتوخى القضاء على جميع أشكال العنف ضد المرأة أولاً، وإزالة كافة معوقات تحقيق اهداف الجندر، بدءاً من التنشئة الاجتماعية وضمان عدم التمييز ضد المرأة، والحد من انتشار الأمية بين الفتيات والنساء. كما استعرض الكتاب المؤتمرات الدولية والاقليمية ذات الصلة بالمرأة والجندر، والاستفادة منها لا سيما من أجل بذل مزيد من الجهود في تحليل المقررات ذات الصلة بالجندر، مع الاحتفاظ بنظرة نقدية للمؤتمرات الدولية ذات الصلة بالمرأة والجندر، وكذلك حقوق المرأة عبر المواثيق الدولية. وقد ارتكز هذا الفصل على استخدام اللغة الجندرية ومصطلحات الجندر، وتوضيح إشكالات التطبيق، من أجل تقويم مفهوم الجندر، وتبيان كل ما يطرحه المؤيدون والمعارضون، وتقويم برامج النوع الاجتماعي، وحسن المتابعة باستخدام آليات النجاح الممكنة. وقد تناول الكتاب قضايا المرأة في المجتمعات النامية والأردن بشكل خاص، فعرض جهود اللجنة الوطنية الأردنية لشؤون المرأة، واعتبارها المرجعية الأولى. ووضح الفصل هذا المهام والأهداف الأساسية للجنة الوطنية لشؤون المرأة منذ تأسيسها، وكذلك اللجان والشبكات العاملة تحت مظلة اللجنة الوطنية الأردنية لشؤون المرأة. وقد استعرض الكتاب منظومة حقوق الإنسان ودور اللجنة الوطنية الأردنية لشؤون المرأة في ذلك، وأهم الإنجازات المتعلقة بالمرأة الأردنية. كما تصدى الكتاب لدراسة أهم المشكلات والتحديات أمام المرأة الأردنية، وواقع المرأة. وقد خصص الكتاب جزءاً لتناول التشريعات الخاصة بالمرأة الأردنية. وبحث أيضاً في شؤون مشاركتها الإقتصادية، مستعرضاً حركة النضال الوطني للمرأة الأردنية، وكذلك التقرير الوطني للمملكة الأردنية الهاشمية وفق بيجين +15، ودور حكومة المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية في دعم المرأة الأردنية، وكذلك أهم المبادرات في هذا الشأن، كمبادرة (حتماا) من أجل النهوض بالمرأة الأردنية. وقد عكف الفصل هذا على تناول محاور عمل منهاج بيجين +15، وتوضيح أهم الإنجازات دون إغفال دراسة مشكلات المرأة الأردنية في كافة المجالات. وقد تضمن الكتاب إحصائيات مشاركة المرأة الأردنية، ووصف لحالة البلاد في محور المرأة. تناول الكتاب كيفية تطبيق الإستراتيجية الوطنية للمرأة، ودور الإعلام في دعم قضايا مناصرة المرأة الأردنية، وكيف تعمل التشريعات من أجل تحقيق العدالة في قضايا المرأة، وكيف يتم تمكينها في مواقع صنع القرار. هذا ويحاول الكتاب تقديم إيجازا لأهم الدروس المستفادة في العمل النسوي، من أجل تحسين وضع المرأة وتحقيق الرفاه الشخصي لها، وضمان العدالة الاجتماعية للمرأة الأردنية. فقد بحث الفصل أيضاً في محاربة العنف ضد النساء سواء في الأردن أو في الدول النامية. فتناول بحث العنف ضد المرأة اصطلاحاً، وكذلك انتهاك حقوقها، وأهمية القضاء على جميع أشكال التمييز ضد المرأة، واتباع سبل العدالة الانتقالية، وبحث أنظمة العدالة والتقاضي لا سيما من منظور النوع الاجتماعي، وتمكين المرأة من أجل القيادة. وقد تطرق الكتاب أيضاً إلى أثر جائحة كورونا على تحقيق أهداف التنمية المستدامة في الأردن لا سيما من منظور جندري وفقاً لأهداف التنمية المستدامة (2030) المتعلقة بقضايا الجندر. وحاول الفصل هذا أيضاً تبيان أدوات تمكين النساء لتحقيق أهداف التنمية المستدامة لعام 2030. أما المحور الثالث للكتاب بعنوان (المشاركة السياسية وتمكين المرأة في العمل السياسي)، فقد تناول موضوع المشاركة السياسية وكيفية تمكين المرأة سياسيا والعمل على تمكينها في مجالات العمل السياسي . ويشير هذا الفصل الى أهمية تعليم المرأة من أجل تمكينها ورفع درجة وعيها السياسي والاجتماعي. ويوضح هذا المحور أيضا أهمية ودور التسامح الذي تتميز به المرأة عموما في توسيع درجة وعيها السياسي لتمكينها من المشاركة السياسية بفعالية وتميز. ولم يغفل هذا الفصل دراسة أثر طبيعة العقل العربي والعقل النسوي تحديدا على شكل ودرجة ونوعية المشاركة السياسية للمرأة وكيف يؤثر ذلك على استقلال المرأة ووصولها الى مواقع صنع القرار. وقد جرى استعراض لواقع ومستوى مشاركة المرأة عالميا ومحليا في الشأن العام والانتخابات البرلمانية والبلدية وفي العمل الحكومي . ولم يغفل الفصل هذا الإشارة الى مشاركة المرأة بمواقعها ومجالاتها المختلفة في خدمة المجتمع المحلي والدولي أيضا . ولفهم ذلك كان لابد من الاطلاع على مشكلة فجوة الأجور أمام المرأة في المواقع القيادية . حيث تضمن خارطة المشاركة السياسية للمرأة عالميا وكذلك عربيا وأردنيا . وذلك بعد تقييم أوضاع المرأة في المجالات المختلفة والسياسية بشكل خاص ، وتطوير سياسات وبرامج الحماية للمرأة من كافة أشكال التمييز ضدها لاسيما العنف الانتخابي والسياسي الممارس مجتمعيا ضدها نظرا للبيئة المعاشة والتي تتباين من حيث مستوى الديموقراطية . وقد تنبه الكتاب الى أهمية التخطيط المراعي للجندر وأثر ذلك على تحسين برامج التخطيط ،وبالتالي أثر ذلك على الإصلاح السياسي ،ودور ذلك بالضرورة على تحسين مستويات ونوعية مشاركة المرأة وتطوير وتعديل التشريعات القانونية لتمكين المرأة سياسيا. ولإلقاء الضوء على ذلك فقد جرى دراسة اوضاع المرأة ايضا في السياسة والاعلام والمجتمع المحلي ومنظمات المجتمع المدني والدولي . وهنا كان لابد من فهم دور منظومة حقوق الانسان عالميا وعربيا ومحليا اردنيا ، وأثر ذلك على زيادة الوعي النسوي بأهمية مشاركة المرأة السياسية . وهكذا فقد بحثت الدكتورة جرار في أسس مشاركة المرأة السياسية من أجل المساهمة أيضا في جهود التنمية المستدامة. فالدارس لمنجزات التنمية المستدامة يجدها تتقاطع وتتكامل معا من خلال تفعيل المشاركة السياسية وعقد الشراكات على المستوى الدولي. فلا يفوت التنمويين والمفكرين والمهتمين بقضايا الجندر أن تمكين المرأة وتعزيز مشاركتها السياسية هو الطريق نحو مأسسة مشاركتها في جهود التنمية المستدامة . فالكتاب يعمل على التوعية بأهمية المشاركة السياسيسة من أجل التنمية وتوضيح أهم قضايا الجندر ودور المرأة في المشاركة السياسية وذلك من خلال تعزيز تواجدها في مواقع صنع القرار لتمكينها سياسيا من خدمة قضاياها التنموية على المستوى المحلي والعالمي. وأخيراً ألقت الدكتورة جرار في كتابها هذا الضوء على أهمية المشاركة السياسية وقضايا النوع الاجتماعي والتنمية المستدامة التي لا تتحقق دون ضمان تطبيق أسس المساواة والعدالة وتمكين للمرأة ومشاركتها السياسية. https://www.ammonnews.net/article/693197

Keywords: مشاركة سياسية ، مرأة ، تنمية مستدامة

161
Title: التربية الوطنية (مقاربة شاملة )
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: صدر حديثا عن دار الصايل للنشر والتوزيع كتاب: التربية الوطنية :مقاربة شاملة . أشرف على إعداده الدكتور سعيد التل ، والكتاب مراجعة وإخراج وتحرير الدكتورة أماني جرار ،وعدد من الأساتذة المختصين. يتناول الكتاب الذي جاء في 387 صفحة موضوع التربية الوطنيّة وفق مقاربة شاملة. ويبين الكتاب إنّ واقع حياتنا في عالمنا المعاصر يتتطلّب أن يُعدَّ المواطن إعدادًا عامًّا وشاملاً ليكون مواطنًا صالحًا،وأن المواطنة الصالحة تطوّر مفهومها ومعارفها واتّجاهاتها وقيمها ومثلها لتشمل التربية الأسريّة والاجتماعيّة والوطنيّة والقوميّة والدينيّة والإنسانيّة وغيرها لتحكم وتنظّم سلوك المواطن في جميع مواقف الحياة ومجالاتها ومناحيها. ومن الجدير بالذكر إنَّ أغلب الكتب التي وضعت في التربية الوطنيّة باللغة العربية، إذا لم يكن كلّها، قد اقتصرت على جانب واحد من جوانب التربية الوطنيّة وهو الجانب المعروف في الأدب التربوي بالتربية المدنيّة. ومع أنّ هذا الجانب مهمٌّ جدًّا، إلا أنَّ هناك جوانب أخرى لا تقلّ عنها أهميّة ناقشها هذا الكتاب بشمولية. وقد أشرف على هذا الكتاب وحرّره وألّفه مجموعة من الأكاديميين من أصحاب الاختصاص والخبرة التعليمية الغنيّة. ويؤمل أن يوفّق هذا الكتاب في تحقّق الهدف الذي وضع من أجله، ألا وهو الإسهام الفاعل في إعداد المواطن الصالح في الوطن العربي. تضمن الكتاب 18 فصلا ،فجاء ليشمل التربية بأشكالها، الشخصية والأسرية، والصحية،والفنية،والأخلاقية،والاجتماعية والاقتصادية والبيئية ،والمهنية ،والمدنية والسياسية،والقومية،والدينية،والتربية الإعلامية والمعلوماتية،وكذلك التربية الإنسانية . وقد تم تخصيص فصل خاص بالدولة الأردنية ،وآخر خصص للحديث عن الأمة العربية والوطن العربي. https://www.ammonnews.net/article/697065 https://orobanews.com/2022/08/03/د-أماني-جرار-من-جامعة-فيلادلفيا-تصدر-كت/

Keywords: تربية وطنية

162
Title: الخصائص الفيزيائية لزمن نطق صوت الراء /r/ المضطرب نطقيا بنوع التشويه في العربية وعدد دورات التكرار المتشكلة معه - دراسة مقارنة بين الراء السليم والراء المعتل
Author: Ibtisam Hussein Jamil, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: يعنى هذا البحث بدراسة الخصائص الفيزيائية لزمن إنتاج صوت الراء في العربية وعدد دورات التكرار المتشكلة معه في حالتي النطق السليم المعتل وركز على نوع واحد من أنواع الاضطرابات النطقية وهو نوع "التشويه" الناتج عن أسباب وظيفية( ) ، واكتفى من التشويه بثلاثة أشكال هي الأكثر شيوعا لدى فئة البالغين وهي: "التشويه الخلفي التقريبي" و "التشويه الخلفي المكرر" و " التشويه اللثوي المنكفئ". اعتُمِد عشرة مرضى من كل شكل من أشكال التشويه، بالإضافة إلى عشرة مشاركين ينتجون الراء بصورته السليمة. تم تسجيل المادة الصوتية باستخدام جهازCSL ثم حُللت الخصائص الصوتية باستخدام برنامج Praat. وقد أجريت المقارنة بين الراء السليم في سياق صائت الفتحة في مواضع كَلِميّة متنوعة، وفي وضعَيِ التضعيف والسكون، لتُدرس بذلك التمايزات الفيزيائية بين الراء السليم من جانب، والراء المشوَّه من جانب آخر.

Keywords: معدل زمن النطق، الراء السليم، الراء المعتل، التشويه، دورة التكرار

163
Title: Influence of Symmetry Theory on Understanding the Qur'anic Ayas *
Author: Ibtisam Hussein Jamil, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Symmetry theory is a well-known mathematical theory, which has been applied to physics and chemistry as well as other scientific disciplines. Here, we apply the symmetry theory to language in general and to the Holy Quran in specific. We argue that there is ample evidence for this theory in language such as the X-bar theory, parallelism and the mirror image derivation across languages. We show that there are vertical as well as horizontal types of symmetry, some of which have a line of symmetry while others have a virtual point. The data is analyzed from a semantic angle with some reference to syntax. We focus on symmetry at the Aya (verse) level. The paper found that symmetry can help interpret Ayas of similar wording or similar structures. It also found that symmetry theory presents a solution for the either-or-pause Ayas. Further, it showed how symmetry theory help solve ellipsis in the Holy Quran. Finally, the paper revealed that there are symmetry-less sentences that communicate propositions without the need for a symmetrical image.

Keywords: Symmetry Theory, the Holy Quran, X’ Theory, Semantics, Discourse Analysis

164
Title: The Dubet poem by Ibn Farkoun Al-Andalusi - An analytical semiotic study Dr. Omar Faris Al-Kafaween
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This study examines the poem of Ibn Farkoun Al-Andalusi, which he composed using the dubite quartet (Dubet ) template. He wrote it in response to the request of Prince Yusef the third, Prince of Granada in 811 AH.In the poem, he praisedthe princeand highlighted his qualities and virtues. The study dealt with the poem from an analytical semiotic perspective, by deciphering it and revealing all its connotations , which lead to the purpose of praise. It also briefly touched upon the poet and his life, the poem and its occasion, and then examined semiotics in the poem, its concepts and different aspects. The study applied the semiotic approach to the components of poetic composition, through its beginning and structure, and the elements it contained, such as symbols, images, intertextuality, rhythm, etc.The conclusion was then linked to the rest of the components of the poem .

Keywords: Ibn Farkoun Al-Andalusi, Dubet, Semiotics.

165
Title: Influence of Symmetry Theory on Understanding the Qur'anic Ayas *
Author: Ibtisam Hussein Jamil, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Symmetry theory is a well-known mathematical theory, which has been applied to physics and chemistry as well as other scientific disciplines. Here, we apply the symmetry theory to language in general and to the Holy Quran in specific. We argue that there is ample evidence for this theory in language such as the X-bar theory, parallelism and the mirror image derivation across languages. We show that there are vertical as well as horizontal types of symmetry, some of which have a line of symmetry while others have a virtual point. The data is analyzed from a semantic angle with some reference to syntax. We focus on symmetry at the Aya (verse) level. The paper found that symmetry can help interpret Ayas of similar wording or similar structures. It also found that symmetry theory presents a solution for the either-or-pause Ayas. Further, it showed how symmetry theory help solve ellipsis in the Holy Quran. Finally, the paper revealed that there are symmetry-less sentences that communicate propositions without the need for a symmetrical image.

Keywords: Symmetry Theory, the Holy Quran, X’ Theory, Semantics, Discourse Analysis

166
Title: The Moderating Effect of Corporate Governance on Corporate Social Responsibility and Information Asymmetry: An Empirical Study of Chinese Listed Companies
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and information asymmetry (IA), as well as the role of corporate governance (CG) as a moderating factor. This paper employs panel data regression analysis. The CSR disclosure scores are collected from the HX database by way of Hexun.com, while financial data are collected from the CSMAR database. The association between CSR and information asymmetry is examined using generalised least squares (GLS). The current evidence shows that CSR disclosure reduces information asymmetry. In addition, the findings illustrate that particular aspects of CG moderate the relationship between CSR and information asymmetry. More specifically, board size, CEO duality, and board independence positively affect the bid–ask spread. Moderation by the independence board positively affects the relationship between CSR disclosure and information asymmetry. Since the sample is derived from large Chinese companies, the results should be supported by samples obtained from the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and, subsequently, comparisons with the entire stock market. In future studies, we recommend conducting research using other variables as proxies regarding information asymmetry. The current study extends existing research on CSR and IA by adding both board characteristics and ownership concentration variables as moderating variables.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility; information asymmetry; corporate governance; disclosure; China

167
Title: Conciseness, Financial Disclosure, and Market Reaction: A Textual Analysis of Annual Reports in Listed Chinese Companies
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the conciseness and complexity of financial disclosures and market reactions, using the annual reports of Chinese-listed B-share companies over the period 2006–2018. We employed a set of statistical methods that were derived from other fields, such as computational and event studies, in order to derive the English annual reports of Chinese-listed companies, as well as to obtain other key financial indicators from the CSMAR database. Markets react significantly to increased report length, which means that managers that present poor returns with manipulated financial reports could be hiding poor returns. Additionally, the findings of this study are robust to additional tests that use alternative proxies. Furthermore, the results of this paper reinforce the hypothesis that the readability of financial reports affects financial market response. The results indicate that more complex financial reports are correlated with lower current returns and negatively affect the expectations of future returns. For the purposes of avoiding the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on the results, we utilized data up to 2018. In light of this circumstance, we recommend that future research be conducted that compares results from before and after the coronavirus pandemic. The findings of our study have important implications for regulators, managers, and investors. Investors should obtain relevant information through annual reports; therefore, the importance of style is less relevant. Managers should be encouraged to write their annual reports more concisely. This study concluded that these reports are significant outputs of firms, and are widely read by investors. The study also provides empirical evidence of market reactions that are associated with readability and earnings, as well as with surprise earnings; thus, the complexity of annual reports provided by a variety of investors, using computational and event analysis, should be reduced.

Keywords: conciseness; annual report; textual analysis; future returns; Chinese-listed companies; Fog index

168
Title: In Vitro Evaluation of Smart Pellets as Intelligent Drug Delivery Systems
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The small intestine is where most conventional oral formulations are mostly absorbed. This restricts their usage in the treatment of several colon disorders since the medicine must act topically at the site of inflammation. This opened the door for the development of an intelligent colonic drug delivery system, which enhanced therapeutic effectiveness, decreased dosing frequency and potential side effects, and increased patient acceptance—particularly in situations where enemas or other topical preparations might not be sufficient to treat inflammation alone. This study's primary goal was to develop a smart medication delivery system based on pH-sensitive polymeric formulations made using a free-radical bulk polymerization technique. In the formulations, 5-amino salicylic acid was used as a model drug and Capmul MCM C8 was added to increase bioavailability. The in vitro swelling and release evaluation showed that the developed system may be able to delay drug release under conditions that mimic the stomach and small intestine while triggering it under conditions that mimic the colon, indicating its potential usefulness as a smart colonic drug delivery system.

Keywords: Mesalamine; Intelligent Delivery; Sustainable Development; Smart Polymers; Colon Disorders

169
Title: Productive and Sustainable H2 Production from Waste Aluminum Using Copper Oxides-Based Graphene Nanocatalysts: A Techno-Economic Analysis
Author: Yara Hilal Haddad, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Hydrogen has universally been considered a reliable source of future clean energy. Its energy conversion, processing, transportation, and storage are techno-economically promising for sustainable energy. This study attempts to maximize the production of H2 energy using nanocatalysts from waste aluminum chips, an abundant metal that is considered a potential storage tank of H2 energy with high energy density. The present study indicates that the use of waste aluminum chips in the production of H2 gas will be free of cost since the reaction by-product, Al2O3 , is denser and can be sold at a higher price than the raw materials, which makes the production cost more efficient and feasible. The current framework investigates seven different copper oxide-based graphene nanocomposites that are synthesized by utilizing green methods and that are well-characterized in terms of their structural, morphological, and surface properties. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-layer graphene (MLG) are used as graphene substrates for CuO and Cu2O NPs, respectively. These graphene materials exhibited extraordinary catalytic activity, while their copper oxide composites exhibited a complete reaction with feasible techno-economic production. The results revealed that the H2 production yield and rates increased twofold with the use of these nanocatalysts. The present study recommends the optimum reactor design considerations and reaction parameters that minimize water vaporization in the reaction and suggests practical solutions to quantify and separate it. Furthermore, the present study affords an economic feasibility approach to producing H2 gas that is competitive and efficient. The cost of producing 1 kg of H2 gas from waste aluminum chips is USD 6.70, which is both economically feasible and technically applicable. The unit cost of H2 gas can be steeply reduced by building large-scale plants offering mass production. Finally, the predicted approach is applicable in large, medium, and small cities that can collect industrial waste aluminum in bulk to generate large-scale energy units.

Keywords: graphene; copper oxide; waste aluminum; hydrogen production; nanocomposites; catalysts

170
Title: Machine Learning for Prediction Models to Mitigate the Voltage Deviation in PV-Rich Distributed Network
Author: Mohammed Bani Younis, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The voltage deviation is one of the most crucial power quality issues that occur in electrical power systems. Renewable energy plays a vital role in electrical distribution networks due to the high economic returns. However, the presence of photovoltaic systems changes the nature of the energy flow in the grid and causes many problems such as voltage deviation. In this work, several predictive models are examined for voltage regulation in the Jordanian Sabha Distribution Network equipped with photovoltaic farms. The Augmented Grey Wolf Optimizer is used to train the different predictive models. To evaluate the performance of models, a value of one for Regression Factor and a low value for Root Mean Square Error, Mean Square Error, and Mean Absolute Error are used as standards. In addition, a comparison between nineteen predictive models has been made. The results have proved the capability of Linear Regression and the Gaussian Process to restore the bus voltages in the distribution network accurately and quickly and to solve the shortening in the voltage dynamic response caused by the iterative nature of the heuristic algorithm.

Keywords: Distribution Network, PV Farms, Voltage Regulation, Predictive Models, Augmented Grey Wolf, Optimizer

171
Title: A Nonparametric Approach Trained by Metaheuristic Algorithm for Voltage Regulation in the Electrical Distribution Network Equipped by PV Farm
Author: Mohammed Bani Younis, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The integration of the Photovoltaic (PV) systems changes the nature of the power flow in the network and causes several problems such as voltage deviation which is considered the most important issue in electrical power systems. In this work, the Augmented Grey Wolf Optimization (AGWO) algorithm and advanced nonparametric models are proposed to mitigate the voltage deviation in the distribution network equipped with a PV farm. In the first stage of the work, the AGWO calculates the optimal value of reactive power for Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) to relieve the voltage deviation. This stage is applied only in the offline mode due to the delay in AGWO's dynamic response caused by its iteration process in the computation. Therefore, in the second stage, the data set of AGWO is used to train the nonparametric models; Linear Regression (LR) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to mitigate the voltage deviation quickly in the online mode. Jordanian Sabha Distribution Network (JSDN) equipped by PV farm is considered and modeled as a real case study to validate the proposed approach. The results showed the superior ability of the proposed integrated approach to handle the voltage deviation quickly and accurately.

Keywords: Voltage Deviation; STATCOM; Optimization Algorithm; Load Flow Calculation; Prediction Algorithms.

172
Title: Economic evaluation of induction motor based on motor’s nameplate data and initial cost
Author: Mohammed Bani Younis, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This paper presents a practical approach to calculate the total owning cost (TOC) of a three-phase Induction Motor, which is based on the motor’s nameplate data and the purchasing price. The economic evaluation is performed considering both the induction motor electrical energy losses and its amortized annual capital cost. The proposed technique consists of three stages, where the total power losses are determined analytically in the first stage. The load loss factor (LSF) is statistically obtained to determine the total energy losses in the second stage. In the third stage, the economic evaluation was conducted. The obtained results show that the proposed approach is a helpful tool for the decision-maker when comparing the received offers from different vendors and finding the answer to the question of which offer has less TOC. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated through a numerical example and software using MATLAB was performed. Results and conclusions have been summarized and discussed.

Keywords: Annuity factor; Motors evaluation; Motors losses; Owning cost

173
Title: Productive and Sustainable H2 Production from Waste Aluminum Using Copper Oxides-Based Graphene Nanocatalysts: A Techno-Economic Analysis
Author: Firas Abdullah Obeidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Hydrogen has universally been considered a reliable source of future clean energy. Its energy conversion, processing, transportation, and storage are techno-economically promising for sustainable energy. This study attempts to maximize the production of H2 energy using nanocatalysts from waste aluminum chips, an abundant metal that is considered a potential storage tank of H2 energy with high energy density. The present study indicates that the use of waste aluminum chips in the production of H2 gas will be free of cost since the reaction by-product, Al2O3, is denser and can be sold at a higher price than the raw materials, which makes the production cost more efficient and feasible. The current framework investigates seven different copper oxide-based graphene nanocomposites that are synthesized by utilizing green methods and that are well-characterized in terms of their structural, morphological, and surface properties. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-layer graphene (MLG) are used as graphene substrates for CuO and Cu2O NPs, respectively. These graphene materials exhibited extraordinary catalytic activity, while their copper oxide composites exhibited a complete reaction with feasible techno-economic production. The results revealed that the H2 production yield and rates increased twofold with the use of these nanocatalysts. The present study recommends the optimum reactor design considerations and reaction parameters that minimize water vaporization in the reaction and suggests practical solutions to quantify and separate it. Furthermore, the present study affords an economic feasibility approach to producing H2 gas that is competitive and efficient. The cost of producing 1 kg of H2 gas from waste aluminum chips is USD 6.70, which is both economically feasible and technically applicable. The unit cost of H2 gas can be steeply reduced by building large-scale plants offering mass production. Finally, the predicted approach is applicable in large, medium, and small cities that can collect industrial waste aluminum in bulk to generate large-scale energy units.

Keywords: graphene; copper oxide; waste aluminum; hydrogen production; nanocomposites; catalysts

174
Title: Role of Media Literacy in Confronting Hate Speech among Jordanian Society Components
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This study aims at analyzing the role of media literacy in confronting hate speech among Jordanian society components. For that, the researcher adopted the descriptive as well as the analytical approaches. The study investigates the direct role of media literacy with its four capabilities (Access, Understanding, Evaluating & analyzing, and Interacting capabilities) in confronting hate speech among the components of Jordanian society. The study sample consisted of 3000 Jordanian individuals from all Jordanian governorates, and various social, cultural, and economic levels. A questionnaire was developed as a tool for data collection. The study concluded that the third variable (media literacy evaluating and analyzing capabilities) came with the highest percentage of (87%); reflecting that the evaluating and analyzing capabilities are the cornerstone of understanding the media content and the media discourse concerning exposure to hate speech. Data also show that there are statistically significant influences at the level of significance (α≤0.05) of media literacy (access, understanding, evaluating and analyzing, and interacting capabilities) in confronting hate speech among the components of Jordanian society.

Keywords: Media Literacy; Hate Speech; Society; Jordan; Quantitative

175
Title: Developing Distance Learning in Jordanian Schools: Institutional and Teachers' Responsibilities during COVID-19 Pandemic
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This study aimed at analyzing the institutional and teachers' responsibilities during "the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of" developing distance learning in Jordanian Schools. For that, the researcher adopted the methodology of descriptive-analytical statistics by applying the questionnaire (study tool) to a sample size of (450) teachers from schools in Jordan. Results show that all the study independent variables have a positive impact on the process of developing distance learning from the point of view of teachers in Jordan. And respondents agreed with a high-level rate that the development of the distance learning process requires the integration of the roles between teachers, students, parents, officials, and concerned authorities. Results emphasized that the interaction of teachers with the distance learning process is the main guarantor of the success of this process.

Keywords: Distance Learning, Institutional Responsibilities, Teachers’ Responsibilities, COVID-19 Pandemic, Jordanian Schools

176
Title: Pathways to Mainstream and Advance the Concept of Global Citizenship Education in the Arab World
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The importance of this study is manifested by events that have highlighted deteriorating human conditions, particularly deteriorating, and in particular what we are witnessing in third world countries, where the Arab world, which is facing a lot of setbacks on several levels. The study is important in terms of humanitarian efforts strive to achieve the global foundations of education, particularly in light of the challenges and changes taking place in the Arab region and bottlenecks. As the topic of global citizenship education subject rises at the political level of the Muslim world, the challenging question that arises rises is: Are the concepts of global citizenship education viable and practical in the Arab world?

Keywords: Global Citizenship Education , Arab World

177
Title: Autoregressive Modeling based ECG Cardiac Arrhythmias’ Database System
Author: Qadri Jamal Al-Hamarsheh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This article proposes an ECG (electrocardiography) database system based on linear filtering, wavelet transform, PSD analysis, and adaptive AR modeling technologies to distinguish 19 ECG beat types for classification. This paper uses the Savitzky-Golay filter and wavelet transform for noise reduction, and wavelet analysis and AR modeling techniques for feature extraction to design a database system of AR coefficients describing the ECG signals with different arrhythmia types. In the experimental part of this work, the proposed algorithm performance is evaluated using an ECG dataset containing 19 different types including normal sinus rhythm, atrial premature contraction, ventricular premature contraction, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, and other types from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The simulation is performed in a MATLAB environment.

Keywords: AR modeling, arrhythmia classification, Discrete Wavelet Transform, ECG noise analysis, power spectral density (PSD).

178
Title: Robust Vehicular Communications Using the Fast-Frequency-Hopping-OFDM Technology and the MIMO Spatial Multiplexing
Author: Qadri Jamal Al-Hamarsheh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication is one of the more emerging technologies in the 21st century from either the comfortable transportation or safer transportation point of view. Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication has one crucial factor, which is the huge information to be shared among vehicles, such as the position, the road data. In such situation, the accurate information sharing process is the most important factor in order to make the vehicles operating in the most feasible way. This work proposes a more robust vehicle communication system to make the existing vehicle transportation system more efficient. In this paper, we propose a fast frequency hopping orthogonal frequency division multiplexing to mitigate the Doppler spread effect on our previously published clustering benchmark. This benchmark contains both of a clustering weighting factor based stage and a multiparallel processing stage. This is in addition to modify the PHY layer of the existing IEEE 802.11p standard in order to impose Multiple Input Multiple Output for higher throughput purposes. The results show a noticeable stability compared to our previously published work. Furthermore, the results are almost exceeds the achieved results from the Lower-ID Distributed Clustering Algorithm (DCA) from both of the speed and communication range

Keywords: OFDM, Fast Frequency Hopping, V2V, Doppler Spread, Clustering Algorithm, MIMO.

179
Title: Human COQ4 Deficiency: Delineating the clinical, metabolic and neuroimaging phenotypes
Author: Tawfiq Froukh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Background: Human coenzyme Q4 (COQ4) is essential for coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis. Pathogenic variants in COQ4 cause childhood-onset neurodegeneration. We aimed to delineate the clinical spectrum and the cellular consequences of COQ4 deficiency. Methods: Clinical course and neuroradiological findings in a large cohort of paediatric patients with COQ4 deficiency were analysed. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines were performed. Results: We characterised 44 individuals from 36 families with COQ4 deficiency (16 newly described). A total of 23 different variants were identified, including four novel variants in COQ4. Correlation analyses of clinical and neuroimaging findings revealed three disease patterns: type 1: early-onset phenotype with neonatal brain anomalies and epileptic encephalopathy; type 2: intermediate phenotype with distinct stroke-like lesions; and type 3: moderate phenotype with non-specific brain pathology and a stable disease course. The functional relevance of COQ4 variants was supported by in vitro studies using patient-derived fibroblast lines. Experiments revealed significantly decreased COQ4 protein levels, reduced levels of cellular CoQ10 and elevated levels of the metabolic intermediate 6-demethoxyubiquinone. Conclusion: Our study describes the heterogeneous clinical presentation of COQ4 deficiency and identifies phenotypic subtypes. Cell-based studies support the pathogenic characteristics of COQ4 variants. Due to the insufficient clinical response to oral CoQ10 supplementation, alternative treatment strategies are warranted.

Keywords: early diagnosis; epilepsy; nervous system diseases; pediatrics.

180
Title: 2. A reverse genetics and genomics approach to gene paralog function and disease: Myokymia and the juxtaparanode.
Author: Tawfiq Froukh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The leucine-rich glioma-inactivated (LGI) family consists of four highly conserved paralogous genes, LGI1-4, that are highly expressed in mammalian central and/or peripheral nervous systems. LGI1 antibodies are detected in subjects with autoimmune limbic encephalitis and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes (PNHSs) such as Isaacs and Morvan syndromes. Pathogenic variations of LGI1 and LGI4 are associated with neurological disorders as disease traits including familial temporal lobe epilepsy and neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 1 with myelin defects, respectively. No human disease has been reported associated with either LGI2 or LGI3. We implemented exome sequencing and family-based genomics to identify individuals with deleterious variants in LGI3 and utilized GeneMatcher to connect practitioners and researchers worldwide to investigate the clinical and electrophysiological phenotype in affected subjects. We also generated Lgi3-null mice and performed peripheral nerve dissection and immunohistochemistry to examine the juxtaparanode LGI3 microarchitecture. As a result, we identified 16 individuals from eight unrelated families with loss-of-function (LoF) bi-allelic variants in LGI3. Deep phenotypic characterization showed LGI3 LoF causes a potentially clinically recognizable PNHS trait characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, distal deformities with diminished reflexes, visible facial myokymia, and distinctive electromyographic features suggestive of motor nerve instability. Lgi3-null mice showed reduced and mis-localized Kv1 channel complexes in myelinated peripheral axons. Our data demonstrate bi-allelic LoF variants in LGI3 cause a clinically distinguishable disease trait of PNHS, most likely caused by disturbed Kv1 channel distribution in the absence of LGI3.

Keywords: KCNA; LGI3; bi-allelic variation; facial myokymia; gene and genome instability; genomic rearrangement; multi-exonic CNV; neurobiology of disease; peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes; potassium channel complexes.

181
Title: Compression behavior of confined circular reinforced concrete with spiral CFRP rope with different slenderness ratios
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rineng.2022.10

Keywords: Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP); strengthening; reinforced concrete beam; flexure; debonding

182
Title: Modeling of confined circular RC columns using artificial neural network and finite element method
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: A Finite Element (FE) and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model were developed to investigate the effect of different parameters, such as the space between stirrups and the diameter of longitudinal steel, on the behavior of circular Reinforced-Concrete (RC) columns confined with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets using the actual hoop rupture strain of the FRP. The FE model was accomplished using the FE software ABAQUS 6.13 which incorporates the nonlinear behavior of concrete material, the bilinear stress–strain curve of steel, and the linear elastic behavior of FRP. It was found that there is a good agreement between the FE model (FEM) results and the experiments. The ANNs were trained and tested on an experimental database from the literature. The database contains the experimental ultimate FRP strain, and the ultimate load results of 92 FRP confined circular RC columns. The ANN results agreed well with the FEM results. The neural network results were carried out to develop empirical equations to predict the effective rupture FRP strain and the ultimate load for circular confined RC columns with R2 of 0.912 and 0.932, respectively. The proposed equations estimate the ultimate strain from experimental works of the FRP with a small error up to 20%. In addition, the predicted results from the proposed equations exhibited good accuracy compared with previous guidelines and experimental and FE results from the literature, and it can be easily used in engineering designs as well.

Keywords: Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)ConcreteColumnConfinementFinite element analysis (FEA)Artificial neural network (ANN)

183
Title: Experimental and analytical investigation of using externally bonded, hybrid, fiber-reinforced polymers to repair and strengthen heated, damaged RC beams in flexure
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Purpose – This study aims to conduct an experimental study and finite element model (FEM) to investigate the flexural behavior of heat-damaged beams strengthened/repaired by hybrid fiber-reinforced polymers (HFRP). Design/methodology/approach – Two groups of beams of (150 3 250 3 1,200) mm were cast, strengthened and repaired using different configurations of HFRP and tested under four-point loadings. The first group was kept at room temperature, while the second group was exposed to a temperature of 4008C. Findings – It was found that using multiple layers of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiberreinforced polymer (GFRP) enhanced the strength more than a single layer. Also, the order of two layers of FRP showed no effect on flexural behavior of beams. Using a three-layer scheme (attaching the GFRP first and followed by two layers of CFRP) exhibited increase in ultimate load more than the scheme attached by CFRP first. Furthermore, the scheme HGC (heated beam repaired with glass and carbon, in sequence) allowed to achieve residual flexural capacity of specimen exposed to 4008C. Typical flexural failure was observed in control and heat-damaged beams, whereas the strengthened/repaired beams failed by cover separation and FRP debonding, however, specimen repaired with two layers of GFRP failed by FRP rupture. The FEM results showed good agreement with experimental results. Originality/value – Few researchers have studied the effects of HFRP on strengthening and repair of heated, damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams. This paper investigates, both experimentally and analytically, the performance of externally strengthened and repaired RC beams, in flexure, with different FRP configurations of CFRP and GFRP.

Keywords: Hybrid fiber-reinforced polymers, Heat, Repairing, Strengthening, RC beams, Flexure, Glass FRP, Carbon FRP

184
Title: BehaviBehaviour of heat damaged repaired reinforced SCC cantilever beam using carbon fiber reinforced polymer rope
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This study investigated the behaviour of self-compacted cantilever concrete (SCCC) beams exposed to high temperature and repaired using near surface mounted carbon fibre (NSM-CFRP) rope. Nine (SCCC) beam specimens with cross sectional area of (150 mm × 150 mm) and 750 mm in length were constructed and tested. Seven beam specimens were exposed to 400 °C and 500 °C for two hours and then repaired using NSM-CFRP rope. The tested SCCC specimens were divided into four groups to study the effect of temperature, location and number of NSM rope. Results showed that using NSM-CFRP rope as retrofitting or strengthening techniques at the sides of cantilever beam had a significant effect on load-deflection behaviour compared to other techniques. It was concluded that using NSM-CFRP rope as retrofitting or strengthening techniques depend on the number of rope and position of ropes. Moreover, increasing the number of ropes to two at top of the beam had a limited impact upon load capacity. On the other hand, rehabilitated (SCC) beams specimens damaged by heat up to 500 °C for 2 h with two CFRP ropes at sides and top surface exhibited load capacity about 197% and 101%, respectively, as control specimen.

Keywords: Heat damagedstrengtheningrepairingcarbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP)stress-strainself-compacted cantilever concrete (SCC)

185
Title: Experimental and numerical study of strengthening and repairing heat-damaged RC circular column using hybrid system of CFRP
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This study aims to investigate the behavior of heat damaged reinforced concrete RC circular column considering effect of heat and repair technique. Six RC circular column with diameter of 185 mm and 800 mm in height were cast, heated at 400 °C and 600 °C for 3 h, strengthened and repaired with hybrid system of CFRP and then tested under concentric load. Also, four RC circular columns from Obaidat et al. (2020) [3] were used for comparison. Complementary to the experimental investigation, a finite element modeling (FEM) was developed to simulate the compression behavior of heat damaged RC circular column. The result showed that specimens strengthened and repaired with hybrid system SC-H23-COMP and (DC-H400-COM and DC-H600-COM) exhibited the higher improvement in compression capacity about 100.4% and (86.7% and 53%), receptively, more than the control specimens. It was concluded that as the temperature increases the strength of the specimen decreases. Moreover, the strength in repaired specimens by hybrid system increased by 64.9% and 48.85% more than unheated control RC column specimen CC-COM. Finally, the FEM results provides a good agreement with experimental results and the model capable to predict the compression behavior of the RC circular column.

Keywords: Heat damagedStrengtheningRepairingCarbon fiber reinforced polymers CFRPHybrid systemStress-strainRC circular columnFinite element model

186
Title: Evaluating social sustainability in Jordanian residential neighborhoods: a combined expert-user approach
Author: Alaa Saleh Al Shdiefat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Neighborhood sustainability has assumed a pole position as a topic of interest in the past years, addressed through dedicated strands of most of the globally adopted sustainability rating tools, such as LEED and BREEAM. Considering sustainability assessment, the social sustainability of neighborhoods assumes a certain particularity, not only in terms of its high context dependence pertaining to its locality, but in its means of assessment as well, with people as a key potential evaluator for matters that are not bound to quantitative aspects. This research focused on developing a framework for rating social sustainability in neighborhoods, utilizing a quantitative approach that builds upon insights obtained by an extended group of experts and end users. It combines the Delphi and AHP techniques along with the case study approach to develop a framework that suits the Jordanian local context, where a particular neighborhood, Dahiyat Al Hussein in Amman, is used for validation. The research revealed that rating the social sustainability of neighborhoods is not only highly guided by the local context it addresses, but is also reliant on the level of understanding and adoption of the concept itself as attained by the people.

Keywords: Social sustainability, Neighborhood, Rating system, Delphi technique, AHP, Local context

187
Title: How ethical leadership and incivility tolerance affect intention to sabotage at Jordanian universities
Author: Shadi Mohammad Al-Tahat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract. Purpose. The mediating roles of tolerance to workplace incivility between ethical leadership and intention to sabotage was investigated in Jordan. The study relied on social learning theory (Bandura, 1977; 1986), reinforcement theory (Skinner, 1938), and conservation of resource theory (Hobfoll, 1988). Methodology. A quantitative method with survey questionnaires were distributed to 376 employees in different universities, public and private, in northern Jordan to obtain data. The following variables were part of the self-administered survey developed for the purposes of this study: “ethical leadership” (10-item scale); “tolerance to workplace incivility” (8-item scale); “the intention to sabotage” (8-item scale). Data were analyzed with SPSS and structural equation modeling with AMOS. Findings. A significant and direct negative relationship was found between ethical leadership and employees’ intention to sabotage in Jordan. Also, a significant and direct positive effect was found between tolerance to workplace incivility and employees’ intention to sabotage, which indicates that tolerance to incivility increases intention to sabotage in Jordan. Further, it was found that tolerance to workplace incivility partially mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and employees’ intention to sabotage in Jordan. Value of results. This paper improves the understanding of workplaces in Jordanian universities and facilitates the creation of healthier work environments. The findings also contribute to several fields of organizational research, such as: human resources management, organizational development, and organizational behavior. The findings have many theoretical and practical implications, which were discussed.

Keywords: ethical leadership, intention to sabotage, organizational culture, tolerance to workplace incivility, Jordan.

188
Title: Obstacles Avoidance for Mobile Robot Using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller
Author: Mustafa Awwad Al Khawaldeh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Intelligent mobile robots need to deal with different kinds of uncertainties in order to perform their tasks, such as tracking predefined paths and avoiding static and dynamic obstacles until reaching their destination. In this research, a Robotino® from Festo Company was used to reach a predefined target in different scenarios, autonomously, in a static and dynamic environment. A Type-2 fuzzy logic controller was used to guide and help Robotino® reach its predefined destination safely. The Robotino® collects data from the environment. The rules of the Type-2 fuzzy logic controller were built from human experience. They controlled the Robotino® movement, guiding it toward its goal by controlling its linear and angular velocities, preventing it from colliding obstacles at the same time, as well. The Takagi–Sugeno–Kang (TSK) algorithm was implemented. Real-time and simulation experimental results showed the capability and effectiveness of the proposed controller, especially in dealing with uncertainty problems.

Keywords: mobile robot; Robotino®; static and dynamic obstacle-avoidance environment; Type-2 fuzzy logic controller; wireless sensor network

189
Title: Macro-engineering Design for an Artificial Lake in Southeastern Jordan
Author: Mustafa Awwad Al Khawaldeh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Water situation in Jordan has become very critical. A feasible solution is to desalinate water drawn from Gulf of Aqaba (GoA). Another problem that Jordan faces is the very short coastline. These two problems can be solved by developing an artificial lake in south Jordan. The water from the lake can be desalinated while the lake itself provides a badly needed coastline. This work presents a macro-engineering design for the proposed lake; The proposed project is named "Red Sea-Jafer Basin Conduit (RSJBC)"; it involves a pipeline connecting GoA at the Red Sea with Jafer Basin (JB) in the south-eastern desert, where the topography of the region is exploited to develop an artificial Lake. Using multiple pumping stations, seawater will be pumped from GoA to JB though a 220 km long pipeline. After constructing the project, it will take three years to fill-up the Lake. Once it is filled, the pumping rate is reduced from 51 to 30 m3/s. However, based on fresh water needs, a volume of up to 21 m3/s can be desalinated. The suggested pipeline route has a curved path (CP) to avoid the mountains if it were to go straight path (SP). A comparison is conducted between CP and SP, where it was found that CP offers the lowest development cost for RSJBC, given fabric pipe is used. More specifically,a pipe diameter of 6 m enables total development cost of 2.74 B$, with corresponding annual operating cost of 306 M$.

Keywords: Artificial Lake, Jordan desert, Gulf of Aqaba, Jafer Basin, Water transport, Pumping station, Gravity flow, Seawater pipeline, Seawater pumping, Tourist attraction development.

190
Title: A three-stage PSO-based methodology for tuning an optimal PD-controller for robotic arm manipulators
Author: Mustafa Awwad Al Khawaldeh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Six degrees-of-freedom (DoF) robot manipulators are dynamically coupled and highly nonlinear multi-variable systems. Calculating the optimal joint angles from the operational space (i.e. inverse kinematics) and designing the optimal joint controller parameters are two important research topics. This paper proposes a 3-stage Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based methodology for solving the inverse kinematics and optimizing the controller parameters. In the first stage, a PSO algorithm solves the inverse kinematics problem by minimizing a multi-objective cost function in the operational space (i.e. the error in the end-effector’s pose) and therefore finds the optimal joint angles. In the second stage, polynomial functions generate the desired trajectory between the initial and final poses in the joint space. Finally, a second PSO algorithm tunes six proportional-derivative (PD) controllers, one for each joint, to track the desired trajectory by minimizing another multi-objective cost function in the joint space. Two case studies, based on six DoF Puma 560, validate the performance of the proposed methodology. Simulation results show that the proposed 3-stage methodology provides fast and accurate results as the PSO algorithms are effective in solving the inverse kinematics problem and tuning the optimal PD parameters.

Keywords: Robot manipulator; Nonlinear dynamics; Optimization, PSO algorithm, Inverse kinematics, Trajectory tracking, PD-control, PUMA 560

191
Title: Guidance, Navigation and Control System for Multi-Robot Network in Monitoring and Inspection Operations
Author: Ahmad Jobran Al-Mahasneh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This work focuses on the challenges associated with autonomous robot guidance, navigation, and control in multi-robot systems. This study provides an affordable solution by utilizing a group of small unmanned ground vehicles and quadrotors that collaborate on monitoring and inspection missions. The proposed system utilizes a potential fields path planning algorithm to allow a robot to track a moving target while avoiding obstacles in a dynamic environment. To achieve the required performance and provide robust tracking against wind disturbances, a backstepping controller is used to solve the essential stability problem and ensure that each robot follows the specified path asymptotically. Furthermore, the performance is also compared with a proportional- integral-derivative (PID) controller to ensure the superiority of the control system. The system combines a low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU), a GNSS receiver, and a barometer for UAVs to generate a navigation solution (position, velocity, and attitude estimations), which is then used in the guidance and control algorithms. A similar solution is used for UGVs by integrating the IMU, a GNSS receiver, and encoders. Non-linear complementary filters integrate the measurements in the navigation system to produce high bandwidth estimates of the state of each robotic platform. Experimental results of several scenarios are discussed to prove the effectiveness of the approach.

Keywords: backstepping controller; complementary filters; motion planner; navigation system; ground robot; aerial robot; inspection and monitoring

192
Title: Online Model-Free Reinforcement Learning for Output Feedback Tracking Control of a Class of Discrete-time Systems with Input Saturation
Author: Ahmad Jobran Al-Mahasneh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: In this paper, a new model-free Model-Actor (MA) reinforcement learning controller is developed for output feedback control of a class of discrete-time systems with input saturation constraints. The proposed controller is composed of two neural networks, namely a model-network and an actor network. The model-network is utilized to predict the output of the plant when a certain control action is applied to it. The actor network is utilized to estimate the optimal control action that is required to drive the output to the desired trajectory. The main advantages of the proposed controller over the previously proposed controllers are its ability to control systems in the absence of explicit knowledge of these systems’ dynamics and its ability to start learning from scratch without any offline training. Also, it can explicitly handle the control constraints in the controller design. Comparison results with a previously published reinforcement learning output feedback controller and other controllers confirm the superiority of the proposed controller.

Keywords: Reinforcement learning, adaptive control, nonlinear control, optimal control.

193
Title: Novel General Regression Neural Networks for Improving Control Accuracy of Nonlinear MIMO Discrete-Time Systems
Author: Ahmad Jobran Al-Mahasneh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: In this article, a novel version of the general regression neural network (Imp_GRNN) is developed to control a class of multiinput and multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear discrete-time (DT) systems. The improvements retain the features of the original GRNN along with a significant improvement of the control accuracy. The enhancements include developing a method to set the input-hidden weights of GRNN using the inputs recursive statistical means, introducing a new output layer and adaptable forward weighted connections from the inputs to the new layer, and suggesting an interval-type smoothing parameter to eradicate the need for selecting the parameter beforehand or adapting it online. Also, controller stability is studied using Lyapunov's method for DT systems. The controller performance is tested with different simulation examples and compared with the original GRNN to verify its superiority over it. Also, Imp_GRNN performance is compared with an adaptive radial basis function network controller, an adaptive feedforward neural-network (NN) controller, and a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, where it demonstrated higher accuracy in comparison with them. In comparison with the formerly proposed control methods for MIMO DT systems, our controller is capable of producing high control accuracy while it is model free, does not require complex mathematics, has low computational complexity, and can be utilized for a wide range of DT dynamic systems. Also, it is one of the few methods that aims to improve the control system accuracy by improving the NN structure.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, MIMO communication, Control systems, Adaptation models, Dynamical systems, Adaptive systems

194
Title: Polymeric-Based Formulation as Smart Drug Delivery System
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Conventional oral formulations are mainly absorbed in the small intestine. This limits their use in the treatment of some diseases associated with the colon, where the drug has to act topically at the inflammation site. This paved the way for the development of a smart colonic drug delivery system, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy, reducing the dosing frequency and potential side effects, as well as improving patient acceptance, especially in cases where enemas or other topical preparations may not be effective alone in treating the inflammation. In healthy individuals, it takes an oral medication delivery system about 5 to 6 h to reach the colon. A colonic drug delivery system should delay or prohibit the medication release during these five to six hours while permitting its release afterward. The main aim of this study was to develop a smart drug delivery system based on pH-sensitive polymeric formulations, synthesized by a free-radical bulk polymerization method, using different monomer and crosslinker concentrations. The formulations were loaded with 5-amino salicylic acid as a model drug and Capmul MCM C8 as a bioavailability enhancer. The characterization, in vitro swelling and release studies were performed to evaluate the produced formulations, determine the ability of the developed system to retard the drug release at conditions mimicking the stomach and small intestine while triggering its release at conditions mimicking the colon. The polymer-based formulation was found its promising applicability as a potential smart colonic drug delivery system.

Keywords: 5-amino salicylic acid; smart delivery system; sustainable polymers; triggered drug delivery; ulcerative colitis

195
Title: الفصحى والعامية، مشكلات ازدواجية الاستعمال في التعليم.
Author: Muhammad Ismail Amayreh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: تتناول هذه الورقة البحثية عدة قضايا حول اللهجات العامية وعلاقتها بالفصحى، فمن أهم هذه القضايا: ما الأسباب الحقيقية وراء ازدياد الفجوة بين العامية والفصحى؟ وقد تطرق الباحث إلى السبل النافعة لتقليص هذه الفجوة. ومن القضايا الرئيسة الهامة في هذا الطرح والتي تسعى هذه الورقة في أن تسهم بتسليط الضوء عليها هي قضية الإقبال الشديد من متعلمي العربية ولا سيما الناطقين بغيرها على تعلم العامية، والوقوف على أهم الكتب المؤلفة لتعليم العامية لهذه الفئة من المتعلمين، وبيان أهم نقاط ضعفها من خلال تحليل عام لمحتوياتها، وما الدافع وراء تأليفها؟ وتحاول هذه الورقة أيضا أن تسهم في توصيف مجموعة من المشاكل التي تزيد من الفجوة بين الفصيحة والعامية، وما يواجهه الناطقون بغيرها من مشاكل تواصلية بغض النظر عن هدفهم الذي يتعلمون اللغة لأجله، وأخيرا طرح الباحث مسألة الاستفادة من المنهج الإحصائي في تدريس العامية، وقد اتُبع المنهج الوصفي التحليلي الاستقرائي في كتابة هذه الورقة البحثية . كلمات مفتاحية: اللهجات، العامية، الفصحى، الفجوة.

Keywords: كلمات مفتاحية: اللهجات، العامية، الفصحى، الفجوة.

196
Title: Heuristic Evaluation of Microsoft Teams as an Online Teaching Platform: An Educators’ Perspective
Author: Lamis Al-Qoran, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The way that education is delivered changed significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic to be completely online in many countries for many institutions. Despite the fact that they are not online teaching platforms, virtual meeting platforms were utilized to deal with this transformation. One of the platforms Philadelphia University utilized for the unplanned shift to online teaching was Microsoft Teams. This paper examines how heuristic evaluation may be used to guide the evaluation of online meeting platforms for teaching and focuses on the use of heuristic evaluation to assess the level of usability of Microsoft Teams. The level of Zoom’s usability is also evaluated using heuristic evaluation in order to compare it to that of Microsoft Teams and to assess Microsoft Teams’ overall usability in comparison to other platforms being used for the same purpose. Microsoft Teams was identified as having a few issues that need to be addressed. Additionally, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to Microsoft Teams’ usability were assessed.

Keywords: Microsoft Teams; usability; usability evaluation; heuristic evaluation

197
Title: Polymeric Based Pellets as Intelligent Drug Delivery Systems
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The small intestine is where most conventional oral formulations are mostly absorbed. This restricts their usage in the treatment of several colon disorders since the medicine must act topically at the site of inflammation. This opened the door for the development of an intelligent colonic drug delivery system, which enhanced therapeutic effectiveness, decreased dosing frequency and potential side effects, and increased patient acceptance particularly in situations where enemas or other topical preparations might not be sufficient to treat inflammation alone. This study's primary goal was to develop a smart medication delivery system based on pH-sensitive polymeric formulations made using a free-radical bulk polymerization technique. In the formulations, 5-amino salicylic acid was used as a model drug and Capmul MCM C8 was added to increase bioavailability. The in vitro swelling and release evaluation showed that the developed system may be able to delay drug release under conditions that mimic the stomach and small intestine while triggering it under conditions that mimic the colon, indicating its potential usefulness as a smart colonic drug delivery system.

Keywords: Mesalamine; Intelligent Delivery; Sustainable Development; Smart Polymers; Colon Disorders

198
Title: The Structure of the Muwashah Poems by Ibn Khatima Al-Ansari Andalusian
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: : The study dealt with the structure of the Muwashah by Ibn Khatima Al-Ansari, and it studied it thematically, semantically, and rhythmically. This was done by inspecting the two major types of the Muwashah genre: al-Tamm (complete) and Al-Aqra (incomplete), and their most important purposes such as love, winery, description of nature, asceticism, and mysticism. The study then focused on the prosodic structure of these poems based on compliance with the laws of Arabic poetry. This was detailed by highlighting the rhythms, rhymes, and phonetic structure of these poems, linking them to the significance and music of the Muwashah genre. The study had several conclusions: the complete type (Tamm) is the predominant one; most of them followed a non-poetic system, and their rhyme schemes ranged between the free and the limited, The study adopted a structural constructive method, because of its role in studying the construction of Muwashah and analyzing its rhythm and connotations.

Keywords: Ibn Khatima, Muwashah, Poetry Functions, Prosody.

199
Title: Facile Fabrication of Methyl Gallate Encapsulated Folate ZIF-L Nanoframeworks as a pH Responsive Drug Delivery System for Anti-Biofilm and Anticancer Therapy
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Zeolitic imidazole frameworks are emerging materials and have been considered an efficient platform for biomedical applications. The present study highlights the simple fabrication of methyl gallate encapsulated folate-ZIF-L nanoframeworks (MG@Folate ZIF-L) by a simple synthesis. The nanoframeworks were characterized by different sophisticated instruments. In addition, the drug-releasing mechanism was evidenced by in vitro releasing kinetics at various pH conditions. The anti-biofilm potential confirmed by the biofilm architectural deformations against human infectious pathogens MRSA and N7 clinical strains. Furthermore, anticancer efficacy assessed against A549 lung cancer cells. The result reveals that the MG@Folate ZIF-L exposed a superior cytotoxic effect due to the pH-responsive and receptor-based drug-releasing mechanism. Based on the unique physicochemical and biological characteristics of nanoframeworks, it has overcome the problems of undesired side effects and uncontrolled drug release of existing drug delivery systems. Finally, the in vitro toxicity effect of MG@Folate ZIF-L was tested against the Artemia salina (A. salina) model organism, and the results show enhanced biocompatibility. Overall, the study suggested that the novel MG@Folate ZIF-L nanoframeworks is a suitable material for biomedical applications. It will be very helpful to the future design for targeted drug delivery systems.

Keywords: anticancer; antibiofilm; cytotoxicity; folic acid; pH responsive; zeolitic imidazole frameworks

200
Title: تحديات بناء مجتمع المعرفة الأردني من منظور طلبة جامعة فيلادلفيا
Author: Muwafaq Abu Hammoud, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: الأهداف: تناولت الدراسة تحديات بناء مجتمع المعرفة الأردني من منظور طلابي، وسعت من خلال إجراءاتها التطبيقية، إلى استجلاء مجموعة الإدراكات والتصورات لدى شريحة اجتماعية من الشباب الأردني، تتمثل بالشباب الجامعي، حول بناء مجتمع المعرفة ومفهومه والتحديات التي تحول دونه، والاقتراحات التي يقدمونها لتطوير ذلك المجتمع وبنائه معرفياً وتنموياً، ليكون ذا دور فاعل في تحقيق العدالة والتنمية المستدامة. المنهجية: اعتمدت الدراسة المنهج الوصفي التحليلي في جمع المعلومات والبيانات التي تفسر وتحلل وتصف الواقع والوضع الراهن لموضوع الدراسة، في محاولة لفهم الحاضر لتوجيه المستقبل نوعاً ما، أي لتأكيد أهمية بناء مجتمع المعرفة. النتائج: كشفت الدراسة عن إدراك أفراد عينة الدراسة لمفهوم مجتمع المعرفة المتمثل بأنه المجتمع الذي يوظف المعرفة والمعلومة لتعزيز القدرات والمهارات الإبداعية والابتكارية لدى الأفراد، وأن النسبة الأكبر من أفراد عينة الدراسة لا يعلمون بأن النظام السياسي يلعب الدور الأكبر في بناء مجتمع المعرفة، وأن الاقتصاد هو العامل الحاسم في بنائه. التوصيات: في ضوء نتائج الدراسة، توصي الدراسة ببناء برامج ومشروعات ورؤى وطنية واضحة لنشر الوعي المجتمعي بأهمية بناء مجتمع المعرفة ومتطلبات التحول إليه، وضرورة تفعيل الشراكة الحقيقية بين جميع المؤسسات والقطاعات الوطنية، مدعومة بإرادة سياسية حقيقية لضمان تلبية متطلبات مجتمع المعرفة.

Keywords: مجتمع المعرفة، اقتصاد المعرفة، المعرفة، الفجوة المعرفية.

201
Title: Intelligent Control for Voltage Regulation in the Distribution Network Equipped with PV Farm
Author: Firas Abdullah Obeidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: A combined PSO-ANN control is proposed in this work to achieve the best voltage regulation in a distribution network, based on quick response and minimum average voltage deviation. The Jordanian Sabha Distribution Network (JSDN) with PV Farms is used as a real case study to examine a voltage variation issue. Two STATCOMs are used to solve the voltage fluctuation problem on the network’s three buses. The required reactive powers of STATCOMs for voltage regulation during load variation are calculated in offline mode using a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Despite its high performance in solving voltage issue in the JSDN network, the PSO controller is unable to react promptly to dynamic changes in the network. An artificial neural network (ANN) is therefore suggested as an online mode controller for quick and efficient voltage regulation. The offline dataset is used to train the ANN for online voltage regulation utilizing the MATLAB-Tool Box. At an average voltage deviation (AVD) of 1.168%; (whereas an acceptable one is 6%), the results revealed the proposed ANN controller’s competence for voltage regulation in the distribution network. Moreover, to find the best position based on an efficient voltage regulation, many sites for STATCOMs are taken into consideration.

Keywords: renewable energy; smart grids; distribution networks; STATCOMs; PV systems

202
Title: دور السلطة القضائية في مواجهة جرائم الأحداث: دراسة مقارنة
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Law

Abstract: تناول هذا البحث موضوع دور السلطة القضائية في مواجهة جرائم الأحداث، وذلك لمعالجة موضوع قضاء الأحداث والضمانات المقررة لحمايتهم من كافة الجوانب الفقهية والقانونية,فقد تطرقنا لمناقشة ضمانات محاكمة الحدث أمام قضاء الأحداث والتي تناولنا فيها أهم القواعد الإجرائية التي تتم فيها محاكمة الأحداث، والتي تتناسب مع الطابع الإنساني والرعائي الواجب مراعاته عند التعامل مع الأحداث الجانحين، عدا عن كون هذه الإجراءات تحوي طابعا خاصا تمليه طبيعة هذه المحاكمة كون هدفها هو التثبت من ارتكاب الحدث مما نسب إليه من جرم أو خطورة إجرامية، حتى إذا ثبت ذلك بادرت المحكمة لاتخاذ إجراءاتها المناسبة بتطبيق التدابير الملائمة بما ينسجم والحالة المعروضة أمامها. ثم أتبعنا ذلك بدراسة أحكام التدابير الخاصة بالأحداث المجرمين، والتي نصت على اتباعها التشريعات الجنائية الحديثة وذلك لإبعاد الأحداث عن المجال العقابي واستبداله بالتدابير التهذيبية الحديثة والتي تهدف إلى علاج الأحداث المنحرفين وإصلاحهم والتي تعامل الحدث كمريض يستحق العلاج ليس كمجرم يستحق العقاب ومن ثم تطرقنا لبيان موقف التشريع من الطعن في هذه الأحكام ، وبالرغم من اختلاف تشريعات الأحداث بشأن مسألة الطعن في الأحكام الصادرة في قضايا الأحداث إلا أنها قد اتفقت على جواز الطعن في الأحكام الصادرة عن محكمة الأحداث بكافة طرق الطعن المقررة قانونا.

Keywords: السلطة القضائية، قضاء الأحداث، جرائم الأحداث.

203
Title: Narrowband Internet-of-Things to Enhance the Vehicular Communications Performance
Author: Qadri Jamal Al-Hamarsheh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The interest in vehicle-to-vehicle communication has gained a high demand in the last decade. This is due to the need for safe and robust smart communication, while this type of communication is vulnerable to latency and power. Therefore, this work proposes the Narrowband Internet-of-Things to enhance the robustness of the vehicular communication system. Accordingly, the system’s QoS is enhanced. This enhancement is based on proposing two parts to cover the latency and the harmonics issues, in addition to proposing a distributed antenna configuration for the moving vehicles under a machine learning benchmark, which uses the across-entropy algorithm. The proposed environment has been simulated and compared to the state-of-the-artwork performance. The simulation results verify the proposed work performance based on three different parameters; namely the latency, the mean squared error rate, and the transmitted signal block error rate. From these results, the proposed work outperforms the literature; at the probability of 10−3 , the proposed work reduces the peak power deficiency by almost 49%, an extra 23.5% enhancement has been attained from the self-interference cancellation side, and a bit error rate enhancement by a ratio of 31%

Keywords: OFDM; V2V; NBIoT; MIMO; harmonics wavelets; multiparallel processing

204
Title: Draft Monte Carlo Simulation of Free-standing Thin Films under Low Energy Electron Bombardment: Electron Inelastic Mean Free Path (IMFP) Determination Using Elastic Peak of the Transmitted Electrons
Author: Hani Yousef Mohammad Kawariq, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The electron energy spectra of transmitted scattered electrons from free-standing films are simulated using a Monte Carlo computational approach. Elastic scattering is simulated using Mott cross-sections and inelastic scattering via discrete processes determined from dielectric function data. This allows one to simulate the secondary electrons as well as the loss peaks near the elastic (zero loss) peak. The current study suggested a directed approach for determining the electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of materials at low primary electron energies. The IMFP of the reference material are not necessary for the suggested technique. The suggested technique makes use of the ratio between the transmitted elastic peak intensity and the background intensity of backscattered electrons. Free standing films of Si, Cu and Au were studied with thicknesses varying from 2 to 12 nm. Primary electron energies of 1 keV, 3 keV, and 5 keV were applied. The results appeared very good with the percentage error range was being between 5% and 25 %. We also investigate the proportion of the first and second plasmon peaks intensities to the elastic peak's intensity. We believe that the latter could provide a directed method of measuring the IMFP of materials.

Keywords: Inelastic mean free path, Monte Carlo simulation, Geant4, Free standing film,Zero loss peak

205
Title: أثر مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي على التنشئة الاجتماعية
Author: Hisham Nabeel Bani Amer, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: هدف البحث التعرف إلى أثر مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي على عملية التنشئة الاجتماعية، واتبع الباحثان المنهج الاستقرائي، من أجل عرض الأطر النظرية المتناولة لمواقع التواصل الاجتماعي من حيث مفهومها وأهم المواقع المستخدمة وسلبيتها وايجابيتها، وكذلك الأطر النظرية المتعلقة بالتنشئة الاجتماعية ومفهومها وأهدافها وأهميتها ومؤسساتها، وتم استخدام منهج تحليل المضمون لعرض الدراسات السابقة التي تناولت تأثير التواصل الاجتماعي على التنشئة الاجتماعية والسلوك الاجتماعي وتحليل نتائجها وتوصياتها. وتوصل الباحثان إلى أن عملية التنشئة الاجتماعية لا تتوقف عند فئة الاطفال والمراهقين بل تستمر خلال مراحل الحياة، وتحتاج الي تقويم في كل مرحلة، كما أن معظم مستخدمي المواقع يتشكل لديهم بناء معتقدات جديدة، وأفكار مستوردة لاسيما لدى الاطفال والمراهقين والشباب، وذلك قد يعارض أو يخالف معتقدات الأسرة وأفكارها الاجتماعية، كما أن عملية التنشئة كانت ذات نمط منغلق قبل وجود مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي وأصبحت ذات نمط منفتح أدى إلى انحسار أدوار مؤسسات التنشئة الاجتماعية، وأصى الباحثان إلى ضرورة تحمل أولياء الأمور مسؤولياتهم الاجتماعية تجاه الابناء، وتأطير استخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي للاستفادة منها في عملية التنشئة والحد من سلبياتها، وكذلك ضرورة اهتمام الدولة بالنشئ الجديد وتكثيف الجهود المشتركة سواء من المدرسة أو الأندية أو وسائل الإعلام إلى جانب مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي من أجل مخاطبة الجيل الواعد وتوعيته وإرسال رسائل الاندماج والانتماء له.

Keywords: التنشئة الاجتماعية

206
Title: HR practices and turnover intention; the mediating role of organizational commitment in Tehran: a cross-sectional study
Author: Mohammad Khalel Ibrahim Okour, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Background: Employees are increasingly being recognised as a valuable source of information, especially in knowledge-based businesses. Businesses, however, suffer financial and organisational memory losses related to re-hiring and training new staff, and lost productivity and intellectual property because of employee turnover. Hence, employee turnover should be considered an essential part of human resource management. Furthermore, employees’ trust in management and human resource (HR) practices substantially impact organisational commitment (OC). Thus, anticipating employee commitment and turnover intentions is crucial, as people are the sole source for knowledge-based firms to maintain their competitive advantage. In the context of selected Tehran Renewable Energy (RE) firms, this study investigated the mediating impact of OC on the relationship between HR practices (recruitment and selection; training and development opportunities; performance appraisal and evaluation; teamwork; compensation and pay; and job security) and employee turnover intention. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in Tehran that involved 90 experts and knowledgeable employees from four of Tehran's top RE businesses. A questionnaire was distributed to collect data which was later analysed with correlation, regression and bootstrapping analyses. Results: All six dimensions of HR practices were discovered to have an indirect impact on turnover intention and a direct impact on OC. OC among employees has an indirect effect on turnover intention. It was also revealed that the training and development opportunity has the most considerable effect on OC and turnover intention. OC was not found as a mediator between HR practices and turnover intention. Conclusions: The outcomes of this study showed that both training and development opportunities; and pay and compensation structure were found to be two significant components of HR practices in the relationship with OC. RE managers should employ appropriate HR strategies, particularly in these two dimensions, to improve an individual's degree of OC and reduce turnover intention.

Keywords: HR practices, turnover intention, organisational commitment, learning organisations, renewable energy industry

207
Title: Analysis of recent shared ancestry in a familial cohort identifies coding and noncoding autism spectrum disorder variants"
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a collection of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interests. ASD is highly heritable, but genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, reducing the power to identify causative genes. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) in an ASD cohort of 68 individuals from 22 families enriched for recent shared ancestry. We identified an average of 3.07 million variants per genome, of which an average of 112,512 were rare. We mapped runs of homozygosity (ROHs) in affected individuals and found an average genomic homozygosity of 9.65%, consistent with expectations for multiple generations of consanguineous unions. We identified potentially pathogenic rare exonic or splice site variants in 12 known (including KMT2C, SCN1A, SPTBN1, SYNE1, ZNF292) and 12 novel candidate (including CHD5, GRB10, PPP1R13B) ASD genes. Furthermore, we annotated noncoding variants in ROHs with brain- specific regulatory elements and identified putative disease-causing variants within brain-specific promoters and enhancers for 5 known ASD and neurodevelopmental disease genes (ACTG1, AUTS2, CTNND2, CNTNAP4, SPTBN4). We also identified copy number variants in two known ASD and neurodevelopmental disease loci in two affected individuals. In total we identified potentially etiological variants in known ASD or neurodevelopmental disease genes for ~61% (14/23) of affected individuals. We combined WGS with homozygosity mapping and regulatory element annotations to identify candidate ASD variants. Our analyses add to the growing number of ASD genes and variants and emphasize the importance of leveraging recent shared ancestry to map disease variants in complex neurodevelopmental disorders.

Keywords: Autism

208
Title: جمع المخطوطات العربية في القرن17م في ضوء مكاتبات المستشرقين مع مسيحيي الشام
Author: Rasha Abdullah Alkhatib, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: كان جمع المخطوطات في ق17م من وسائل المستشرقين لتحصيل المعرفة باللغات الشرقية وآدابها ومنها اللغة العربية، واتخذوا لذلك ما وسعهم من أسباب، منها الرحلة إلى الشرق والاستعانة بأبنائه في سبيل الحصول عليها. ويعرض هذا البحث جوانب من عمل اثنين من المستشرقين في جمع المخطوطات العربية، هما: يعقوب خوليوس (ت1667) أستاذ العربية والرياضيات في ليدن، وإدوارد بوكوك (ت1691) أستاذ العربية والعبرية في أكسفورد، في ضوء مكاتباتهم ورسائلهم المحفوظة في مكتبات هولندا وبريطانيا، مع عدد من المسيحيين الشوام( ) الذين كان لهم صلة بتجارة الكتب المخطوطة أو بيئة المعرفة والبحث العلمي في ق17، من رجال الدين أو من عامة المتعلمين، سواء في مواطنهم السورية أو في المهجر؛ إذ سافر بعضهم إلى أوروبا وساعدوا المستشرقين هناك في انتساخ المخطوطات العربية أو فهرستها في المكتبات الجامعية. وسيجري التعريف بهؤلاء وببعض رسائلهم التي توضح طبيعة إسهاماتهم مع المستشرقين لجمع المخطوطات من الشرق. وهم: • ميخائيل كراكاو • ثَلْجَة بن حوران كرمة الحموي • نقولاوس بن بطرس الحلبي • يوحنا بن ميخائيل ابن عطايا المتطبب • موسى بن ميخائيل ابن عطايا • شاهين قندي

Keywords: المخطوطات العربية، الأدب العربي المسيحي ق17م، رسائل المستشرقين، يعقوب خوليوس، إدوارد بوكوك، الأدب في العصر العثماني

209
Title: The effect of mixed sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyethylene glycol systems on kinetic of oxidation of o‑Cresol by cerium(IV) in H2SO4 medium
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The kinetics of the oxidation of o-Cresolby cerium(IV) have been investigated spectrophotometrically at 298K in the absence and presence of sodiumdodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) in sulfuric acid mediumto examine the catalytic behavior of SDS, PEG (600, 1500, and 4000), and themixed systems of PEG 600, 1500, and 4000 with SDS. The reaction was first orderwith respect to [cerium(IV)] and fractional order with respect to [o-Cresol]and [H2SO4]. However, the effect of SDS catalysis was explained via Piszkiewicz’scooperativity model to calculate the cooperative index (n) and dissociation constants (kD)of substrate–surfactant aggregates, while the catalytic activity of PEGs wasalso examined by use of the Benesi–Hildebrand model. In general, reaction rateenhancements have been observed in the oxidation of o-Cresol bycerium(IV) in the presence of SDS andPEG (600, 1500). On the other hand, the catalytic profiles of the various mixedPEG–SDS systems have shown a suddenincrease in the observed rate constant (kobs)values even before the actual critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SDS. Thispremicellar catalysis can be interpreted on the basis of the formation of theactive PEG–SDS aggregates at various[SDS] and [PEG]. A plausible mechanism of the oxidation reaction has beensuggested; in addition, the major final product was salicylic acid, which isseparated by column chromatography and tested by melting point,ultraviolet–visible, and FTIR spectra to compare with the original sample ofsalicylic acid.

Keywords: Micellar catalysis · o-Cresol · Cerium(IV) · Polyethylene glycols (PEG) · Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) · Mixed PEG–SDS system

210
Title: Textual analysis of the annual report and corporate performance: evidence from China
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Purpose This paper aims to examine the relationship between the readability of annual reports and corporate performance in Chinese listed firms. Design/methodology/approach This research examined the annual report readability factors of Chinese listed companies by using a textual analysis method using Python to extract the text from the annual reports, convert it into numerical form to facilitate statistical analysis and then merge the results with data from the Chinese stock market to explain the impact on corporate performance and predict future earnings in the Chinese financial markets from 2008 to 2021. Findings Study findings indicate that firms with better financial reporting readability are more profitable, incur lower agency costs and have low earnings in the Chinese stock markets when readability is low (i.e. more complexity and length of annual reports). It was also found that when a listed company has a good performance, it prefers to use a short space to explain its operating and financial status. More generally, the means of the report length are short, and accounting terms are used less frequently; in the case of a poor company, the annual report is particularly long and accounting terms are more frequently used. In the context of the COVID-19 crisis, this study served as a proxy measure of returns prior to the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, an instrumental variable approach is used, which helps results to remain robust and control for fixed effects and potential endogeneity problems. Research limitations/implications Although this study’s results cannot be generalised globally because of their limited scope, they can still be generalised across non-English speaking countries. Thus, future cross-country research is encouraged to examine the textual analysis of financial reports across those countries. Practical implications This study conveys two messages to investors and policymakers within the Chinese market. First, investors ought to pay greater attention to the nonfinancial information contained in annual reports to improve the accuracy of their predictions regarding future firm performance. Second, Chinese policymakers are encouraged to instate a policy for the use of plain English in annual reports to make them more readable by international investors. Originality/value This study contributes to the paucity of research that examines English-written annual reports in non-English-speaking countries by examining the readability of annual reports in the Chinese market.

Keywords: Readability, Annual financial report, Corporate performance, Text analysis, Future earnings, Chinese listed companies

211
Title: Entrepreneurship in Jordan: The Eco-system of the Social Entrepreneurship Support Organizations (SESOs)
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This study aims at assessing the Social Entrepreneurship Support Organizations (SESOs) in Jordan with an updated eco-system reflecting the better resourced Social Entrepreneurship eco-system characterized with comprehensive information; covering the stakeholders’ identification data, ongoing projects and initiatives, work scope, and their targeted groups, accurate data based on a well-developed survey and analysis of the survey data by our experts. This study also aims at assessing the SESOs capacity by coincide their desired needs and their actual needs and limit the social innovation concept variation among the different institutions in the ecosystem. This study provides a survey analysis for the Social Entrepreneurship Support Organizations (SESOs), and an attempt to identify their characteristics and roles in Jordan by adopting the qualitative and quantitative analysis approach as its methodology. Results show that (57.89%) of the SESO’s in Jordan have dedicated programs that focus on women's inclusion, and that (68.42%) are hiring more than 50% in their staff. Besides that, results also show that (59.65%) of the SESO’s in Jordan did not dedicate programs for people with disabilities (PWD); which is a high portion in neglecting this segment of people. Besides that (54.39%) do not have designed facilities friendly using for people with disabilities. Moreover, results show that (73.68%) had dedicated programs for youth with different age groups, and (77.19%) of the SESO’s in Jordan had attempted to identify, understand, and actively removing barriers that exist for certain groups of young people in society. Moreover, (70.18%) of the SESO’s in Jordan had organized specific outreach mechanisms to identify, meet, engage, and/or serve different population groups. Finally, results show that (38.60%) of the SESO’s in Jordan had dedicated programs for refugees.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Social Entrepreneurship; Eco-system; Jordan

212
Title: Novel fluorophenyl tethered thiazole and chalcone analogues as potential anti-tubercular agents: Design, synthesis, biological and in silico evaluations
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Novel analogues of fluorophenyl tethered thiazoles 7a-k and chalcones 10a-k were designed through molecular hybridization approach. All the synthesized final compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Among the two series, compound 10g displayed potent inhibition with MIC99 of 1.56 µM against parental and isoniazid-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Further, the same compound inhibited the growth of intracellular M. tuberculosis. To gain an insight into the molecular mechanism of actions, in silico molecular docking experiments were conducted using the molecular structure of the DNA gyrase enzyme, which revealed crucial interactions. This was further substantiated through molecular dynamics simulation study of the mycobacterial DNA Gyrase protein against the lead compound 10g and the reference drug (CFX-Ciprofloxacin). Furthermore, the drug-likeliness of the synthesized compounds was computed based on Lipinski's rule of five and ADME pharmacokinetic parameters. Thus, a chalcone-based lead 10g was identified in our study and showed promising antitubercular activity with drug-like properties. The identified lead molecule could act as a starting point to develop novel, potent antitubercular agents against the parental and drug-resistant tuberculosis strains.

Keywords: Fluorophenyl-thiazoleChalconeMolecular dockingMolecular dynamicsADME properties

213
Title: Thematic and Artistic Structure in Ibn al-Markhi's Andalusian letters
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The study dealt with the letters of Ibn al-Markhi al-Andalusi (T536 Ah/1141 AD) _ one of the writers of Andalusia at the time of the Almoravids_ and studied its thematic and artistic structure. This was done by monitoring its most prominent its themes, and classifying them into Brotherhood, Diwaniyah, Social, Description of nature, Zarzouriyat (after the Starling bird, “Zarzour” in Arabic), and what falls under Each class of dimensions and topics, and then the study analyzed the artistic structure of the letters by highlighting the most important artistic mechanisms that the writer manipulated to represent his ideas, and give them beauty and poetic such as the introductory structure, the artistic image, quotation and inclusion, and the art of the exquisite. The study adopted descriptive method, integrated with the aesthetic/formalistic approach, since both have a complementary role in uncovering the topics of the letters, discussing them, monitoring the technical means and mechanisms that helped to represent them, besides demonstrating their artistic impact.

Keywords: Thematic structure, artistic structure, Ibn al-Markhi, the art of letters.

214
Title: Pharmacological and Biochemical Perspectives of Kinase Inhibitors in Cancer and COVID-19 Therapeutics
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Kinases are the component of superfamily enzymes known as phosphotransferases which involve transferring a phosphate group from phosphate-releasing high energy molecules to the specific substrates (Ardito et al., 2017). Kinases have significant roles in cell signalling, metabolism, cell transport, protein regulation, and other cellular events (Cohen, 2001).

Keywords: COVID-19, kinase inhibitors, CDK, ligand-based and structure-based drug design, pharmacology

215
Title: La relation entre hommes et femmes : point de vue d’Ahlam Mosteghanemi.
Author: Mohammad Al-Ghazu, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: La relation entre hommes et femmes : point de vue d’Ahlam Mosteghanemi. Résumé La relation entre l'homme et la femme semble ambiguë malgré son abondance dans les écrits d’Ahlam Mosteghanemi. Très peu de chercheurs ont abordé ce sujet et selon nos recherches en bibliothèques et en ligne personne n’est allé chercher quel genre d’hommes existe dans ses écrits. Dans cette recherche nous avons essayé d'éclaircir la relation entre l'homme et la femme vue par Ahlam Mosteghanemi en répondant sur la question suivante : quels sont les trois genres d’hommes entre lesquels Ahlam est écartelée? Nous avons analysé sa vision de l'homme, et cherché les types d'hommes qui ont influencé ses idées. A travers une large étude des œuvres de cet écrivain, nous avons trouvé trois types d'hommes. Ce sont l'amant, le politicien et le patriotique. Mots clés: Ahlam Mosteghanemi, femme arabe, homme arabe, littérature francophone. Littérature française. The relationship between men and women: Ahlam Mosteghanemi’s point of view Abstract Despite the abundant discussion of the relationship between men and women in Ahlam Mosteghanemi's novels, the nature of this relation is not yet obvious. A few researchers have tackled this issue but none have investigated the types of men found in her novel. This research aims at clarifying the relationship between men and women in Mosteghanemi's novels through answering the following question: what three types of men whom Ahlam has been split between? Through the analysis of her vision towards men and through investigating the men who influenced her thoughts, three distinctive types of men are found in her novels; the lover, the politician and the patriot. Key words: Ahlam Mosteghanemie, arab woman, arab man, francophone literature. French literature. ملخص العلاقة بين الرجل والمرأة: وجهة نظر أحلام مستغانمي ان العلاقة بين الرجل والمرأة تبدو غير واضحة رغم وفرتها في كتابات احلام مستغانمي. ان الباحثين الذين تطرقوا لهذا الموضوع قليلون جدا وحسب البحوث التي اجريتها في المكتبات وعبر الشبكة العنكبوتية لم يبحث احد منهم عن انواع الرجال الذين تواجدوا في كتاباتها. في هذا البحث, لقد حاولنا توضيح هذه العلاقة حسب ما رأته احلام مستغانمي من خلال الاجابة على السؤال التالي : ما الانواع الثلاثة للرجال الذين تقاسموا احلام؟ لقد حللنا رؤيتها للرجل وبحثنا عن الرجال الذين اثروا في افكارها. من خلال الدراسة الموسعة لأعمال هذه الكاتبة وجدنا الانواع الثلاثة لهؤلاء الرجال. انهم العاشق والسياسي والوطني. الكلمات الدالة : أحلام مستغانمي, المرأة العربية, الرجل العربي, الأدب الفرانكوفوني, الأدب الفرنسي

Keywords: Ahlam Mosteghanemi, femme arabe, homme arabe, littérature francophone. Littérature française.

216
Title: Standardization, in-silico and in-vivo safety assessment of methanol extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam leaves
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Ziziphus mauritana Lam leaves were used to treat asthma, diabetes, pain, and inflammation in the Indian traditional system of medicine. The leaves of the Ziziphus mauritiana Lam were consumed as a vegetable in Indonesia and India. The present study aims to predict the pharmacokinetic properties of flavonoids identified & quantified through U(H)PLC and to evaluate the safety of methanol extract of Ziziphus mauritana Lam leaves (MEZ) in rats. A U(H)PLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS was performed to identify flavonoids present in MEZ and quantified using U(H)PLC method. The in-silico ADME properties of the flavonoids were analyzed using Schrodinger Maestro software. The acute oral toxicity study was performed by administering a single dose of MEZ (5000 mg/kg) in female rats and observed for 14 days. The sub-chronic studies were carried out by oral administration of MEZ at 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg daily for 90 days. The changes in hematological parameters, clinical biochemistry, and histopathology were observed after the treatment period. Eight flavonoids rutin, kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, catechin, and apigenin were identified from were identified in UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis. These results showed the highest amount of luteolin (5.41 μg/ml) and kaempferol (4.02 μg/ml) present in MEZ. No signs of toxicity or mortality were observed in acute toxicity studies. In the sub-chronic studies, data showed that MEZ does not produce any changes in hematological and clinical biochemical parameters compared to control rats. MEZ (1000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, in male rats, which was more prominent on day 90. The histopathological analysis also revealed no changes in the vital organs. These results conclude that MEZ was considered safe and well-tolerated in rats.

Keywords: Ziziphus mauritiana Lam Biochemical Hematology Histopathology Toxicity

217
Title: Green Synthesis of Gold, Iron and Selenium Nanoparticles Using Phytoconstituents: Preliminary Evaluation of Antioxidant and Biocompatibility Potential
Author: Abeer Shnoudeh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: This study aimed at fabricating gold (Au), iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) nanoparticles (NPs) using various natural plant extracts from the Fertile Crescent area and evaluating their potential application as antioxidant and biocompatible agents to be used in the pharmaceutical field, especially in drug delivery. The Au-NPs were synthesized using Ephedra alata and Pistacia lentiscus extracts, whereas the Fe-NPs and Se-NPs were synthesized using peel, fruit and seed extracts of Punica granatum. The phytofabricated NPs were characterized by the UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope technique showed that the synthesized NPs surface was spherical, and the particle size analysis confirmed a particle size of 50 nm. The crystalline nature of the NPs was confirmed by the XRD analysis. All synthesized NPs were found to be biocompatible in the fibroblast and human erythroleukemic cell lines. Se-NPs showed a dose-dependent antitumor activity as evidenced from the experimental results with breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. A dose-dependent, free-radical scavenging effect of the Au-NPs and Se-NPs was observed in the DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, with the highest effect recorded for Au-NPs

Keywords: gold-nanoparticles; iron-nanoparticles; selenium-nanoparticles; antioxidant potential; biocompatibility; green synthesis; Punica grantum; Ephedra; Pistachio leaves

218
Title: One-step synthesis of picolinohydrazides from fusaric acid: DFT, structural characterization and molecular inhibitory studies on metastatic tumor-derived exosomal and non-exosomal proteins
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A new class of picolinohydrazide analogs (5–7) was synthesized via the one-pot reaction between fusaric acid (1) and aryl hydrazines (2–4) using amide coupling reagents. The synthesized compounds (5–7) were characterized using density-functional theory (DFT) computational spectroscopy, and instrumental methods. Global and local reactivity descriptors of these compounds were calculated at the B3LYP/6–311++g(d) level of theory to predict the reactivity and the reactive sites. The evaluated electronic properties (HOMO and LUMO) gave an insight into the molecular properties of the molecule. The charge distribution and molecular electrostatic potential facilitated the prediction of either the electrophilic or nucleophilic reactivity of these compounds. Extracellular heat shock protein-90 (HSP90) plays an essential role in tumor invasion while epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is found at high levels on the surface of metastatic tumors. Blocking EGFR and HSP90 may predict metastatic spread. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics showed that picolinohydrazide analogs (5–7) act as inhibitors to the active-site cavity of the target proteins, i.e., EGFR and HSP90. The fluorine scaffold (6) has a potential binding free energy of -31.01 kcal mol−1 and -30.54 kcal mol−1 for EGFR and HSP90, respectively. The binding complex of fluorine scaffold (6) with EGFR and HSP90, respectively has also shown substantial stability in the post-dynamics analysis. Our results implicate the potential efficacy of novel adjunct therapeutic insights in treating advanced cancer.

Keywords: ExosomesDFTMolecular dockingMolecular dynamics simulationEGFRHSP90

219
Title: Nosocomial Infection and Antibiotic-Resistant Threat in the Middle East
Author: Nabil Nimer, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The prevalence of nosocomial infections (NIs) is associated with different bacteria found in hospitals. These infections in their extreme conditions result in morbidity and mortality. This study aims to provide a detailed review of literary studies to identify the prevalence of nosocomial infections and antibiotic-resistance specifically in Middle Eastern countries. A literature review approach is followed in this study. It further identifies different causes and effects associated with nosocomial infections in the given regions. Relevant studies were used to extract important information, specifically related to the Middle Eastern countries. The findings indicated that nosocomial infections following antibiotic resistance are an emerging problem in Middle Eastern countries, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Most frequently reported NIs in Middle East in our review are bloodstream infections (BSIs) (50%) and surgical site infections (SSIs) (50%) followed by urinary tract infections (UTIs). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species among gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus among gram-positive bacterial and fungal pathogens such as Candida species are most reported pathogens involved in nosocomial infections and resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones antibiotics were significantly reported. However, most studies showed minimum resistance of pathogens against drug colistin. To control the growth rate of the given condition, government officials are suggested to ensure that hospitals follow adequate healthcare mechanisms. Also, sufficient education must be provided to the hospital staff about the causes and effects of the given disease.

Keywords: antibiotic-resistant threat, Middle East, nosocomial infection

220
Title: Appraising the therapeutical potentials of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax & K. Hoffm., an underexplored medicinal herb: A systematic review
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax & K. Hoffm. (Euphorbiaceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant grown in tropical Africa. The stem, leaves, and root have been widely used in the folk medicine systems in Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Ghana to treat various ailments, including inflammatory, infectious, and central nervous system disorders, such as anxiety and epilepsy. Material and methods: The scientific name of the plant was validated using the “The Plant List,” “Kew Royal Botanic Gardens,” and Tropicos Nomenclatural databases. The literature search on A. laxiflora was performed using electronic search engines and databases such as Google scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, AJOL, Scopus, and Mendeley. Results: To the best of our knowledge, no specific and detailed review has been reported on A. laxiflora. Consequently, this review provides an up-to-date systematic presentation on ethnobotany, phytoconstituents, pharmacological activities, and toxicity profiles of A. laxiflora. Phytochemical investigations disclosed the presence of important compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, terpenoids, and fatty acids. Furthermore, various pharmacological activities and traditional uses reported for this botanical drug were discussed comprehensively. Conclusion: This systemic review presents the current status and perspectives of A. laxiflora as a potential therapeutic modality that would assist futureresearchers in exploring this African botanical drug as a source of novel drug candidates for varied diseases.

Keywords: Alchornea laxiflora, ethnopharmacology, African plants, traditional medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology

221
Title: Effect of Arbutus andrachne L. Methanolic Leaf Extract on TRPV1 Function: Experimental and Molecular Docking Studies.
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Currently used analgesics have several side effects urging the need for new natural sources of therapeutics. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel and a key receptor in pain. In this study, we explored the effect of a methanolic leaf extract from Arbutus andrachne L. (a medicinal plant growing in Jordan) and its mechanism of action on TRPV1 function and expression. Our findings showed that the extract decreased capsaicin-induced cobalt (Co+2) influx in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, an effect that involved cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and TRPV1 but not alpha (α)-2 adrenergic receptors. The extract had no effect on capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 expression in the skin, DRGs, spinal cord, and brain. Importantly, the effect of A. andrachne was similar to the responses shown in the positive control group. Additionally, by conducting molecular docking between the ingredients identified in A. andrachne extract and TRPV1 receptor, it was found that α-tocopherol, ursolic acid, and β-sitosterol (similar to TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine) fit in the same pocket of TRPV1 receptor indicating that these compounds are the active ingredients responsible for the effect of the extract in decreasing capsaicin-induced Co+2 influx. A. andrachne extract decreased capsaicin-induced Co+2 influx significantly and can be a good candidate as an analgesic.

Keywords: Arbutus andrachne, TRPV1, molecular docking, cobalt, influx

222
Title: Digital Literacy in L2 Academic Writing Classrooms
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The multimodal approach to writing is now gaining acceptance in order to “escape the current paradigmatic view of composition studies” (Zawilski, 2011, p. 3). In multimodality, writing is not only pieces of prose but a combination of texts, images, audio, and videos (Leeuwen, 2011). This blend of words, audio, videos, voice messaging, still and moving photos (animation), games, and tutorials connect the linguistic and non-linguistic (semiotic) dimension of meaning-making (Leeuwen, 2011; Palmeri, 2007; Zawilski, 2011). Multimodality advocates (e.g., Zawilski, 2011) contend that this emerging genre of the composition goes beyond the printed words and develops a ‘full range of senses’ (multi-literacies). The fact that students attend lectures with visual multimodal literacies (Palmeri, 2007) calls for a multimodal turn in academic prose, to move beyond alphabetic literacy. Pandey (2021) explains that “the unlimited possibilities for meaning-making brought by multimodal resources such as images, sounds, and space are not only acknowledged but also deemed an indispensable part of composition in the contemporary era” (p.3), and Palmeri elucidated how teaching multimodal composition contributes to enhancing students’ alphabetic writing skills. Elliot and Klobucar (2013) stressed working with “students in digital writing …to teach them to build multimodal worlds” (p.18) as they build sentence patterns, post reflective statements in a portfolio. At its core, technology-based writing enables interaction between learners, teachers, and computers and “such interactions translate into opportunities for increased writing practice with formative feedback” (Wilson & Roscoe, 2020, p. 88). This research outlines common writing hindrances and foregrounds their causes. It calls for instituting multimodal composition to connect the linguistic and nonlinguistic (semiotic) dimension of meaning-making and thus enhance written fluency and free learners from getting bogged down in grammatical flaws and go beyond alphabetic literacy (Lim et al., 2020). This paper discusses writing from the viewpoint of several approaches and shifts that have taken place: from alphabetic literacy to multimodality. Challenges that accrue from such shifts are discussed and future prospects are provided. The presentation concludes by discussing the implications for curriculum designers, teachers, and students. The presentation concludes by discussing the implications for curriculum designers, teachers, and students.

Keywords: academic writing, digital literacy, multimodality, second language learning

223
Title: Imbalances of key parameters needed for energy-yielding processes in the serum of tramadol-treated male rats.
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Addiction is one of the major health challenges in the world. Tramadol is an analgesic that has been widely abused, causing negative health consequences. This study sheds light on the effect of the administration of tramadol hydrochloride (HCl) on the serum levels of key parameters needed for energy production. Male Wistar rats received oral administration of tramadol HCl for 30 days and then were sacrificed to collect blood from the eyes and determine the levels of nutritional measures in the serum by kits. Our findings showed that the daily oral gavage of 50 or 100 mg/kg tramadol HCl for a month decreased the serum levels of ferrous iron and glucose significantly compared to the nontreated rats. Additionally, both doses increased the levels of total protein, triglycerides, and magnesium compared to the nontreated animals. Only the dose of 50 mg/kg tramadol HCl was effective in elevating the serum concentration of vitamin B12. Moreover, tramadol HCl treatment did not trigger any change in the levels of zinc in comparison to the control group. In conclusion, tramadol causes imbalances of key parameters needed for energy production.

Keywords: Addiction, tramadol, rats, energy

224
Title: Wikis as Effective Collaborative Writing Tools in EAP Programs
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: A wiki is best defined as “a freely expandable collection of interlinked Web pages, a hypertext system for storing and modifying information—a database, where each page is easily editable by any user with a forms capable Web browser client” (Leuf & Cunningham, 2001, p. 14). Wikis are one of the simplest, most practical, and most widespread technological tools for collaborative writing practices in SLA (Kioumarsi, H., et all. 2018; Miyazoe & Anderson, 2010; Storch, 2013). They provide the environment to establish communication between individuals and groups in specific contexts such as training and learning (Sadaghian, S. & Marandi, S., 2020; Klobas 2006), and they are mostly free. They are also effective tools to improve teaching (Medero & Albaladejo, 2020). Wiki environments offer an extensive, interactive, flexible environment, which can be extremely useful for SLA. When using wikis, students can perform all the following tasks: access content created by other users all over the world, edit pages in collaboration with others, provide links to external sources and resources, update the content easily, track and view changes, and so much more (Klobas, 2006). Compared to traditional web pages, wikis are easier to edit and update. This session is grounded in exciting theoretical developments concerning the applicability of wikis for writing, but it is focused on a practical demonstration of how these platforms can be used in ESL classrooms. After an overview of the basic mechanics of the wiki platforms, and concepts around collaborative writing and SLA, the presenters will expose a writing activity. Participants will be led through the setting up of the writing prompt, which can be replicated and modified for each of their classes to show students how writing can be done collaboratively.

Keywords: collaborative Writing, English for Academic Purposes, Wikis

225
Title: Evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of selected plant extracts on colon and skin cancer cell lines.
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the antiproliferative effect of extracts obtained from medicinal plants that grow wild in Jordan against the human melanoma (WM136-1A) and colon cancer (Caco-2 cancer) cell lines using fibroblast cell lines as control cells. The selected plants are Varthemia iphionoides (Asteraceae), Micromeria myrtifolia (Lamiaceae), Micromeria nervosa (Lamiaceae), Origanum dayi (Lamiaceae), Ajuga chia (Lamiaceae), Salvia palaestina (Lamiaceae), and Bongardia chrysogonum (Berberidaceae). The results showed that M. nervosa and O. dayi exhibited antiproliferative activity against Caco-2 cancer cell line, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) that equal 98 ± 2.5 and 73.6 ± 3.4 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, A. chia, B. chrysogonum, and O. dayi exhibited antiproliferative activity against the WM136-1A cancer cell line, with IC50 that equals 400 ± 5.1, 98.1 ± 3.2, and 245 ± 3.6 μg/ml, respectively. None of the extracts had an effect on fibroblast cells at any used concentration. In conclusion, the extracts of M. nervosa, O. dayi, A. chia, and B. chrysogonum showed promising antiproliferative potential and can be good candidates for the development of novel anticancerous agents.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Jordan, anti-proliferation

226
Title: Evolution of Academic Writing: From Alphabetic literacy to Multimodality
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The fact that students attend lectures with visual multimodal literacies calls for a multimodal turn in academic prose, to move beyond alphabetic literacy. This session focuses on how Academic Writing (AW) has evolved as a genre with a focus on writing in ESL and EFL contexts. It touches on how linguistic communication has morphed into multimedia design in digital environments from simple alphabetic encoding. The presentation outlines the relevant literature, approaches to AW, and multimodality. Then, it discusses writing as a combination of texts, images, audio, and videos. This blend of words, audio, videos, voice messaging, still and moving photos (animation), games, and tutorials connect the linguistic and non-linguistic (semiotic) dimension of meaning-making. The discussion calls for freeing learners from getting bogged down in grammatical flaws and going beyond alphabetic literacy. Academic writing in L2 contexts can be approached now from the viewpoint of digital literacy. It goes beyond the printed words and develops a ‘full range of senses’ (multi-literacies). Composition teachers, as well as learners, should be prepared for multimodal writing in the era of digital literacy. There is a wide variety of options for creating an effective multimodal text, depending on the author's reason for creating the text, the audience the author wants to reach, the place, time, or situation in which the text is being created.

Keywords: academic composition, alphabetic literacy, meaning-making, multimodal literacies,

227
Title: Effect of explant type and different plant growth regulators on callus induction and growth in citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck.
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: In this study, we analyzed the effect of using different explants (zygotic embryos, leaves, stems, and cotyledons) on callus induction and the effect of different PGRs on the growth response of the callus. The results showed that callogenesis was faster when all explants were incubated in the dark than in light incubation. Maximum callus induction was observed in zygotic embryos (compared to other explants) and in the group cultured in 3 mg/L 2,4 D and 1 mg/L 6- BAP combination. Similarly, 3 mg/L 2,4 D and 1 mg/L BAP PGRs were also the effective concentrations for callus induction from cotyledons and leaves. However, a 2 mg/L 2,4 D and 1 mg/L BAP combination was the most potent in inducing callus from stems. In addition, our results indicated that the best hormonal combination for callus multiplication of callus derived from zygotic embryos was 1 mg/L 2,4 D and 1 mg/L BAP. The inhibition of ethylene activity improved callus growth during the multiplication stage in two groups being treated with 1 mg/L 2,4 D alone or with 2 mg/L 2,4 D in combination with 1 mg/L BAP. In contrast, ethylene synthesis inhibitors had insignificant effects on callus multiplication in any of the groups cultured in different PGRs combinations. The calluses obtained in all treated groups were friable, loose, and had a white to yellow color.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis, 6-benzyl amino purine, 2,4 dichloro phenoxy acetic acid, callus, ethylene.

228
Title: Proficiency Testing from the Pluricentric Approach
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This chapter provides a rationale for proficiency testing that subscribes to the view that accepting English as the global target language requires a proficiency testing framework beyond the monolithic EFL and ESL-based tests. It departs from irreversible facts including the outgrowing number of non-native speakers (NNSs) and World Englishes (WE). Such changes in the linguistic map of English in the worldwide context have weakened power-base viewpoints that drive the monolithic English proficiency tests, such as TOEFL and IELTS. These tests, albeit defenders, hardly represent the realities of English at present. They reflect an outdated taxonomy of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) that undergo the sway of linguistic imperialism. They are mainly fashioned on the NS model and norms of Standard English (SE) and thus undermine the evolving WE. The chapter foregrounds an argument that the monopoly of the NS model is losing ground, and it is high time the new changes found their way to English proficiency testing. A testing shift from monocentrism to the pluricentric approach would reasonably reflect the reality of language uses and users worldwide.

Keywords: linguistic imperialism, monocentrism, NNSs, plurality, proficiency testing

229
Title: Strategic Reading of Undergraduate Students at Philadelphia University
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The enticing change in learning language modes and mediums dictates an update of the learning strategies profile. Using descriptive analysis, this study set out to explore reading strategies (RSs) at the undergraduate level in Jordan. Data were gleaned from a conveniently-sampled cohort of learners (n=54) enrolled in a BA program at the Faculty of Arts, Philadelphia University. The initial sample responded to a questionnaire, and a sub-sample of this cohort were observed reading academic texts to strengthen the investigation. Findings showed that irrespective of gender, learners of English read strategically. They tend to employ most of the strategies on the RSs inventory. However, they attribute relatively high value to problem-solving strategies than global and support strategies (μ=4.1682, 3.8622, 3.7547, respectively). Besides, they tend to use strategies during and less frequently before and after reading, which signals some implications for pedagogues and course description designers

Keywords: Meta-cognitive strategies, Reading strategies (RSs), Reading inventory, PU

230
Title: Development and In Vitro Evaluation of a Large-Intestinal Drug Delivery System
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The development of large intestinal drug delivery systems has gained increased attention for the effective treatment of some associated disorders, such as ulcerative colitis, where the therapeutic agent acts locally on the affected parts. The main aim of this study was to develop polymerized carriers capable to deliver drugs effectively to the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract (large intestine). Polymeric pellets, based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate with different crosslinker concentrations, were synthesized using a bulk polymerization method. Mesalazine, which is frequently used to treat inflammatory disorders associated with the large intestine, was selected as a model drug. Swelling and in vitro release studies were performed to assess the developed systems and study the effect of the crosslinker concentration. The swelling and release profiles have decreased significantly with increasing the crosslinker concentration. The produced pellets exhibited a delayed-controlled drug release up to 24 hours, which indicated their potential applicability as successful large-intestinal drug delivery systems.

Keywords: Ulcerative colitis, Specific delivery system, Inflammatory bowel disease, Drug targeting, Mesalazine.

231
Title: Mucilage of Coccinia grandis as an Efficient Natural Polymer-Based Pharmaceutical Excipient
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Natural eco-friendly materials are recently employed in products to replace synthetic materials due to their superior benefits in preserving the environment. The herb Coccinia grandis is widely distributed in continents like Asia and Africa and used traditionally to treat fever, leprosy, asthma, jaundice, and bronchitis. Mucilage of Coccinia grandis was accordingly extracted, isolated by a maceration technique, and precipitated. The mucilage was evaluated for its physicochemical, binding, and disintegrant properties in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. The crucial physicochemical properties such as flow properties, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, microbial load, cytotoxicity was evaluated and the compatibility was analyzed using sophisticated instrumental methods (TGA, DTA, DSC, and FTIR). The binding properties of the mucilage was used at three different concentrations and compared with starch and PVP as examples of standard binders. The disintegrant properties of mucilage were used at two different concentrations and compared with standard disintegrants MCCP, SSG, and CCS. The tablets were punched and evaluated for their hardness, friability, assay, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of the mucilage were performed in a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line. The outcome of the study indicated that the mucilage had good performance compared with starch and PVP. Further, the mucilage acts as a better disintegrant than MCCP, SSG and CCS for paracetamol tablets. Use of a concentration of 3% or less demonstrated the ability of the mucilage to act as a super disintegrating agent and showed faster disintegration and dissolution, which makes it as an attractive, promising disintegrant in formulating solid dosage forms to improve the therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation results demonstrated that the mucilage is non-cytotoxic to human cells and is safe.

Keywords: binding agent; disintegrating agent; natural polymer; mucilage; Coccinia grandis

232
Title: Development of a new job satisfaction scale for healthcare staff in emergency departments
Author: Audi Naji Khaled Al Smadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Background/Aims Assessing factors that affect job satisfaction among healthcare staff, and formulating comprehensive strategies to improve job satisfaction, is fundamental to healthcare organisations. This study aimed to develop and validate a tool to measure staff job satisfaction in emergency departments of hospitals in Jordan. Methods The job satisfaction scale was developed using a literature review, instrument validation and statistical testing using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 200 healthcare staff working in emergency departments in hospitals in Jordan between 14 April and 5 May 2020. Results A total of 112 respondents returned a completed questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis yielded 16 strong explanatory items that affect job satisfaction, which could be grouped into four domains: physical environment and workplace safety; supervisor support; promotion and compensation; and communication and relationships with coworkers. The tool was found to have good reliability and validity. Low to moderate levels of satisfaction were found in most domains. Conclusions The findings of this study provide evidence for the psychometric properties of a newly developed scale to measure the level of job satisfaction of healthcare staff working in emergency departments.

Keywords: Job satisfaction, Jordan, Emergency Department

233
Title: The Influence of Socio-demographic Factors and Hospital type on Islamic Work Ethics of Healthcare Providers at Emergency Departments in Jordan
Author: Audi Naji Khaled Al Smadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract Purpose: Islamic work ethics (IWE) has been an area of attraction for scholars exploring Muslim employees’ attitudes and behaviors. This study aims to examine the IWE of healthcare providers (HCPs) in Jordan’s public and private emergency departments, and test the influence of socio-demographic factors and hospital type on IWE. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was used. Data were collected from the HCPs in Jordan middle district hospitals using a selfadministered questionnaire. In total, 297 questionnaires were completed and returned for analysis. Descriptive statistics, regression analysis, and independent sample t-test were used to analyze the data. Findings: The HCPs in private EDs showed a higher commitment to IWE than public EDs HCPs, and statistical differences were found between the public and private EDs. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that socio-demographic factors (age, gender, income level, professional classification, and social status) do not significantly influence IWE. Only the hospital type has a significant negative influence on IWE. Conclusion: HCPs in private EDs showed a high level of commitment to IWE than public HCPs. Statistical differences were discovered between the public and private EDs. The regression analysis showed no effect of socio-demographic factors on the IWE. Originality/Significance: This is perhaps the first paper investigating the influence of socio-demographic factors and hospital type on IWE of HCPs at EDs in Jordan. Research Limitations/Implications: This paper was limited to HCPs working in eleven hospitals in Jordan’s middle district. The study’s findings were based on the respondents’ honesty and truthfulness when taking the questionnaire. Implications for research have also been discussed. KAUJIE Classification: P0 JEL Classification: M10

Keywords: Islamic Work Ethics, Emergency Department, Jordan, Public & Private

234
Title: An examination of the mediating effect of Islamic Work Ethic (IWE) on the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance in Arab work environment
Author: Audi Naji Khaled Al Smadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract Studying the role of religion and its relationship to work outcomes is not new in cross-culture management, especially in globalization with the increase of interaction in cross-cultural settings. Islamic work ethics (IWE) have attracted the attention of academics studying the attitudes and behaviors of workers in Muslim societies. This study investigates the role of IWE as a mediator in the relationship between job satisfaction and performance. A stratified sampling technique was used to select 11 emergency departments from hospitals in Jordan. In total, 475 questionnaires were distributed to healthcare providers. Only 299 questionnaires were completed and returned to the research team. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 25. Descriptive analysis, correlation, Cronbach alpha, and regression analyses were performed. The findings indicated that job satisfaction has a significant positive impact on IWE and job performance (B = 0.66, p < 0.001), (B = 0.58, p < 0.001), respectively. The findings also indicated that IWE directly and positively affects job performance (B = 0.70, p < 0.001). Overall, the results supported that IWE partially mediates the relationship between job satisfaction and performance. Similarly, job satisfaction was also found to be an essential predictor of IWE. In addition, job satisfaction indirectly affects job performance through IWE. Therefore, IWE plays an essential role in job satisfaction and performance relationship. This study is an attempt to create a conceptual framework that incorporated IWE into the relationship between job satisfaction and performance in the Arab working culture and tried to broaden the cross-cultural management study of religion by investigating the mediation role of IWE in the relationship between job satisfaction and performance. The current study contributes to expand our understanding of the importance of IWE to the relationship between job satisfaction and performance in the Arab cultural context, which has received less attention in management research.

Keywords: Islamic work ethics, job performance, job satisfaction, healthcare providers, regression analysis

235
Title: Job satisfaction in emergency departments: a comparative study of public and private hospitals
Author: Audi Naji Khaled Al Smadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract Background/Aims Evaluating job satisfaction levels among healthcare staff can inform decision making for managers. Various factors can affect job satisfaction. This study investigated and compared job satisfaction among healthcare staff working in private and public emergency departments in Jordan. Methods A self‑administered questionnaire was distributed to 475 staff members, of which 286 were returned and analysed (50% from private hospitals). Descriptive analysis, independent sample t-tests and multiple regression analysis were used to compare the results based on hospital type and participant characteristics. Results Staff working in public emergency departments had significantly lower levels of job satisfaction than those working in private emergency departments (P<0.001). The lowest scoring domain across both groups was promotion and compensation. Doctors were more likely to have low job satisfaction than staff in other job roles. Conclusions Assessing job satisfaction is important for ensuring staff wellbeing and retention. Further research is needed to understand why staff in public hospitals have lower levels of job satisfaction and what could be done to address this.

Keywords: Emergency department; Healthcare worker; Job satisfaction; Private hospitals

236
Title: Antimicrobial PMMA Bone Cement Containing Long Releasing Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) ensued from total joint replacement (TJR) pose a severe threat to patients that involve poor health outcomes, severe pain, death (in severe cases), and negative influence patients’ quality of life. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is frequently used for the prevention and treatment of PJI. This work aims to study gentamicin release from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement to prolong release over several weeks to provide prophylaxis from PJIs after surgery. Different CNT concentrations were tested with the presence of gentamicin as a powder or preloaded onto carboxyl functionalized CNTs. The different types of bone cement were tested for drug release, mechanical properties, water uptake, antimicrobial properties, and cytocompatibility with human osteoblast cells (MTT, LDH, alizarin red, and morphology). Results showed prolonged release of gentamicin from CNT-loaded bone cements over several weeks compared to gentamicin-containing bone cement. Additionally, the presence of CNT enhanced the percentage of gentamicin released without adversely affecting the nanocomposite mechanical and antimicrobial properties needed for performance. Cytotoxicity testing showed non-inferior performance of the CNT-containing bone cement to the equivalent powder containing cement. Therefore, the developed nanocomposites may serve as a novel PMMA bone cement to prevent PJIs.

Keywords: PMMA; bone cement; carbon nanotubes; gentamicin; antimicrobial; cytotoxicity; compression trength

237
Title: Use of 3-dimensional imaging and manufacturing for bilateral auricular prostheses: A case series of six patients with congenital auricular defects
Author: Heba Mohammad Ahmad Hatamlah, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The prosthetic reconstruction of unilateral ear deformity is a straightforward procedure which relies on copying the details, position, and symmetry of the existing contralateral ear. However, reconstructing bilaterally missing ears is challenging. The use of 3-dimensional (3D) technology in the prosthetic reconstruction of the bilaterally missing ears of 6 patients is described. The deformity site was created directly by segmenting the patient's digital scan or indirectly via a desktop scanner. Adequate bone quantity and quality for implant retention and optimal implant locations were also identified virtually. The use of 3D technologies has made it more straightforward to accomplish ear symmetry, as well as to validate the orientation and location of the ears reliably with the minimum subjectivity. The printed ears were matched in shape, surface texture, and anatomy. The skin color was straightforward to record and store so that it could be reproduced at a future time. Overall, the digital manufacture of the ears was controlled, consistent, and reproducible.

Keywords: 3D technologies, bilateral auricular, congenital defects

238
Title: Antimicrobial PMMA bone cement containing long releasing multi-walled carbon nanotubes
Author: Yazan Mohammad Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) ensued from total joint replacement (TJR) pose a severe threattopatientsthatinvolvepoorhealthoutcomes,severepain,death(inseverecases),andnegative influence patients’ quality of life. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is frequently used for the prevention and treatment of PJI. This work aims to study gentamicin release from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement to prolong release over several weeks to provide prophylaxis from PJIs after surgery. Different CNT concentrations were tested with the presence of gentamicin as a powder or preloaded onto carboxyl functionalized CNTs. The different types of bone cement were tested for drug release, mechanical properties, water uptake, antimicrobial properties, and cytocompatibility with human osteoblast cells (MTT, LDH, alizarin red, and morphology). Results showed prolonged release of gentamicin from CNT-loaded bone cements over several weeks compared to gentamicin-containing bone cement. Additionally, the presence of CNT enhanced the percentage of gentamicin released without adversely affecting the nanocompositemechanicalandantimicrobialpropertiesneededforperformance. Cytotoxicitytesting showed non-inferior performance of the CNT-containing bone cement to the equivalent powder containing cement. Therefore, the developed nanocomposites may serve as a novel PMMA bone cement to prevent PJIs.

Keywords: PMMA; bone cement; carbon nanotubes; gentamicin; antimicrobial; cytotoxicity; compression trength

239
Title: The Nine-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF): Its Psychometric Properties among Sri Lankan Students and Measurement Invariance across Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA.
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with the social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age = 17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16–18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, although strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.

Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale 9—Short Form (IGDS9-SF); university students; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; cultur*/collectivisti*/individualis*; invariance; gender; game type

240
Title: WHY REPORTING VERBS SELECTION MATTERS IN ACADEMIC WRITING
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This paper highlights how appropriate uses of reporting verbs (RVs) increase the readability of academic work. Besides providing an overview of RVs and their functions in academic writing, it furnishes a list of evaluative potential RVs. These RVs are categorized into positive, negative, and neutral RVs depending on how academic writers use them to convey strong, weak, and neutral positions of arguments. The article encourages authors to examine the wider context of a citation, integrate other authors’ ideas into their writing, and present their evaluation of the cited information persuasively. In addition to suggestions for employing RVs properly, the article suggests underscoring RVs in academic writing courses. As well, journal editorial boards and reviewers would consider the appropriate uses of RV as a criterion of publishable papers.

Keywords: Academic writing, Rhetoric, Reporting verbs (RVs), Journal articles, genre

241
Title: Hypothalamic neuroinflammation induced by obesity and the effect of Liraglutide
Author: Nour Ratib Batarseh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Recently, significant attention has been given to the effects of obesity-inducing neuroinflammation on the hypothalamus, particularly the activation of glial cells and neurodegenerative sequences. Understanding how high-fat diets provoke neuroinflammation is essential to propose preventative or management strategies combined with medication interventions such as liraglutide. Scientific studies related to obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) in adult humans and rodents and published in PubMed, Science Direct, and ClinicaTrials.gov in the past ten years have been reviewed. The focus has been placed on studies (A) investigating HFD and obesity effects on neuroinflammation and glial cell activation. (B) The effect of liraglutide intervention on neuroinflammation induced by obesity in the hypothalamus. A total of 90 articles fit the inclusion criteria and were included. Findings revealed that induced obesity by HFD is associated with neuroinflammation in the hypothalamus, specifically microglial activation and oxidative stress, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms for this injurious effect are discussed in the review. On the other hand, liraglutide shows promising neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, and anti-apoptosis activities that help manage neurodegenerative diseases. Obesity influences multiple aspects of neuroinflammation in the hypothalamus, including increasing blood-brain barrier permeability, inducing oxidative stress in ER, activating glial cells, and insulin and leptin resistance. It also highlights the consequences of HFD, not only in inducing obesity but also in altering neural integrity. Finally, liraglutide is neuroprotective and limits the initiation of neuroinflammation; therefore, it could be an encouraging therapy for the management of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Gliosis, High fat diet, Hypothalamus, Liraglutide, Neuroinflammation, Obesity

242
Title: Assessment of A new Strategy to Prevent Prescribing Errors Involving COVID-19 Patients in Community Pharmacies
Author: Asma Ahmad El-Shara, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Background: Because COVID-19 patients are vulnerable to prescribing errors (PEs) and adverse drug events, designing and implementing a new approach to prevent prescribing errors (PEs) involving COVID-19 patients has become a priority in pharmacotherapy research. Objectives: To investigate whether using WhatsApp to deliver prescribing error (PE)-related clinical scenarios to community pharmacists could enhance their ability to detect PEs and conduct successful pharmaceutical interventions (PIs). Methods: In this study, 110 community pharmacies were recruited from different regions across Jordan and equally allocated to 2 groups. Over the course of 4 weeks, WhatsApp was used to send PEs-related clinical case scenarios to the active group. The second group was controlled with no clinical scenarios. After completion of the 4-week phase, pharmacists from both groups were asked to document PEs in COVID-19 patients and their interventions using a data-collection form. Results: The incidence of PEs in COVID-19 patients documented in the active group (18.54%) was higher than that reported in the control group (3.09%) (P = .001). Of the 6598 and 968 PIs conducted by participants working in the active and control group pharmacies, 6013 (91.13%) and 651 (67.25%) were accepted, respectively. The proportions of wrong drug (contraindication), wrong drug (unnecessary drug prescribed/no proof of its benefits), and omission of a drug between the active and control groups were 15.30% versus 7.21% (P = .001), 11.85% versus 6.29% (P = .03), and 17.78% versus 10.50% (0.01), respectively. Additionally, the proportions of lethal, serious, and significant errors were 0.74% versus 0.35% (P = .04), 10.52% versus 2.57% (0.002), and 47.88% versus 9.57% (0.001), respectively. Addition of drug therapy interventions (AOR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.21-0.84) and errors with significant clinical seriousness (AOR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.64). Conclusions PEs involving COVID-19 patients in community settings are common and clinically significant. The intervention assessed in this study could be promising for designing a feasible and time-efficient interventional tool to encourage pharmacists’ involvement in identifying and correcting PEs in light of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19 patients, prescribing errors, clinical scenarios

243
Title: Pharmacists-physicians collaborative intervention to reduce vaccine hesitancy and resistance: A randomized controlled trial.
Author: Asma Ahmad El-Shara, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Abstract Purpose: Given their negative influence on community health, vaccine hesitancy and resistance are emerging challenges that require healthcare intervention. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of physician-pharmacist collaborative health coaching on rates of hesitancy and resistance for a COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: After an initial assessment of rates of hesitancy and resistance for a COVID-19 vaccine was conducted, hesitant and resistant participants were approached, recruited, and randomized into an active and control group. Pharmacists-physicians collaborative coaching intervention was delivered to active group subjects over two months through Facebook live sessions. The outcome measures were assessed in both groups before coaching, directly after coaching, and a month after coaching. Results: The proportions of hesitancy and resistance for a COVID-19 vaccine among subjects in the active group were significantly reduced from 64.3% and 35.7?fore coaching to 20.1% and 7.8% directly after coaching, respectively. These proportions were further reduced to 11.1% and 3.3% a month after coaching, respectively. Furthermore, the mean scores for knowledge on, and attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine were significantly increased from 4.6 ± 1.8 and 4.1 ± 1.7 before coaching to 7.5 ± 3.1 and 8.9 ± 3.8 directly after coaching, respectively. However, the change in mean score of beliefs about COVID-19 vaccines among active group subjects was not significant. Conclusion: High rates of hesitancy and resistance for a COVID-19 vaccine were found in Jordan. These rates can be significantly reduced through online pharmacists-physicians collaborative coaching, which can also improve knowledge of and attitude towards COVID-19 vaccines.

Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; Health coaching; SARS-Cov-2, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; Vaccine hesitancy; χ2, chi-square.

244
Title: Towards green driving: A review of efficient driving techniques
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The exponential increase in the number of daily traveling vehicles has exacerbated global warming and environmental pollution issues. These problems directly threaten the continuity and quality of life on the planet. Several techniques and technologies have been used and developed to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions of traveling vehicles over the road network. Here, we investigate some solutions that assist drivers to follow efficient driving tips during their trips. Advanced technologies of communications or vehicle manufacturing have enhanced traffic efficiency over road networks. In addition, several advisory systems have been proposed to recommend to drivers the most efficient speed, route, or other decisions to follow towards their targeted destinations. These recommendations are selected according to the real-time traffic distribution and the context of the road network. In this paper, different high fuel consumption scenarios are investigated over the road networks. Next, the details of efficient driving techniques that were proposed to tackle each case accordingly are reviewed and categorized for downtown and highway driving. Finally, a set of remarks and existing gaps are reported to researchers in this field.

Keywords: green driving; road context; driving assistance; traffic situation

245
Title: Machine learning based prediction with parameters tuning of multi-label real road vehicles characteristics
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The real-time traffic characteristics on the road network highly affect the safety conditions and the driving behaviors there. Early detection of crowded areas or hazardous conditions on the road network should affect the drivers' decisions and behavior to guarantee smooth and comfortable trips. Machine learning mechanisms have been mainly used for general prediction after extensive training processes. Over the road networks, trained machines could be really helpful to obtain instant predictions that assist drivers and autonomous vehicles there. However, the quality and efficiency of these machines are affected by several criteria including the quality of the used dataset and the tuning of the parameters of the regression algorithm. In this work, we investigate the performance of the most popular regression algorithms in terms of temporal prediction of the traffic characteristics in a real road scenario. Moreover, we optimize the regression algorithm by tuning the parameters using the grid search technique. From the experimental results, we can clearly notice the enhancements in predicting the traffic characteristics for different periods of time. We have observed that the number of neighbors, the distance, and the metric parameters' values are best tuned with the values of 4, 'Manhattan', and 'Distance', respectively, for the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) regression algorithm.

Keywords: traffic prediction, machine learning

246
Title: Medicinal Plants and Addiction Treatment: An Overview. In the Handbook of Substance Misuse and Addictions: From Biology to Public Health, editors Vinood B. Patel and Victor R. Preedy, Springer International Publishing
Author: Sahar Majdi Jaffal, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Drug addiction affects both brain and behavior. It has multifaceted impacts on the patients’ body, mind, and nervous system. There are different types of drugs that cause addiction as marijuana, opium, cocaine, heroin, meth and pain medications. Drug abuse is considered as a great challenge to social and public heath in the world. To date, 185 million addicts are there around the world. According to the statistics, with 1,200,000 permanent drug abusers and 600,000 occasional abusers [1], herbal medicine has a long history in treatment of diseases and the majority of people have tendency to use such medications. But there are a lot of questions because of the novelty of this treatment method in treating addiction, this lack of information are more evident. In this review, we highlighted on some herbal and drugs derived from them in treatment of addiction

Keywords: Addiction, medicinal plants, treatment, prevention

247
Title: Effects of Liraglutide Combined with Normal Fat Diet on Neural and Thermogenic Activities of 5’ - AMPK in the Hypothalamus
Author: Nour Ratib Batarseh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Abstract. Background: Medical nutrition therapy is essential in managing and preventing diseases, and liraglutide plays a critical role in controlling weight and modulating the effectiveness of 5’ AMP-activated protein kinase (5’-AMPK) in the hypothalamus. On the other hand, the neural effects of liraglutide and 5’- AMPK are negatively altered by a high-fat diet (HFD); in addition to that, it remains unclear how normal fat diets combined with liraglutide could counteract the HFD effect. Objectives: To investigate the effects of a high-fat versus normal diet on the neural and thermogenic activities of liraglutide and 5’ –AMPK in the hypothalamus. Methods: We searched the available literature for studies published in PubMed, Science Direct, and ClinicaTrials.gov between November/2020 and January /2021, and we included controlled clinical trials based on the animals’ model issued in the past six years. Findings: A total 101 out of 250 articles were included in our search, and findings revealed that high-fat diets negatively influence liraglutide and 5’-AMPK in the hypothalamus. In contrast, a normal-fat diet could reverse this negative influence if combined with a dose of 1.8-3 mg/kg of liraglutide for up to 16 weeks. Conclusion: High-fat diets counteract the activity of liraglutide and 5’-AMPK in controlling food intake and energy hemostasis in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we didn’t find adequate studies that examined the effect of combining a normal-fat diet with liraglutide on 5’-AMPK in the hypothalamus; hence, our concern was reviewing and predicting the possible effect of normal-fat diets.

Keywords: liraglutide, hypothalamus, 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase, high fat diet, obesity

248
Title: Towards Green Driving: Efficient Driving Techniques
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The exponential increase in the number of daily traveling vehicles has exaggerated the global warming and environmental pollution issues. These problems directly threaten the continuity and the quality of life on the planet. Several techniques and technologies have been used and developed to reduce the fuel consumption and gas emissions of traveling vehicles over the road network. In this paper, we investigate some solutions that assist drivers to follow efficient driving tips during their trips. Advanced technologies of communications or vehicle manufacturing have considered enhancing the traffic efficiency over road networks. Besides, several advisory systems have been proposed to recommend drivers with the most efficient speed, route, or other decisions to follow towards their targeted destinations. These recommendations are selected according to the real-time traffic distribution and the context of the road network. In this paper, first different highly fuel consumption reasons and scenarios are investigated over the road networks. Then, the details of efficient driving techniques that were proposed to tackle each case accordingly are reviewed and categorized over downtown and highways. Finally, set of remarks and existed gaps are reported to researchers in this field.

Keywords: Green driving; Road context; Driving Assistance; Traffic situation.

249
Title: Towards Green Driving: Efficient Driving Techniques
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The exponential increase in the number of daily traveling vehicles has exaggerated the global warming and environmental pollution issues. These problems directly threaten the continuity and the quality of life on the planet. Several techniques and technologies have been used and developed to reduce the fuel consumption and gas emissions of traveling vehicles over the road network. In this paper, we investigate some solutions that assist drivers to follow efficient driving tips during their trips. Advanced technologies of communications or vehicle manufacturing have considered enhancing the traffic efficiency over road networks. Besides, several advisory systems have been proposed to recommend drivers with the most efficient speed, route, or other decisions to follow towards their targeted destinations. These recommendations are selected according to the real-time traffic distribution and the context of the road network. In this paper, first different highly fuel consumption reasons and scenarios are investigated over the road networks. Then, the details of efficient driving techniques that were proposed to tackle each case accordingly are reviewed and categorized over downtown and highways. Finally, set of remarks and existed gaps are reported to researchers in this field.

Keywords: Green driving; Road context; Driving Assistance; Traffic situation.

250
Title: Geographical Distribution and Biodiversity of Domesticated Animals of Jordan: History of the First Millennium and Current Situation
Author: Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The domesticated animals or livestock species of Jordan have the potential to produce highly valued animal products and many small householders depend on this to avoid food insecurity in a worsening climate change that has persisted for a while, coupled with a rising cost of living crisis in Jordan as elsewhere. This study initiates urgent first steps for documenting the current status of indigenous livestock and their geographical distribution and biodiversity in Jordan. It also aims to raise and broaden public awareness for better conservation and utilization of food resources as they improve species of animals that are better geared to the need to adjust to climate change and its multiplex vicissitudes. In the present research, a survey was conducted listing the indigenous livestock breeds, their location, their number qua census and threats for extinction. The findings indicate that over the last century in Jordan, many livestock species have lost their previous key role in the livelihood of Jordanians and thus were reduced in number. They vanished from the scene in some geographical regions where they had long existed. Various other species are facing extinction or at risk thereof. In fact, human activity played at times a significant role: both positive in conservation for the status of livestock – and yet at other times negative, a threating role. We have decided to ring the alarm bell in order to alert the public and governmental authorities. The present study seeks to supply empirically-based data in order to encourage government offices, organizations and stakeholders in Jordan to engage in a rethink relevant to basic everyday life of the population and the faunal environment: and to take necessary steps to better conserve indigenous threatened livestock before it is too late

Keywords: Jordan, climate threats, livestock, red list, extinction, conservation

251
Title: The method of doubt between Descartes and Taha Hussein, A comparative study
Author: Mohammad Al-Ghazu, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The philosophy of doubt is a controversial subject studied by many Arab and foreign researchers of different intellectual, religious, political affiliations and doctrines. In this research we will try to discuss this topic by answering the following question: What are the similarities and differences between Descartes doubt and Taha Hussein? We divided the research in to two chapters, and in the first section we discussed the philosophy of doubt at Descartes and in the second chapter we discussed the philosophy of doubt at Taha Hussein, and in particular his doubt about pre-islamic literature and poetry, which he considered mostly suspicious. With regard to Descartes chapter, we analyze Descartes’uses of doubt as a principle of life and thought that leads to truth. As for the second chapter, we follow the topics, personalities, and events that Taha Hussein doubted, and what led to this suspicion. We concluded that they both agreed to never doubt the matters of God and existence. Both of them used doubt to reach the absolute truth. The differences between both writers were that Descartes discussed doubt as an ideology and philosophy, while Hussein used the doubt to refute and clarify the ancient Arabic literature and its history.

Keywords: Arabic literature. Descartes. Taha Hussein. Suspicion. Philosophy. Comparative literature

252
Title: The method of doubt between Descartes and Taha Hussein, A comparative study
Author: Mohammad Al-Ghazu, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The philosophy of doubt is a controversial subject studied by many Arab and foreign researchers of different intellectual, religious, political affiliations and doctrines. In this research we will try to discuss this topic by answering the following question: What are the similarities and differences between Descartes doubt and Taha Hussein? We divided the research in to two chapters, and in the first section we discussed the philosophy of doubt at Descartes and in the second chapter we discussed the philosophy of doubt at Taha Hussein, and in particular his doubt about pre-islamic literature and poetry, which he considered mostly suspicious. With regard to Descartes chapter, we analyze Descartes’uses of doubt as a principle of life and thought that leads to truth. As for the second chapter, we follow the topics, personalities, and events that Taha Hussein doubted, and what led to this suspicion. We concluded that they both agreed to never doubt the matters of God and existence. Both of them used doubt to reach the absolute truth. The differences between both writers were that Descartes discussed doubt as an ideology and philosophy, while Hussein used the doubt to refute and clarify the ancient Arabic literature and its history.

Keywords: Arabic literature. Descartes. Taha Hussein. Suspicion. Philosophy. Comparative literature

253
Title: An Acoustic Account of Prosodic Competence through Shadowing
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Adopting an acoustic framework, this experimental study elucidates the effect of the shadowing technique on the prosodic competence of learners of English whose L1 (Arabic) and English have quite dissimilar phonological systems. It appertains to prosodic aspects such as pauses, stress, and sound length that cause challenges to non-English native speakers. Two individuals of heterogeneous linguistic background participated in a pre-test and a post-test before and after five weeks of shadowing sessions. The data was analyzed acoustically using Praat Software. Findings showed that the participant with the elementary level outperformed the other participant whose level was intermediate, partially because the former was highly motivated to improve her English. The study concluded that shadowing per se is in no way a panacea for improving supra-segmental features unless it is coupled with a motivation to do so, regardless of the level of proficiency.

Keywords: Pauses, Pronunciation, Prosody, Shadowing, Supra-segmental Features

254
Title: La relation entre hommes et femmes : point de vue d’Ahlam Mosteghanemi.
Author: Mohammad Al-Ghazu, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: La relation entre l'homme et la femme semble ambiguë malgré son abondance dans les écrits d’Ahlam Mosteghanemi. Très peu de chercheurs ont abordé ce sujet et selon nos recherches en bibliothèques et en ligne personne n’est allé chercher quel genre d’hommes existe dans ses écrits. Dans cette recherche nous avons essayé d'éclaircir la relation entre l'homme et la femme vue par Ahlam Mosteghanemi en répondant sur la question suivante : quels sont les trois genres d’hommes entre lesquels Ahlam est écartelée? Nous avons analysé sa vision de l'homme, et cherché les types d'hommes qui ont influencé ses idées. A travers une large étude des œuvres de cet écrivain, nous avons trouvé trois types d'hommes. Ce sont l'amant, le politicien et le patriotique Abstract Despite the abundant discussion of the relationship between men and women in Ahlam Mosteghanemi's novels, the nature of this relation is not yet obvious. A few researchers have tackled this issue but none have investigated the types of men found in her novel. This research aims at clarifying the relationship between men and women in Mosteghanemi's novels through answering the following question: what three types of men whom Ahlam has been split between? Through the analysis of her vision towards men and through investigating the men who influenced her thoughts, three distinctive types of men are found in her novels; the lover, the politician and the patriot.

Keywords: Ahlam Mosteghanemi, femme arabe, homme arabe, littérature francophone. Littérature française.

255
Title: The Catalytic Influence of Polymers and Surfactants on the Rate Constants of Reaction of Maltose with Cerium(IV) in Acidic Aqueous Medium.
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Kinetics of the reaction of maltose with cerium ammonium sulfate were analyzed spectrophotometrically by observing the decrease of the absorbance of Cerium(IV) at 385 nm in the presence and absence of polyethylene glycols (600, 1500, and 4000) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), in addition to anionic micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and nonionic micelles of Tween 20 surfactants. Generally, there are few literatures about using the polymers (PEGs and PVP) as catalysts in the oxidation-reduction reactions, therefore the major target of this work was to investigate the influence of the nature of polymers and surfactants on the oxidation rates of maltose by Cerium(IV) in acidic aqueous media, as well as employing the Piszkiewicz model to explain the catalytic effect. The kinetic runs were derived by adaptation of the pseudo first-order reaction conditions with respect to the Cerium(IV). The reaction was found to be first-order with respect to the oxidant and fractional-order to maltose and H2SO4. The reaction rates were enhanced in the presence of polymer and micellar catalysis. Indeed, the surfactants were found to work perfectly close to their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). The electrostatic interaction and H-bonding appear to play an influential role in binding maltose molecules to polymer/ surfactant micelles, while oxidant ions remain at the periphery of the Stern layer within the micelle.

Keywords: Polymer catalysis, Micellar Catalysis, Surfactants, Cerium(IV), Maltose, Oxidation reactions

256
Title: Le soutien logistique fourni par les femmes aux djihadistes, « Filles du djihad » exemple.
Author: Mohammad Al-Ghazu, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Cet article vise à éclaircir la participation des femmes au jihad avec les organisations islamiques djihadistes soit comme des épouses, soit comme solidaires à ces djihadistes. Il se divise ne trois partis principaux : Au premier, nous avons discuté des raisons qui les ont poussées au jihad. Dans le deuxième, nous avons souligné les moyens de recrutement et la catégorie des femmes visées. Quant au troisième, nous avons discuté de leur rôle dans ce jihad et les conditions de vie qu’elles subissaient lors de leur existence en Moyen Orient. En fait, elles ont offert leur soutien logistique souhaite aux djihadistes de Daesh, mais elles ont découvert tard qu’elles étaient trompées par l’image de ces personnes. Logistical support provided by women to jihadists. “Girls of Jihad” example. This research aims to clarify the participation of women in jihad with Islamic jihadist organizations either as wives or as solidarity with these jihadists. The research is divided into three parts: first, we discussed the reasons that pushed them to jihad. Second, we underlined the means of recruitment and the category of women targeted. Third, we discussed their role in jihad and the living conditions they endured during their existence in the Middle East. In fact, they offered their logistical support to the jihadists of ISIS, but discovered that they were deceived by the image of these people.

Keywords: soutien logistique, jihad, femmes djihadistes, islam, Daesh.

257
Title: Understanding the determinants of digital shopping features: The role of promo code on custom-er behavioral intention
Author: Abdal-Razzaq Mohammad Al-Oqool, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This paper empirically identifies the predictors influencing the use of promo code in Jordan. This research extended TAM and TBP models with perceived enjoyment and brand image in the context of digital shopping features. The study utilized 379 surveys distributed in Jordan and analyzed the data using SEM. Findings of this study confirmed the proposed model, where brand image, perceived enjoyment, perceived behavior control and social influence significantly predict customers behavioral intention to use promo code with an R2 = 59%. The model of this study also supported the role of perceived ease of use and social influence in predicting brand image. Discussion and conclusion are depicted at the end of this paper.

Keywords: Promo code, TAM, TBP, Perceived enjoyment, Brand Image

258
Title: Polyethylene Glycols Catalyzed Reaction of Catechol and Resorcinol with Cerium Ammonium Sulfate in the Aqueous Medium: Kinetic and Mechanistic Study
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The reaction kinetics of catechol or resorcinol with cerium (Ce) ammonium sulfate were spectrophotometrically investigated in polymer media containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 200, 600, 1500, and 4000). Kinetic runs for Ce(IV) were performed under pseudo-first-order reaction conditions. The reaction was found to be first-order for Ce(IV) and fractional orders for catechol, resorcinol, and H+. The presence of PEG caused considerable acceleration of the oxidation of the two substrates. Of note, PEG 4000 presents a distinguished catalytic activity when compared with PEG 200, 600, and 1500 in an acidic medium. The kinetic results were modeled using the Benesi–Hildebrand and Menger–Portnoy equations to explain the nature of the catalytic effects of both PEG forms and substrates. Hence, the efficiency of the reaction was optimal in the presence of resorcinol as a substrate. Based on kinetic features and thermodynamic parameters, probable mechanisms and expected final products are suggested and discussed.

Keywords: Catechol · Resorcinol · Cerium(IV) · Polyethylene glycols · Spectrophotometry

259
Title: The impact of social commerce on online purchase intention: The mediation role of trust in social network sites
Author: Abdal-Razzaq Mohammad Al-Oqool, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This research aimed to investigate the impact of social commerce on online purchase intention. The mediation role of trust in social network sites between social commerce and online purchase intention was explored. Dataset obtained from 467 Jordanian users of social network sites. PLS-SEM was conducted for analysis purposes. The findings reveal that social commerce and trust in social network sites directly affect online purchase intention. The findings have additionally shown that trust in social network sites has a mediating role between social commerce and online purchase intention. The main recommendation to companies is to derive significant benefits from social commerce and consider them to maximize the potential level of online purchases. Suggestions for further studies are mentioned at the end of the study.

Keywords: Social commerce, Trust, SNS, Online Purchase Intention

260
Title: Optimization of Kumada-Corriu-Tamao cross-coupling reactions of tri- and tetra- bromothiophenes and symmetrical di-bromo-2, 2' bithiophene with cyclohexylmagnesium bromide: Synthesis, DFT studies and nonlinear optical analysis
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Tri-, tetra-bromothiophene and symmetrical dibromo-2,2'-bithiophene derivatives were coupled efficiently with cyclohexylmagnesium bromide in the presence of iron, nickel and palladium as catalysts under optimized mild reaction conditions. Additives such as lithium chloride and bromide were employed to enhance the efficiency of the Grignard reagent. The corresponding coupled products, which were widely used as precursors or additives in photonic industries were studied by DFT method at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory using Gaussian 09W to explore the global chemical reactivity descriptors and nonlinear optical activities ( NLO). According to the results of NLO analysis, polarizability (α), anisotropy hyperpolarizability (Δα) and first order hyperpolarizability (β) exhibited higher value than the standard urea, which reflect a promising molecular non-linear susceptibility, indicating that the compounds 4a-4f are good candidates in the potential photonic applications.

Keywords: Iron; nickel; palladium; thiophene; nonlinear optical analysis

261
Title: The mediating role of customer relationship management between e-supply chain management and competitive advantage
Author: Abdal-Razzaq Mohammad Al-Oqool, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the role of implementing e-supply chain management (E-SCM) on the competitive position of companies and whether implementing customer relationship management (CRM) can affect the relationship between E-SCM and competitive advantage. To achieve this objective, a quantitative approach was utilized. A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed where 243 questionnaires were returned, with 17 incomplete questionnaires being excluded, leaving 226 usable questionnaires. PLS-SEM software was used to analyze the data. The results of this study demonstrate the imperative role of implementing E-SCM and CRM on creating a competitive advantage for firms. It also shows that CRM mediates the relationship between E-SCM and competitive advantage, suggesting that utilizing different technologies can help firms better communicate with their customers and thus better serve them which in turn will enhance customers’ satisfaction and thus boost the competitive position of the firm.

Keywords: E-SCM, Competitive advantage, CRM

262
Title: Solar Hot Water Heating and Electricity Generation Using PV/T Hybrid System
Author: Firas Abdullah Obeidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Experimental work has been carried out to study the possibility of combining a conventional solar water collector with a hybrid device, developed previously and known as PV/T system, in order to obtain hot water with temperature above 40 °C. The effect of the combination on the productivity of hot water and the produced electricity was found. The formerly developed device, in which there was a multi-purpose solar collector, can produce hot water and electricity. It was connected to the conventional fn-tube collector in series in order to raise the product temperature to a higher level. This development was achieved for the frst time as a combination between a PV/T and a conventional fn-tube collector. Instrumentation to measure temperatures, solar radiation, wind speed and flow rate was installed on the system. It was found that the water temperature was raised from 29 °C to 32 °C in the PV/T collector system and, after flowing through the conventional collector, it was raised to 50 °C and above. It was also found that the power efciency in the case of water flow is always higher than in the case of no water flow.

Keywords: solar energy systems, water heating system, PV Module, flat-plate solar collector

263
Title: Green synthesis of Size-Controlled copper oxide nanoparticles as catalysts for H2 production from industrial waste aluminum
Author: Firas Abdullah Obeidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Extensive research and development in the processes of production and generation of hydrogen are needed to make renewable hydrogen cost-competitive with fossil hydrogen. As a result, developing hydrogen energy from low-cost components and synthesizing it from renewable resources is an important issue that can be considered a global challenge. The current research provided a continuous H2 energy production from waste aluminum in a water medium using copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) as catalysts in the reaction. CuO NPs have been prepared by a green, easy, inexpensive, and systematic method using Catha edulis L. (Khat) extract as reducing and capping agents. Separately, CuO NPs prepared in an alkaline media using the conventional hydrothermal process have been described and reported for comparison. Multidisciplinary tools were used to characterize the powders for structural, morphological, and surface aspects. CuO NPs were homogeneous, well-dispersed, and have fine diameters with an average of 6 nm, owing to the abundant biomolecules in the plant extract. The synthesized samples were utilized as catalysts for H2 production from industrial waste aluminum with a 1/0.02 ration of Al/CuO by weight. The primary results revealed a higher H2 production yield and rapid rate in alkaline than acidic mediums. Under all conditions, the CuO NPs prepared from the extract had better catalytic activity than those prepared by a conventional method. The results proved that the reaction temperature prompts the reaction kinetics more than other parameters. The optimum H2 yield could be optimized at a temperature of 70C, 1/50 ratio of CuO/waste Al, and near-neutral solutions. The above conditions are ideal for designing a continuous production reactor. The hydrogen generated using industrial waste aluminum in the present system is a cost-effective and sustainable approach.

Keywords: aluminum waste, catalysts, clean energy, copper oxide, hydrogen production, nanomaterials

264
Title: Embedded control unit design for energy management in smart homes
Author: Kasim Mousa Al-Aubidy, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This paper deals with smart home energy management through load scheduling and optimal use of available energy sources. In this study, three energy sources were considered: the national electricity grid, photovoltaic (PV) energy, and the storage unit. The PV array can provide the maximum power to the load at a given operating point where the output power changes with temperature, radiation and load. Therefore, a real-time controller is proposed to track the maximum power. An energy management algorithm has been proposed in a smart home to achieve the main goal of making the electricity bill as low as possible. The algorithm involves scheduling loads by assigning a priority to each load. The loads are supplied with the required power according to their priorities and the available energy. The obtained results indicate that supplying the PV system with a fuzzy-based MPPT indicates an increase in system efficiency. The results also showed that the use of energy management based on load scheduling led to a significant reduction in the electricity bill.

Keywords: Energy management; Fuzzy logic control; Internet of thing (IoT); Smart home; Wireless sensor networks

265
Title: Development of Polymeric-Based Formulation as Potential Smart Colonic Drug Delivery System
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Conventional oral formulations are mainly absorbed in the small intestine. This limits their use in the treatment of some diseases associated with the colon, where the drug has to act topically at the inflammation site. This paved the way for the development of a smart colonic drug delivery system, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy, reducing the dosing frequency and potential side effects, as well as improving patient acceptance, especially in cases where enemas or other topical preparations may not be effective alone in treating the inflammation. In healthy individuals, it takes an oral medication delivery system about 5 to 6 h to reach the colon. A colonic drug delivery system should delay or prohibit the medication release during these five to six hours while permitting its release afterward. The main aim of this study was to develop a smart drug delivery system based on pH-sensitive polymeric formulations, synthesized by a free-radical bulk polymerization method, using different monomer and crosslinker concentrations. The formulations were loaded with 5-amino salicylic acid as a model drug and Capmul MCM C8 as a bioavailability enhancer. The glass transition temperature (Tg), tensile strength, Young’s modulus, and tensile elongation at break were all measured as a part of the dried films’ characterization. In vitro swelling and release studies were performed to assess the behavior of the produced formulations. The in vitro swelling and release evaluation demonstrated the potential ability of the developed system to retard the drug release at conditions mimicking the stomach and small intestine while triggering its release at conditions mimicking the colon, which indicates its promising applicability as a potential smart colonic drug delivery system.

Keywords: 5-amino salicylic acid; smart delivery system; sustainable polymers; triggered drug delivery; ulcerative colitis

266
Title: Mucilage of Coccinia grandis as an Efficient Natural Polymer-Based Pharmaceutical Excipient
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Natural eco-friendly materials are recently employed in products to replace synthetic materials due to their superior benefits in preserving the environment. The herb Coccinia grandis is widely distributed in continents like Asia and Africa and used traditionally to treat fever, leprosy, asthma, jaundice, and bronchitis. Mucilage of Coccinia grandis was accordingly extracted, isolated by a maceration technique, and precipitated. The mucilage was evaluated for its physicochemical, binding, and disintegrant properties in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. The crucial physicochemical properties such as flow properties, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, microbial load, cytotoxicity was evaluated and the compatibility was analyzed using sophisticated instrumental methods (TGA, DTA, DSC, and FTIR). The binding properties of the mucilage was used at three different concentrations and compared with starch and PVP as examples of standard binders. The disintegrant properties of mucilage were used at two different concentrations and compared with standard disintegrants MCCP, SSG, and CCS. The tablets were punched and evaluated for their hardness, friability, assay, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of the mucilage were performed in a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line. The outcome of the study indicated that the mucilage had good performance compared with starch and PVP. Further, the mucilage acts as a better disintegrant than MCCP, SSG and CCS for paracetamol tablets. Use of a concentration of 3% or less demonstrated the ability of the mucilage to act as a super disintegrating agent and showed faster disintegration and dissolution, which makes it as an attractive, promising disintegrant in formulating solid dosage forms to improve the therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation results demonstrated that the mucilage is non-cytotoxic to human cells and is safe.

Keywords: binding agent; disintegrating agent; natural polymer; mucilage; Coccinia grandis

267
Title: Feature Model Configuration Reuse Scheme for Self-Adaptive Systems
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Most large-scale systems including self-adaptive systems utilize feature models (FMs) to represent their complex architectures and benefit from the reuse of commonalities and variability information. Self-adaptive systems (SASs) are capable of reconfiguring themselves during the run time to satisfy the scenarios of the requisite contexts. However, reconfiguration of SASs corresponding to each adaptation of the system requires significant computational time and resources. The process of configuration reuse can be a better alternative to some contexts to reduce computational time, effort and error-prone. Nevertheless, systems’ complexity can be reduced while the development process of systems by reusing elements or components. FMs are considered one of the new ways of reuse process that are able to introduce new opportunities for the reuse process beyond the conventional system components. While current FM-based modelling techniques represent, manage, and reuse elementary features to model SASs concepts, modeling and reusing configurations have not yet been considered. In this context, this study presents an extension to FMs by introducing and managing configuration features and their reuse process. Evaluation results demonstrate that reusing configuration features reduces the effort and time required by a reconfiguration process during the run time to meet the required scenario according to the current context.

Keywords: Self-adaptive system; feature model; system reuse; configuration management; variability modeling

268
Title: Development of Polymeric-Based Formulation as Potential Smart Colonic Drug Delivery System
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Conventional oral formulations are mainly absorbed in the small intestine. This limits their use in the treatment of some diseases associated with the colon, where the drug has to act topically at the inflammation site. This paved the way for the development of a smart colonic drug delivery system, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy, reducing the dosing frequency and potential side effects, as well as improving patient acceptance, especially in cases where enemas or other topical preparations may not be effective alone in treating the inflammation. In healthy individuals, it takes an oral medication delivery system about 5 to 6 h to reach the colon. A colonic drug delivery system should delay or prohibit the medication release during these five to six hours while permitting its release afterward. The main aim of this study was to develop a smart drug delivery system based on pH-sensitive polymeric formulations, synthesized by a free-radical bulk polymerization method, using different monomer and crosslinker concentrations. The formulations were loaded with 5-amino salicylic acid as a model drug and Capmul MCM C8 as a bioavailability enhancer. The glass transition temperature (Tg), tensile strength, Young’s modulus, and tensile elongation at break were all measured as a part of the dried films’ characterization. In vitro swelling and release studies were performed to assess the behavior of the produced formulations. The in vitro swelling and release evaluation demonstrated the potential ability of the developed system to retard the drug release at conditions mimicking the stomach and small intestine while triggering its release at conditions mimicking the colon, which indicates its promising applicability as a potential smart colonic drug delivery system

Keywords: 5-amino salicylic acid; smart delivery system; sustainable polymers; triggered drug delivery; ulcerative colitis

269
Title: Automatically Generated Goal Model from Requirements: Toward an Enhanced Formalism
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The Goal Model (GM) of software is one of the important concepts in the software requirements specification, as it helps in representing the software goals and the relationships between them. Several research works were conducted to generate GM of software from its requirements document. However, the generated GMs merge behavior and soft goals aspects. This merging leaded to tangled and complex generated GMs that are difficult to maintain. The work presented in this paper proposes a GM formalism handling this insufficiency. It is part of an automated GM generating project where it focuses on the target GM. Thus, in this work, different recent techniques that automatically generate GMs are analyzed, their merging, tangling, and complexity of maintenance were stated, and a GM formalism facing these challenges is proposed. It separates goals clearly into behavior goals, soft goals, and constraints aspects. An evaluating case study, which is a partial concrete and real word domain requirements specification, is presented. This separation of concerns leaded to valuable results: complexity reduction, improvement of the understandability, simplicity of maintenance, and raising up the expressiveness power.

Keywords: Goal Model (GM), Behavior goal, Soft goal, Requirement specification, Automated goal model generation, Aspect separation, maintenance

270
Title: Automatically Generated Feature Model from Requirements: Toward an Enhanced Formalism
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The feature model is one of the most important concepts in software product line development process, as it helps to represent commonalities and variabilities among software products. Several research works are currently conducted to generate a feature model of a software product line from its requirements document. However, the generated feature models do not include data and actors aspects which are essential parts of any software product line. The work presented in this paper is part of an automated feature model generating project which explores suitable input requirements document notations, simplifies the generating process, and outputs generated feature model formalism. It aims to propose a powerful feature model that should be the target of any automated process generating a feature model. Thus, in this work, different recent techniques that automatically generate feature models are analyzed. The lack of data and actors in these generated feature models was stated, and a feature model, aimed to be a good generated target, integrating data and actors with other conventional features is proposed. A case study evaluating the proposed target feature model formalism is presented.

Keywords: feature model (FM), software product line (SPL), unified modeling language (UML), FM automatic generation

271
Title: A Lubricating Oil-Based Maintenance for Diesel Engines at the end-user: An Effective Predictive Approach
Author: Yara Hilal Haddad, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This study aims to analyze the used lubricating oil of small Diesel engines under different conditions in order to monitor their instant health condition, indicate their useful life, and provide early warnings of failure progressing. It is an attempt to monitor different oil properties together with oil contaminants to diagnose the possible failures before occurring and identify their root causes. It is an effective tool in the case where no historical data records for the engines. Specifically, used lubricating oil samples from eight Diesel-powered engines are analyzed as an important information source for early failure detection and decision support. Oil properties; kinematic viscosity, density, and total acidic number (TAN) were analyzed. Also, oil contaminants; wear debris particles, soot, and water content were also elucidated in attempting to predict engine health conditions, wear mechanisms, and useful life. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the wear debris particles. The root causes of engine failure were specified using the 5 Why’s method, and interviews with specialists, while the results were schematically presented using the Fishbone diagram. The analysis of oil viscosity showed that engines of high capacities performed better at high operating temperatures than small engines. Besides, the large oil imperfections are not directly related to the oil viscosity reduction but to the high oil TAN and the type and concentration of the oil impurities. This work analysis could assist in robust decision-making on the engine health condition, service life, and the maintenance activity that should be applied.

Keywords: ondition-Based Maintenance; Wear debris particles; Viscosity measurement; Industrial Engine; Wear mechanism; Proactive maintenance; Tribology science.

272
Title: BLIND COLOR USER INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS: A UML SPECIFICATION
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Color blindness, or color vision deficiency, is an inability to see the difference between certain colors. Men are more likely to be born with color blindness. Most people with color blindness can't distinguish between certain shades of red and green. Less commonly, people with color blindness can't distinguish between shades of blue and yellow. For that it’s a significant barrier to effective computer use. Several research works dealing with blind color user interfaces are currently conducted. However, requirements engineering for such interfaces is still missing. The work presented in this paper is part of an automated blind color user interface generation project which explores suitable input requirements document notations, simplifies the generating process, and outputs generated color blind user interface. It aims to define functional and nonfunctional requirements for powerful color blind user interface and their UML specification. Thus, different recent techniques that deal with these interfaces are selected according to their relevance and up to date, then they are analyzed, the lack of requirements engineering for these interface was stated, and a solution is proposed. It consists of requirements elicitation and specification with UML notations. A case study evaluating the proposed approach is presented. The obtained results confirm the power and positive impact of such requirements engineering on researches in this domain.

Keywords: color vision deficiency (CVD), color blindness requirements, color blindness user interface

273
Title: The moderating role of IFRS in the relationship between risk management and financial disclosure in Jordanian banks
Author: Qasim Ahmad Alawaqleh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the impact of IFRS on the relationship between risk management and financial disclosure in Jordanian banks in light of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study data were collected from Jordanian banks’ financial reports with the help of panel data to measure IFRS and risk management. The study depended on daily data, at a rate of (256) trading days from March 3, 2020 until April 29, 2021. Also, the study used questionnaires to measure financial disclosure in addition to interviews with eight Jordanian bank managers. Multiple regression was used to test hypotheses. The study found a positive statistically significant relationship between risk management and financial disclosure. The relationship was portrayed by a coefficient of 0.315. The result also showed the moderating role of IFRS in such a relationship, the effect reached 0.696. The conclusions have implications for both theory and practice. In fact, the findings elucidated the connection between risk management, IFRS, and financial disclosure. Finally, Jordanian banks should focus on IFRS and risk management, enhanced management, and employee skills as recommendations in this study. Thus, Jordanian banks pay particular attention to IFRS and risk management in order to achieve profitability through financial disclosure.

Keywords: risk management, International Financial Reporting Standards, fiscal disclosure

274
Title: A system for prediction, prevention, and diagnosis of heart related diseases at an early stage using deep learning
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A system for prediction, prevention, and diagnosis of heart related diseases at an early stage using deep learning

Keywords: A system; prediction; prevention; deep learning

275
Title: Challenges to online education during the time of COVID‐19: A focus group study
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Aim: To explore the experience of online education during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) from the perspectives of nurse educators, postgraduate students, and undergraduate students in two universities in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT). This article only highlights the challenges faced by nurse educators and students. Method: A qualitative design using a focus group strategy was employed. The data were collected from two universities in the OPT from September 2020 to October 2020. The maximum variation sampling strategy was used. Findings: Seven focus groups were conducted with nurse educators (n = 2), postgraduate students (n = 1), and undergraduate students (n = 4). The findings revealed that nurse educators and students faced several challenges when they were abruptly turned to online learning. These challenges included challenges concerning clinical courses, lack of resources, lack of interaction, evaluation, and their home environment. Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate the challenges involved in nursing education in OPT during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Impact: The findings of this study can be used to improve the online learning experience during COVID‐19. As a recent change to nursing education, it is vital to understand the nature of the problems related to this sudden change

Keywords: challenges, COVID‐19, focus group, Occupied Palestinian Territory, online education

276
Title: Jordanian Nurses’ Perspectives of Spirituality and Spiritual Care
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Background: Spirituality is considered one of the main aspects of wholesome care for human beings. Spirituality is a multidimensional concept and has several definitions in the literature. Most of the studies concerning spirituality were conducted in Western cultures and the Middle East; however, there are a limited number of studies regarding spirituality in Jordan. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian nurses’ perspectives on spirituality and spiritual care in a palliative care unit in 1 cancer center in Jordan. Methods: A descriptive qualitative design with 20 semistructured interviews was used to access Jordanian nurses’ perspectives on spirituality. This study was conducted in the major specialist center for the treatment of cancer in Jordan. A purposive sample of 20 registered nurses who had worked at least 6 months in the palliative care unit was recruited. Results: Nurses’ perceptions of spirituality were represented by 2 themes: spirituality means connectedness to “Allah,” and spirituality evokes enjoyment in life. Two themes emerged in terms of nurses’ perceptions of spiritual care: ensuring patients’ comfort and relaxation, and sharing patients’ religious rituals. Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of the nurses’ perspectives on spirituality in the context of Islamic and Arabic culture, and the need for training in spirituality. Implications for Practice: The concept of spirituality is recognized as a fundamental aspect of the nurse’s role, making it essential to improve nurses’ capabilities to integrate spirituality courses into the nursing curriculum

Keywords: Nurse Palliative care Perception Spirituality

277
Title: The Associations Between Patients’ Characteristics and the Quality of Life Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Jordan: A Cross-Sectional Study
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Abstract Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the most significant leading causes of death and disability in the world. The quality of life (QoL) score is used to evaluate the impact of ACS treatments on the patients’ physical, emotional, and social functioning. It is considered a significant indicator of the progress of the patients’ health status and is useful in predicting patients’ needs for continuing, modifying, or changing their treatment plans. Objective: To identify the associations between patients’ characteristics and the QoL among ACS patients in Jordan. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sample of 372 participants with ACS from six referral hospitals in Jordan. Results: Jordanian patients with higher educational level and exercise had significant and positive association with QoL (β=0.257, p < .001), (β=0.191, p < .001), respectively. Also, patients who reported having dyslipidaemia and having unstable angina (UA) had lower score of QoL (β=−0.165, p < .001), (β=−0.149, p < .001), respectively. Finally, gender and working status did not significantly appear to have an association with the total QoL. Conclusions: This study sheds light on the importance of increasing the level of patients’ awareness about their illness by educating them about it and encouraging them to engage in physical activity programs

Keywords: quality of life, acute coronary syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, Jordan

278
Title: The predominant leadership styles among private schools' principals during Covid-19 pandemic and its relationship to level of teachers' psychological motivation
Author: Sanaa Nasser Alkhawaldeh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This study pursuits to expansion our knowledge regarding the predominant leadership styles among private schools' principals during Covid-19 pandemic and its relationship to level of teachers' psychological motivation. Moreover, the study attempts to disclose whether teachers' educational stream and experience years interact with leadership styles. 200 participant (100 males & 100 females) have been randomly selected to participate in this study. Their point of views and psychological motivation were measured using 5- Likert scales format. Results of the study find out that the democrat leadership style is the most predominant style from teachers point of views. Moreover, their level of psychological motivation was moderate. The results find out a positive correlation between leadership styles and psychological motivation and its dimensions. It was finally revealed that no significant effects of teacher educational stream and experience years on leadership styles

Keywords: Leadership, Private schools', Covid-19 pandemic, Motivation

279
Title: Procrastination in daily academic tasks and its relationship to self-esteem among university students
Author: Sanaa Nasser Alkhawaldeh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Abstract---Procrastination in daily academic tasks is a popular and complex phenomenon that can be influenced by several factors including self-esteem. The current study seeks to explore the relationship between procrastination in daily academic tasks and selfesteem among university students in Jordan. Additionally, the study aims at examining whether the participants’ gender, academic level and academic specialization have significant effects on procrastination in daily academic tasks and self-esteem. Data were collected form 240 university students in Jordan (123 male & 117 female) by administering an online survey. The study adopted a descriptive correlational approach by employing academic procrastination and self-esteem scales. Results of the study reported a low negative relationship between procrastination in daily academic tasks and selfesteem of participants. The participants reported a moderate level of procrastination in daily academic tasks and self-esteem. The level of procrastination was slightly higher than self-esteem level. Moreover, there was a significant difference in levels of procrastination and selfesteem which were attributed to gender which was in favour of male students. Finally, there were no significant differences between

Keywords: -procrastination, self-esteem, daily academic tasks, university students

280
Title: Textual analysis of the annual report and corporate performance: evidence from China
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Purpose This paper aims to examine the relationship between the readability of annual reports and corporate performance in Chinese listed firms. Design/methodology/approach This research examined the annual report readability factors of Chinese listed companies by using a textual analysis method using Python to extract the text from the annual reports, convert it into numerical form to facilitate statistical analysis and then merge the results with data from the Chinese stock market to explain the impact on corporate performance and predict future earnings in the Chinese financial markets from 2008 to 2021. Findings Study findings indicate that firms with better financial reporting readability are more profitable, incur lower agency costs and have low earnings in the Chinese stock markets when readability is low (i.e. more complexity and length of annual reports). It was also found that when a listed company has a good performance, it prefers to use a short space to explain its operating and financial status. More generally, the means of the report length are short, and accounting terms are used less frequently; in the case of a poor company, the annual report is particularly long and accounting terms are more frequently used. In the context of the COVID-19 crisis, this study served as a proxy measure of returns prior to the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, an instrumental variable approach is used, which helps results to remain robust and control for fixed effects and potential endogeneity problems. Research limitations/implications Although this study’s results cannot be generalised globally because of their limited scope, they can still be generalised across non-English speaking countries. Thus, future cross-country research is encouraged to examine the textual analysis of financial reports across those countries. Practical implications This study conveys two messages to investors and policymakers within the Chinese market. First, investors ought to pay greater attention to the nonfinancial information contained in annual reports to improve the accuracy of their predictions regarding future firm performance. Second, Chinese policymakers are encouraged to instate a policy for the use of plain English in annual reports to make them more readable by international investors. Originality/value This study contributes to the paucity of research that examines English-written annual reports in non-English speaking countries by examining the readability of annual reports in the Chinese market.

Keywords: Readability, Annual financial report, Corporate performance, Text analysis, Future earnings, Chinese listed companies

281
Title: Intention to Use E-Payments from the Perspective of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT): Evidence from Yemen
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This study explores the challenges facing the current e-payment systems and investigates the main factors that support using the e-payment system. This study used a cross-sectional approach. An online survey was conducted on Yemeni consumers as part of the collection of data. The data from 486 questionnaires were analyzed using smartPLS4 and Jamovi software for structural model analysis and statistical analysis. According to the PLS-SEM results, the structural model shows that R2 is 0.757, which explains the variances in behavioral intention via all the constructs. Statistically, the intention to use e-payment systems is significantly and positively influenced by performance and effort expectancies and social influence. In contrast, facilitation conditions are significantly and negatively correlated with behavioral intention. This is attributed to consumers’ view of the infrastructure of Internet services, which does not contribute to the behavioral intention and acceptance of using electronic payment in Yemen. Contrary to expectations, age does not moderate the relationship between performance expectancy, social influence, and intention to use e-payment systems; hence, the related hypothesis was not supported. This study provides valuable suggestions for policymakers, designers, developers, and researchers, enabling them to better understand the critical aspects of using the electronic payment system. This study developed a model for predicting the likelihood of acceptance of electronic payments in a country that has not given adequate attention to this issue. An application and evaluation of the UTAUT model in Yemen are presented in this study.

Keywords: technology acceptance; facilitating conditions; intention; e-payment; Yemen

282
Title: Examining Perceived Stress and Coping Strategies of University Students during COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Study in Jordan
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: COVID-19 has changed our lives in all arenas, including higher education and psychological well-being. Three objectives were set forth in this study. We started by examining issues related to online education during the pandemic in Jordan, particularly for students pursuing business studies. Second, we assessed academic, behavioural, and financial stressors that business students experience at Jordanian higher education institutions. Lastly, we examined the possible coping methods students employed to cope and adapt during the pandemic. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted based on the perceived stress scale distributed to 473 Jordanian undergraduate students (18–27 years of age), across both public and private universities. Results showed an association between academic, behavioural, and financial stressors and students’ perceived stress. While students perceived various levels and types of stress during COVID-19, including academic, behavioural, and financial, they also experienced new online skills. However, despite coping with stress, some students (especially females) displayed more stress because of the deficient course content, which added to their perceived stress and left them feeling unmotivated. This study contributes to bettering the university students’ mental health.

Keywords: perceived stress; coping strategies; higher education; university students; COVID-19; psychological well-being; Jordan

283
Title: الجرافيک المتحرک وانماطه وبرمجيات تنفيذه
Author: Faisal Mohammad Al-Omari, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: ملخص البحث: قام البحث بدراسة مشکلة الوعي وأدراک الجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في تبسيط المواضيع المعقدة ومدى أهميته لکافة مستخدمي الوسائط المتعددة وأيضا تم دراسة محتوا الرسائل التي توجهها المؤسسات الحکومية والقطاع الخاص سواء في الجوانب الارشادية وتطبيقات الحياة العملية والأکاديمية والعلمية، وتناول البحث مفهوم الجرافيک المتحرک واهميته في معرفة عناصر الجرافيک المتحرک واستخداماتها الفعالة في التصميم الواحد و إدراک أهمية الجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في إيصال المحتوي الفعال في الحياة اليومية کوسيلة اتصال تقوم بتبسيط المفاهيم وبعض القضايا التي تهم المتلقي، کما هدف الى توعية المتلقي بالجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في حياتنا اليومية والعمل على إدراک مکونات وأنواع الجرافيک المتحرک وتقنيات تنفيذه و تناول البحث محتويات الجرافيک المتحرک من عناصر والتي تمثلت في الاشکال والصور والنصوص والايقونات والشعارات والاصوات ومؤثراتها، کما تناول البحث أنواع الجرافيک المتحرک ثنائي وثلاثي الابعاد واهم البرمجيات المستخدمة في عملية التنفيذ. مشکلة البحث: 1- وعي وأدراک الجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في تبسيط المواضيع المعقدة ومدى أهميته لکافة مستخدمي الوسائط المتعددة 2- محتوا الرسائل التي توجهها المؤسسات الحکومية والقطاع الخاص سواء في الجوانب الارشادية وتطبيقات الحياة العملية والأکاديمية والعلمية.

Keywords: الجرافيک المتحرک الرسوم المتحرکة برامج تصميم الجرافيک المتحرک

284
Title: الإعلان الالکتروني في وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي
Author: Faisal Mohammad Al-Omari, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: عني البحث الحالي بدراسة الإعلان الإلکتروني فى وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي، وحدد الباحث مشکلة البحث التى ترکزت من خلال السؤال التالي ( ما هي أثار الإعلان الإلکتروني في وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي على المستهلک و الشرکات المنتجة )، وانطوت أهمية البحث فى التعريف بالإعلان بشکل عام و الإعلان الإلکتروني بشکل خاص وأثره على المستهلک و المنتج، و تحددت أهداف البحث فى دراسة تطور الإعلان من الإعلان المطبوع إلى الإعلان الإلکتروني أثارهم على عملية التسويق والاستهلاک وذلک خلال الفترة المحددة 2000-2021م حول العالم، وجاءت الدراسة محددة فى عدة نقاط أساسية للتعريف بالأثار الناتجة من الزخم الإعلاني المتراکم من خلال وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي الذى أحدثت ثورة في عالم الاستهلاک الضروري وغير الضروري على کافة فئات المجتمع الواحد ومدى إسهام ذلک في تغيير اتجاهات السوق والاستهلاک مما أدى إلى توجيه الفئات غير المقتدرة على عمليات الشراء التي لا يحتاجونها أساساً وانعکست الفائدة فقط على الشرکات المصنعة والمروجة للسلع والخدمات، وتناول البحث أيضا دور الإعلان في عملية التسويق و أثره على الاستهلاک، و تضمنت الدراسة تطور الإعلان من الإعلان المطبوع إلى الإعلان في الإنترنت وکذلک أهمية وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي وهي الوسيط الأکثر انتشاراً وتداولاً بين فئات المجتمع الواحد وفي جميع أنحاء العالم، وتأسيساً لما سبق وثقت الدراسة ببعض الرسومات البيانية التي تشير إلى أعداد مستخدمي وسائل التواصل الاجتماعى ، وتضمن البحث استخلاص النتائج التى کان من أهمها عملية التحول من الإعلان المطبوع إلى الإعلان المرئي الذى سار في تسارع هائل وأثار مدوية ذات مخاطر تعرضت لها کافة فئات المجتمع بسبب الزخم الإعلاني الذي يتفاعلون مع محتواه الإعلاني لمنتجات وخدمات هم بغنى عنها.

Keywords: الإعلان الإلکتروني الإعلان المرئي الإعلان في وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي

285
Title: Comparative study on the cellular uptake/binding of heparin and its analogues conjugated silica nanoparticles using HUVECs as a vascular model for inhibition of metastasis
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Inhibition of metastasis is essential in cancer treatment to prevent the spread of tumour cells to other organs. Heparin conjugated nanoparticles could be a useful tool in inhibiting cancer metastasis via blocking growth factors such as VEGF or FGF implicated in metastatic processes including angiogenesis and tumour proliferation. Other possible mechanisms interrupting and interacting with selectin dependent adhesion of tumour cells to vascular endothelium or reducing heparanase activity that facilitates tumour cell migration. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating any possible interaction between heparin and its analogues conjugated to silica nanoparticles surfaces and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as model vascular cells through measuring their cellular uptake/binding. Heparin, chondroitin, and alginate conjugated silica nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using stober process followed by carbodiimide coupling of heparin, chondroitin, and alginate to the surfaces of silica NPs. Preliminary data of fluorescence microscopy , flow cytometry and TEM demonstrated that there was a strong binding/cellular uptake between heparin conjugated nanoparticles and HUVECs. However, nanoparticle conjugated with chondroitin, which is a structurally similar polysaccharide, also showed similar cellular uptake behavior by HUVECs indicating that there could be a possible common uptake pathway through cell surface receptor binding. On the other hand alginate conjugated NPs showed less cell uptake/binding in comparison with heparin or chondroitin conjugated NPs which could indicate non-specific binding of these NPs to HUVECs. Receptor mediated binding was explored using the competitive assay and findings indicated that there was a receptor-dependent binding or uptake of heparin conjugated silica NPs which confirms the hypothesis of heparin capability to bind cell surface receptors displayed by endothelial cells which could by exploited by tumour cells. Accordingly, data could suggest that heparin conjugated NPs could be further utilized to interfere with possible mechanisms underpinning cancer spreading.

Keywords: Heparin; Silica NPs; HUVECs; Metastasis; TEM; Cellular Uptake

286
Title: Control environment effectiveness: the influence of control systems on the external audit procedures quality
Author: Rana Mustafa Mohammad Airout, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This research intended to identify the influence of internal control systems on the external audit procedures in the Jordanian business environment. Specifically, to investigate the impact of control systems (accounting, managerial and internal control) on the effectiveness of external audit procedures, representing by four main audit aspects (including the planning for the audit process, developing audit testing procedures, risk assessments, and implementation of the audit plan). This study uses the questionnaire to gather data to test the relationship between internal control systems and external audit procedures. This research focuses mainly on the Jordanian external auditors' point of view regarding these control systems' influence on the external audit procedures. Data were analyzed employing inferential and descriptive statistics. The research hypotheses were tested using one-sample ttest. Based on 64 valid questionnaires, the findings of the study results show that internal control systems do contribute significantly toward improving the effectiveness of various external audit procedures. The main findings illustrate that the internal control system is the most vital monitoring factors; it has a significant influence on external audit procedures. Moreover, the participants perceived that internal control; accounting and managerial systems play an essential role in enhancing the quality of audit procedures especially their role in conducting a risk assessment. Moreover, the descriptive and inferential findings demonstrate that the influence of the internal control systems over the planning for the audit process was the most important monitoring system. The internal control systems have impact on developing the audit plan, the audit plan tests and risk identification. The findings also suggest that accounting control systems influence the external audit procedures in Jordanian companies that can assist in improving different procedures of external audit. This indicates that the auditors should be aware of the dynamic role of particular internal control systems to enhance the procedures of external audit. The research findings consistent with the Jordanian set of laws, such as JCGC which highlights the significance role of these systems on the control environments and audit processes. The research findings have practical implications for the policymakers, including (board of directors and external auditors). This research recommends that control systems should exert more assurance in monitoring the control environment and external audit process.

Keywords: Control systems, External Audit Procedures, Internal Control System, Accounting, Managerial and Internal Control.

287
Title: Relationship between adopting servant leadership style and employee commitment: Empirical evidence from Jordanian governmental hospitals
Author: Atef Al-Raoush, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Businesses face a constant struggle in developing leaders who are devoted to serving and developing their people. Therefore, recognizing the link between servant leadership and employee commitment can help organizations establish a more positive working environment, leading to improved employee and organizational performance. This study aims to investigate the relationship between adopting servant leadership by hospital managers and employee commitment within Jordanian governmental hospitals. This paper employs a cross-sectional study design including a quantitative data collection method. Using a simple random sampling method, data were collected from 389 hospital staff employed by Jordanian governmental hospitals. The data were analyzed using Pearson (r) correlation coefficient with hypothesis testing. Research findings revealed a significant positive relationship between the adoption of a servant leadership style by government hospital managers and employee commitment (r = 0.633, Sig. <0.01). Furthermore, the study showed that demographic variables including gender, age, education, and experience were not associated significantly with employee commitment. The study’s results can help hospital managers develop and practice servant leadership, who are expected to increase employee commitment and achieve organizational objectives.

Keywords: servant, leadership, managers, commitment, government, hospital, Jordan

288
Title: A Discrete-Event System Approach for Modeling and Mitigating Power System Cascading Failures
Author: Wasseem Hani Al Rousan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: A power system cascading failure can propagate through sequential tripping of components in the network. As a result, a complete or partial shutdown may occur. In this article, we develop a new systematic approach to identify and prevent cascading failures in power systems using supervisory control of discrete-event systems (DESs). We build the DES model for a power system in a modular fashion by first modeling its components as (small) automata and then combining these automata using parallel composition. To overcome state explosion, we use online lookahead control that can significantly reduce the number of states to be considered. Since some events such as line trips cannot be disabled but can be preempted by forcing some forcible events such as load shedding, we extend supervisory control of DES to include forcible events. This extension allows us to control power systems effectively. The proposed control is implemented in an implementation platform that we build in MATLAB. The platform uses MATPOWER to simulate a power system and then control it using the proposed DES controller. Simulation studies are carried out for IEEE 6-, 30-, and 118-bus systems. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Power system protection, Power system faults, Power systems, Supervisory control, Hybrid power systems, Discrete-event systems

289
Title: Power Systems Cascading Failure Analysis and Mitigation Using Discrete Events Systems Approach
Author: Wasseem Hani Al Rousan, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: A power system cascading failure can propagate through sequential tripping of components in the network. As a result, a complete or partial shutdown may occur. Many models were developed to understand the failure propagation mechanism at a higher abstract level and methods were implemented for failure mitigation. This work introduces a unified framework of modeling and mitigating cascading failures. Based on a Discrete Event Systems (DES) approach, a power system is modeled by an automaton via parallel composition of the sub-models of system components. A modified DES supervisory control (SC) strategy is introduced as a solution to mitigating cascading failures and compared with a regular off-line control. The proposed supervisory control strategy is then extended to an on-line based control called limited lookahead policy (LLP) to overcome the increased complexity of large scale systems. An evaluation method and a criterion for assessing cascading failure risk and identifying critical components during failure propagation in the DES framework are then proposed. The proposed on-line control was implemented and verified through joint simulations between continuous time power flow analysis and discrete events dynamics with supervisory control. An illustrative example of the proposed approach is presented. Simulation studies for the on-line approach are carried out for IEEE 6-bus, 30-bus, and 118-bus systems to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Modular supervisory control is also introduced to mitigate cascading failure for large scale power systems. A framework to implement modular control approach is then proposed. Similar to the on-line LLP approach, simulations based on case studies for the IEEE 6-bus and 30-bus systems are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Cascading failure, discrete-event systems, Supervisory control

290
Title: Examining the relationship between digital finance and financial inclusion: Evidence from MENA countries
Author: Mohammad Oqlah Al-Smadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Although financial inclusion (FI) has attracted growing attention from academics and policymakers, the effect of digital finance (DF) on FI has not been studied sufficiently. Therefore, this study examines the association between DF and FI in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. FI is measured with a composite index incorporating three subindexes: access, availability, and usage of financial services; DF is measured by the number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. A system–generalized method of moments (sys-GMM) panel method is employed with annual data on 12 countries in the MENA region over the period 2004–2020. Additionally, five control variables are used in the study. The results confirm the role of DF in enhancing FI in the MENA countries. Policymakers and digital financial service providers in MENA countries can use the study's findings to expand the boundaries of FI in their countries.

Keywords: Digital financial services; Financial inclusion; MENA region

291
Title: Probing PXR activation and modulation of CYP3A4 by Tinospora crispa and Tinospora sinensis
Author: Manal Mohammad Alhusban, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance and aims The two Tinospora species, T. crispa and T. sinensis, native to Southeast Asia, are integral components of various traditional preparations with structure-function claims to treat various disorders, including diabetes and inflammation. To assure the safety of the botanicals finished products, herb-drug interaction potential of T. crispa and T. sinensis was investigated by testing their extracts and compounds for in vitro activation of the pregnane X-receptor (PXR) and the modulation of CYP3A4 isozyme, selectively.

Keywords: Tinospora crispa, T. sinensis, PXR

292
Title: Intention to Use E-Payments from the Perspective of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT): Evidence from Yemen
Author: Mohammad Oqlah Al-Smadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This study explores the challenges facing the current e-payment systems and investigates the main factors that support using the e-payment system. This study used a cross-sectional approach. An online survey was conducted on Yemeni consumers as part of the collection of data. The data from 486 questionnaires were analyzed using smartPLS4 and Jamovi software for structural model analysis and statistical analysis. According to the PLS-SEM results, the structural model shows that R2 is 0.757, which explains the variances in behavioral intention via all the constructs. Statistically, the intention to use e-payment systems is significantly and positively influenced by performance and effort expectancies and social influence. In contrast, facilitation conditions are significantly and negatively correlated with behavioral intention. This is attributed to consumers’ view of the infrastructure of Internet services, which does not contribute to the behavioral intention and acceptance of using electronic payment in Yemen. Contrary to expectations, age does not moderate the relationship between performance expectancy, social influence, and intention to use e-payment systems; hence, the related hypothesis was not supported. This study provides valuable suggestions for policymakers, designers, developers, and researchers, enabling them to better understand the critical aspects of using the electronic payment system. This study developed a model for predicting the likelihood of acceptance of electronic payments in a country that has not given adequate attention to this issue. An application and evaluation of the UTAUT model in Yemen are presented in this study.

Keywords: technology acceptance; facilitating conditions; intention; e-payment; Yemen

293
Title: Computational Tools to Expedite the Identification of Potential PXR Modulators in Complex Natural Product Mixtures: A Case Study with Five Closely Related Licorice Species
Author: Manal Mohammad Alhusban, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The genus Glycyrrhiza, comprising approximately 36 spp., possesses complex structural diversity and is documented to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Understanding and finding the mechanisms of efficacy or safety for a plant-based therapy is very challenging, yet it is crucial and necessary to understand the polypharmacology of traditional medicines. Licorice extract was shown to modulate the xenobiotic receptors, which might manifest as a potential route for natural product-induced drug interactions. However, different mechanisms could be involved in this phenomenon. Since the induced herb–drug interaction of licorice supplements via Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is understudied, we ventured out to analyze the potential modulators of PXR in complex mixtures such as whole extracts by applying computational mining tools. A total of 518 structures from five species of Glycyrrhiza: 183 (G. glabra), 180 (G. uralensis), 100 (G. inflata), 33 (G. echinata), and 22 (G. lepidota) were collected and post-processed to yield 387 unique compounds. Visual inspection of top candidates with favorable ligand–PXR interactions and the highest docking scores were identified. The in vitro testing revealed that glabridin (GG-14) is the most potent PXR activator among the tested compounds, followed by licoisoflavone A, licoisoflavanone, and glycycoumarin. A 200 ns molecular dynamics study with glabridin confirmed the stability of the glabridin-PXR complex, highlighting the importance of computational methods for rapid dereplication of potential xenobiotic modulators in a complex mixture instead of undertaking time-consuming classical biological testing of all compounds in a given botanical.

Keywords: Glycyrrhiza, PXR, Glabridin

294
Title: Representative bias and investment decision: the moderating role of accounting disclosure. An empirical study using structural equation modelling approach
Author: Jafer Maroof Al Sawalhah, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between representative bias and investment decision, along with the moderating role of accounting disclosure, as most literature conducted studies in well-developed financial markets, whereas less is known about investors in emerging-markets. The study proposes a novel model that suggests accounting disclosure as a moderating construct and is expected to moderate the negative effect of representative bias in shaping investment decision of investors during the investment-decision process. Collecting data, response from 258 active investors in the Amman Stock Exchange, through adopting a purposive convenience sampling was collected using a questionnaire-based-survey. To conduct a statistical analysis, structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied, and the result reported that representative bias negatively influenced investment decision, whereas accounting disclosure was a positive determinant for investment decision. Moreover, the proposed moderating role was able to reduce the negative effect of representative bias on investment decision. Accordingly, discussion and directions were provided.

Keywords: investment decision, representative bias, accounting disclosure, stock market, structural equation modelling, SEM, Jordan

295
Title: Antitubercular, Cytotoxicity, and Computational Target Validation of Dihydroquinazolinone Derivatives
Author: Wafa Moh'd Khair Hourani, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A series of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives (3a–3m) was screened for in vitro whole-cell antitubercular activity against the tubercular strain H37Rv and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. Compounds 3l and 3m with di-substituted aryl moiety (halogens) attached to the 2-position of the scaffold showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 µg/mL against the MTB strain H37Rv. Compound 3k with an imidazole ring at the 2-position of the dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one also showed significant inhibitory action against both the susceptible strain H37Rv and MDR strains with MIC values of 4 and 16 µg/mL, respectively. The computational results revealed the mycobacterial pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferase (BioA) enzyme as the potential target for the tested compounds. In vitro, ADMET calculations and cytotoxicity studies against the normal human dermal fibroblast cells indicated the safety and tolerability of the test compounds 3k–3m. Thus, compounds 3k–3m warrant further optimization to develop novel BioA inhibitors for the treatment of drug-sensitive H37Rv and drug-resistant MTB

Keywords: Keywords: dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones; anti-TB activity; MTT assay; molecular docking studies; molecular dynamic simulations studies

296
Title: Varied Composition and Underlying Mechanisms of Gut Microbiome in Neuroinflammation
Author: Fuad Abdul Rahman Taha Abdulla, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: The human gut microbiome has been implicated in a host of bodily functions and their regulation, including brain development and cognition. Neuroinflammation is a relatively newer piece of the puzzle and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. The microbiome of the gut may alter the inflammatory signaling inside the brain through the secretion of short-chain fatty acids, controlling the availability of amino acid tryptophan and altering vagal activation. Studies in Korea and elsewhere highlight a strong link between microbiome dynamics and neurocognitive states, including personality. For these reasons, re-establishing microbial flora of the gut looks critical for keeping neuroinflammation from putting the whole system aflame through probiotics and allotransplantation of the fecal microbiome. However, the numerosity of the microbiome remains a challenge. For this purpose, it is suggested that wherever possible, a fecal microbial auto-transplant may prove more effective. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of the microbiome in neuroinflammation and the various mechanism involved in this process. As an example, we have also discussed the autism spectrum disorder and the implication of neuroinflammation and microbiome in its pathogenesis.

Keywords: autism; disorders; gut microbiome; neuroinflammation pathogenesis

297
Title: Factors that influence quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis in Saudi Arabia
Author: Fuad Abdul Rahman Taha Abdulla, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Purpose: To study the factors which may contribute to quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: 175 pwMS and 71 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy subjects participated in this cross sectional study. QOL was studied by the multiple sclerosis quality of life-54 (MSQOL-54) while depression, disability, and fatigue were measured by the beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II), the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), and the modified fatigue impact scale (MFIS), respectively. The effects of demographic and clinical characteristics on MSQOL-54 were studied. Results: QOL was worse in pwMS. A better QOL in pwMS was linked to being male, having relapsing remitting MS, having lower BMI, being employed, having a low disability, having no or minimal depression, and not fatigued. Age, disease duration, marital status, living status, and level of education did not affect the QOL. QOL showed a moderate to strong correlation with depression and fatigue and a weak correlation with EDSS. Depression and fatigue were the strongest predictors of QOL. Other predictors included gender and BMI but not EDSS. Conclusions: Many of the factors which seem to influence QOL in pwMS are modifiable. Evaluation and management of such factors may improve QOL in pwMS.

Keywords: Quality of life (QOL); multiple sclerosis (MS); depression; fatigue; disability; gender; body mass index (BMI)

298
Title: الحكاية على ألسنة الحيوان بين ابن المقفع وإخوان الصفا مقاربة أسلوبية
Author: Leedya Rashed Abu mariam, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: الحكاية على ألسنة الحيوان بين ابن المقفع وإخوان الصفا مقاربة أسلوبية تعدّ الحكاية الخيالية فنًّا من فنون السَّرد الأدبي الذي يرتقي بالنثر من وظيفته الإبلاغية الأولى إلى حزمة من الوظائف الجمالية المختلفة. فهي تخدم العقل الجمعي والذاكرة الشعبية بطبيعتها التسْلوية الظاهرة ومكنونها الرمزيّ الخفيّ، لكأنها خطاب ذكي يؤانس العامة بأساليبه القصصية الجذّابة فيغدو كالملهاة، ويساند الخاصة ببلاغته الكنائية المشبعة بالترميز فيغدو كالمأساة. ولعل أشهر الحكايات في تاريخ النثر العربي القديم تتمثل في "كليلة ودمنة" وهو كتاب يضم منظومة كبيرة من الحكايات التي أنجزتها المخيلة الفارسية، فنقلها عبدالله بن المقفع إلى العربية بلسان عربي فصيح. وتتمثل كذلك في الحكايات الواردة ضمن رسائل " إخوان الصفا وخلّان الوفا" تلك المكتوبة بأقلام عصبة من المفكرين والبلغاء المجهولين. تشترك حكايات كليلة ودمنة وحكايات إخوان الصفا بأن كلًا منها جاء على ألسنة الحيوان كنوع من التعبير المتخفي عن غايته البعيدة الناقدة للأحوال الاجتماعية والسياسية وراء المقاربة الممتعة بين السلوك الحيواني والسلوك البشري. وفي هذا الأسلوب الفني منجاة للكاتب من الاتهام بسوء القصد ووضوح المعارضة. تظهر أهمية البحث في إبراز سمات أسلوبية جمالية في هذه الحكايات التي تعد ضربًا من فنون النثر العربي القديم. ففي الحكايات ما هو تسلوي وما هو معرفي وما هو رمزي وما هو كنائي. وهذه الملامح تؤكد الدور الجمالي الذي أدّاه النثر العربي في قرون الازدهار الأدبي( الثاني – الرابع). أما أهداف البحث فتظهر في الكشف عن المشترك والمختلف بين الحكايات، وتحليل جماليات السرد لا سيّما التخييل والترميز، ومناقشة البنى الفنية في الحكايات، فقد وردت حكايات إخوان الصفا كما لو أنها بنى مسرحية في صورة محاكمة ومجلس قضائي في حين ظهرت بنى حكايات كليلة ودمنة في صورة قصص قصيرة متسلسلة، فتبدأ القصة الثانية من حيث تنتهي القصة الأولى، إضافة إلى الإضاءة على المغزى الكلي بينهما. ويتكون البحث من: أولا: التمهيد ( تلخيص موجز للعملين). ثانيا: تقنية الترميز والكتابة. ثالثا: التسلسل القصصي في كليلة ودمنة. رابعا: المعمار المسرحي في حكايات إخوان الصفا. خامسا: الفضاء الدلالي في كلا العملين. وينتهي البحث بخاتمة توضح امتيازات السرد العربي القديم في العملين.

Keywords: ابن المقفع

299
Title: COVID-19 IS WAR, WATER & A PERSON: Metaphorical Language of the Coronavirus Disease in "the Jordan Times" Newspaper
Author: Hanan Ali Amaireh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Metaphors permeate our daily communication, and they are part of our cognition. The present study investigates metaphors in a corpus-based study during the Coronavirus disease 19 crisis (COVID-19) using the Antconc Software. The way written media discourse framed the COVID-19 Crisis, especially in the Middle East received little attention from discourse analysts. The data include news editorials about the Coronavirus disease 19 from April 1, 2020 to July 5, 2020 collected from "the Jordan Times" Newspaper in English. The metaphors will be analysed according to Lakoff and Johnson's (1980; 2003) perspective of Conceptual Metaphors and Charteris-Black (2004) of Critical Metaphor Analysis. The quantitative analysis shows that the conceptual metaphors COVID-19 IS WAR, COVID-19 IS WATER, and COVID-19 IS A PERSON are highly used in the corpus to frame the pandemic. The conceptual metaphor COVID-19 IS WAR is not only used to represent a war against the disease, but also a war between countries. So, the metaphorical use is politicised, and reflects hidden ideology. The quantitative analysis asserts that the context is the decisive factor for the analysis of certain lexical items related to the pandemic and identifying whether they are literally or metaphorically used.

Keywords: conceptual metaphors, Covid-19, critical metaphor analysis, the Jordan Times Newspaper

300
Title: Corpus-Based Analysis of the Feminine Style of Kamala Harris' Discourse: Women (Not Men) Are the Backbone of America's Democracy and Economy
Author: Hanan Ali Amaireh, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Few studies analyzed the political discourse of the American Vice President Kamala Harris, especially during the presidential elections and her position as the American Vice President. This paper investigates the political discourse of Harris in a corpus-based study of 40 speeches (82,268) words, from 13 October, 2020 to 10 May, 2022. It examines whether Harris' speeches draw on "the feminine style" of political speeches as envisaged by Campbell (1989), Dow and Tonn (1993), and Blankenship and Robson (1995). Qualitative and quantitative analysis will be used. The quantitative analysis will use the Antconc Software to investigate the frequency of certain lexical items related to females such as woman, women, female(s), girl(s), lady, ladies, mother(s), and mom(s), inter alia. Moreover, the frequency of the first-person and third-person pronouns I, we are investigated to examine whether Harris shares her life experience and inspect whether she uses inclusive language. The qualitative and quantitative analysis shows that the political discourse of the Vice President draws on the feminine style of political speeches, such as constructing a political stance based on genuine experience, dedication to addressing women's issues in the political arena, promoting inclusiveness and realizing that actual achievements are required for leadership positions and highlighting that in her political discourse, which is in line with the observations of Campbell (1989), Dow and Tonn (1993), and Blankenship and Robson (1995).

Keywords: corpus analysis, discourse analysis, Kamala Harris, the feminine style

301
Title: “The role of interior design in increasing quality, efficiency, and service in healthcare clinics and its reflection on patients behavior positively
Author: Saif Mohammad Obeidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: يدرس هذا البحث دور التصميم الداخلي في رفع أداء وكفاءة وخدمات العيادات الصحية، إضافة إلى دراسة تأثير ذلك على سلوك المرضى من النواحي الصحية والجسدية. تتلخص مشكلة البحث في الحاجة الماسة الى تطبيق المبادئ التصميمية السليمة الواجب على المصممين الداخليين اتباعها من اجل تحسين جودة البيئة الداخلية لكي تعمل على تلبية الاحتياجات للمرضى وتقديم أفضل الخدمات والإسراع في عملية الشفاء في العيادات الصحية. يكمن التساؤل الرئيسي في معرفة ما هو دور التصميم الداخلي في تحسين جودة البيئة الداخلية في العيادات الصحية وصولا الى خلق مناخ مناسب يوفر الاحتياجات الصحية الملائمة للمرضى. يهدف هذا البحث الى تقديم نصائح وارشادات وحلول تصميمية للبيئات الداخلية اثناء عملية التصميم الداخلي للعيادات الصحية نظراً لما نراه من قلة الاهتمام بتصميمها وتأثيرها سلبا على صحة المرضى. تكمن أهمية البحث في دراسته لعناصر التصميم الداخلي في العيادات الصحية ودورها في تحقيق بيئة صحية متكاملة تحسن سلوك المرضى إيجابيا مما سيسرع من عملية الشفاء عندهم. اعتمد البحث المنهج الوصفي التحليلي في جمع المعلومات، من خلال جمع وتحليل مجموعة من المعلومات من الدراسات السابقة والحالات المشابهة ذات العلاقة، وتوزيع استمارة الاستبيان على مجموعة من المختصين ومستخدمي تلك العيادات الصحية ذات الوظائف المختلفة، بالإضافة الى عمل مقابلات شخصية مع مختصين وزيارات ميدانية للملاحظة ودراسة واقع الحال فيها. تم تحليل المعلومات الكمية احصائيا في جداول، وتحليل المعلومات النوعية عن طريق تفريغها وتبويبها وترميزها في جداول خاصة من عمل الباحثين. جاءت نتائج البحث لتركز على ان للتصميم الداخلي دورا هاما في حل مشكلة العشوائية في تصميم العيادات الصحية، بالإضافة الى ايجاد حلولا تصميمية أفضل للعيادات لتصبح ذات جودة لتشجيع الناس على الإقبال عليها من خلال التصميم الداخلي بتخصيص مساحات الفراغات الانتفاعية بدقة بحيث تشمل المنفعة والاستعمال الحقيقي لها.

Keywords: التصميم الداخلي; جودة البيئة الداخلية; سلوك المرضى; العيادات الصحية

302
Title: The Role of Expressive Values of Smart Materials in Influencing the Quality of Interior Design Functionally and Aesthetically
Author: Saif Mohammad Obeidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: There is an important role that the expressive values of smart materials play in influencing the quality and efficiency of interior design and its reflection on the behavior of individuals. Materials are generally one of the most important complementary elements that the interior designer resorts to during the design process in its various forms. The research problem is that some interior designers are not aware of the importance of using and employing smart materials, which leads to a problem and reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of these environments. The research aims to assess the role of expressive values resulting the use of smart materials in the process of interior design in built environments by exploiting these materials in the design of ceilings, floors, walls, furniture and lighting in the built environment. The significance is summarized in providing some explanations, examples, and limitations that can be followed by interior designers in order to enhance the quality of the interior design process in built environments, by using and employing smart materials in the design process, and providing some realistic applications of the expressive values of materials. The methodology that was used is descriptive analytical. The researcher distributed a questionnaire to a random sample of individuals present within their built environments. The results came to clarify the role that the expressive values of smart materials play in raising the quality of interior design, depending on the characteristics that these materials have, which contribute to raising the effectiveness of the built environment.

Keywords: Built environment; expressive values; smart materials; interior design; individual behavior.

303
Title: بحث مقبول للنشر الخصائص الفيزيائية لزمن نطق صوت الراء المضطرب نطقيا بنوع التشويه في العربية وعدد دورات التكرار المتشكلة معه دراسة مقارنة بين الراء السليم والراء المعتل
Author: Ibtisam Hussein Jamil, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: يعنى هذا البحث بدراسة الخصائص الفيزيائية لزمن إنتاج صوت الراء في العربية وعدد دورات التكرار المتشكلة معه في حالتي النطق السليم المعتل وركز على نوع واحد من أنواع الاضطرابات النطقية وهو نوع "التشويه" الناتج عن أسباب وظيفية، واكتفى من التشويه بثلاثة أشكال هي الأكثر شيوعا لدى فئة البالغين وهي: "التشويه الخلفي التقريبي" و "التشويه الخلفي المكرر" و " التشويه اللثوي المنكفئ". اعتُمِد عشرة مرضى من كل شكل من أشكال التشويه، بالإضافة إلى عشرة مشاركين ينتجون الراء بصورته السليمة. تم تسجيل المادة الصوتية باستخدام جهازCSL ثم حُللت الخصائص الصوتية باستخدام برنامج Praat. وقد أجريت المقارنة بين الراء السليم في سياق صائت الفتحة في مواضع كَلِميّة متنوعة، وفي وضعَيِ التضعيف والسكون، لتُدرس بذلك التمايزات الفيزيائية بين الراء السليم من جانب، والراء المشوَّه من جانب آخر.

Keywords: زمن النطق، الراء السليم، الراء المعتل، التشويه، دورة التكرار

304
Title: The Role of Sustainable Interior Design and its Impact on Customer’s Behavior in Commercial Environments
Author: Saif Mohammad Obeidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: 0

Keywords: 0

305
Title: Indoor Environmental Quality in Sustainable Interior Design and Its Impact on Individual's Behavior in Commercial Environments
Author: Saif Mohammad Obeidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: 0

Keywords: 0

306
Title: The Impact of Sustainability Foundations and Elements on Interior Design Quality and Student’s Behavior in Educational Environments
Author: Saif Mohammad Obeidat, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: 0

Keywords: 0

307
Title: Several of the Most Important Crimes Committed by Public Employees in Jordan
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Law

Abstract: The significance of this study emerged against the backdrop of increasing corruption in Jordanian society, especially within the governmental institutions. Therefore, the mechanisms against corruption shall be demonstrated due to the corruption’s consequences upon the Jordanian economy. The problem of this research concerns demonstrating the concordance of Jordan Civil Service Regulation, the Jordanian Penal Code, and the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), which Jordan was a part of, in fighting against corruption. Moreover, it demonstrates the extent of the application of fighting against corruption in Jordan that occurred on the ground.

Keywords: Corruption, Jordan, Public employees

308
Title: Classification of SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS-CoV-2 using machine learning algorithms
Author: Madhanagopal Jagannathan, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Abstract Due to the continued evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, researchers worldwide are working to mitigate, suppress its spread, and better understand it by deploying digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning approaches. This study presents an alignment-free approach to classify the SARS-CoV-2 using complementary DNA, which is DNA synthesized from the single-stranded RNA virus. Herein, a total of 1582 samples, with different lengths of genome sequences from different regions, were collected from various data sources and divided into a SARS-CoV-2 and a non-SARS-CoV-2 group. We extracted eight biomarkers based on three-base periodicity, using DSP techniques, and ranked those based on a filter-based feature selection. The ranked biomarkers were fed into k-nearest neighbor, support vector machines, decision trees, and random forest classifiers for the classification of SARS-CoV-2 from other coronaviruses. The training dataset was used to test the performance of the classifiers based on accuracy and F-measure via 10-fold cross-validation. Kappa-scores were estimated to check the influence of unbalanced data. Further, 10 × 10 cross-validation paired t-test was utilized to test the best model with unseen data. Random forest was elected as the best model, differentiating the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus from other coronaviruses and a control a group with an accuracy of 97.4 %, sensitivity of 96.2 %, and specificity of 98.2 %, when tested with unseen samples. Moreover, the proposed algorithm was computationally efficient, taking only 0.31 s to compute the genome biomarkers, outperforming previous studies.

Keywords: COVID-19, Signal processing, Biomarker, Machine learning

309
Title: التربية الوطنية : الأردن أنموذجا
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: صدر عن دار اليازوري كتاب بعنوان: «التربية الوطنية/ الأردن أنموذجا». وهو كتاب من تأليف فريق أكاديمي كبير من الاساتذة الجامعيين وثلة من الخبراء المختصين والقامات العلمية في مجال التربية الوطنية وبإشراف الأستاذ الدكتور سعيد التل، ومراجعة وإخراج وتحرير الدكتورة أماني جرار. وقد شارك في التأليف فريق متكامل ضم: الدكتور سعيد التل، الدكتورة أماني جرار، الدكتورة سهيلة بنات، الدكتورة هالة بوادي، الدكتور نزيه حمدي، الدكتور هشام الدعجة، الدكتور صالح الرواضية، الدكتور عماد الزغول، الدكتورة خالده زيد الكيلاني، الدكتور أحمد الطويسي، الدكتور عبد القادر عابد، الدكتورة سعاد غيث، الدكتور ابراهيم ناصر، الدكتور عبد الله نقرش، الدكتورة فريال هياجنة. كما شارك في التحرير فريق يضم كل من المرحوم الدكتور موسى جبريل، الدكتور محمد خطاب، الدكتور عبد الباري درة، المرحوم الدكتور راضي الوقفي، والدكتورة أماني جرار. وتميز الكتاب كونه لم يقتصر على جانب واحد من جوانب التربية الوطنيّة كما هو الحال في معظم الكتب المؤلفة بهذا المجال والتي كانت تتناول فقط جانب التربية المدنيّة. وقد شمل الكتاب جوانب عديدة أخرى للتربية الوطنية، منها التربية الشخصيّة، التربية الأسريّة، التربية الصحيّة، التربية الفنيّة، التربية الأخلاقيّة، التربية الاجتماعيّة، التربية الاقتصادية، التربية البيئية، التربية المهنيّة، التربية السياسيّة، التربية القوميّة، التربية الدينيّة، التربية الإنسانيّة. ويأمل مؤلفو الكتاب تحقّق الهدف بالإسهام الفاعل في إعداد المواطن الصالح في الوطن العربي عموما، والمواطن الأردني بشكل خاص. فقد تم تخصيص الفصل الأخير من الكتاب ليتناول (الأردن أنموذجا)، داعين كل مفكري وعلماء كل دولة من دول الوطن العربي للاستفادة من هذه التجربة الفكرية بإضافة فصل خاص لكل دولة بحيث يعكس خصوصيتها. ومن الجدير بالذكر أن كتاب «التربية الوطنية: الأردن أنموذجا» يقع في 321 صفحة، وهو أول كتاب باللغة العربية يطرح موضوع التربية الوطنية بصورة شاملة(كما يجب أن تكون) لبناء المواطن الصالح، هو ويخصص في الآن ذاته فصلا خاصا متميزا عن الدولة الأردنية.

Keywords: التربية الوطنية، الأردن

310
Title: الأخلاق بين الفلسفة والتربية
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: صدر للدكتورة أماني غازي جرار كتابا بعنوان (الأخلاق بين الفلسفة والتربية) ، وهو كتاب صدر بدعم من وزارة الثقافة ضمن سلسلة كتب الفلسفة للشباب، وهي كتب موجهة إلى الشباب الأردني والعربي تسعى إلى تطوير الذائقة المعرفية والقيمية للشباب وتحسين قدراتهم في تحصيل المعرفة المعاصرة ونقدها. أما الأهداف الأساسية للكتاب فتتلخص في تأثير الأخلاق العميق في طريقة تصرف الفرد، فهي تحكمه بالفعل وتزوده بالأدوات الأكثر فعالية للتفكير في قضاياه الأخلاقية المتعددة، فلا يقوم المجتمع دون أسس ومعايير أخلاقية تعود على الفرد وعلى المجتمع ككل بالخير والمنفعة، ويهدف هذا المخطوط إلى تحديد البعد الفلسفي لحقوق الفرد ومسؤلياته،وتعريف الخير والشر وتحليله فلسفياً، وتحليل النظريات الأخلاقية: الأخلاق الفوقيَّة، الأخلاق المعيارية والأخلاق التطبيقية (العملية)،وتحديد مفهوم القرارات الأخلاقية، وتوجيه الفرد (والجماعات) للقيام بما هو صائب والابتعاد عما هو خاطئ،وتهذيب السلوك، والتصرف بعقلانية. يشير الكتاب الى أهمية إعادة الاعتبار للفلسفة مع ازدياد انتشار أدوات نشر المعلومات السطحية وسهولة الوصول إليها وازدياد حركات التطرف الديني والثقافي الفكري، وازدياد الحركات الشعبوية التي تجتاح العالم من حولنا، مما يشكل تحدياً كبيراً يواجه مستقبل المعرفة الإنسانية والانسان . يهدف الكتاب الى المساهمة في بناء معارف الشباب الأردني بتراث الفلسفة الإنسانية وإنتاجها المعاصر من مختلف المدارس وتزويدهم بالمفاهيم الأساسية في الفلسفة،وتطوير قدرات الشباب الأردني على التفكير المستقل القائم على التحليل والتفسير والنقد، واستخدام أدوات التفكير الناقد وأساليبه في حياته اليومية.والمساهمة في تأهيل وعي الشباب لمواجهة المشكلات المعاصرة مثل العنف والتطرف والهروب والاغتراب الثقافي وغيرها.وتعزيز قدرات الشباب الأردني على فهم الاختلاف واحترامه والعيش معاً والعيش مع الآخرين، وفي الوقت نفسه القدرة على خلق التوافق بين الأفراد والجماعات وصولا إلى التوافق العام على مستوى المجتمع. يعالج الكتاب موضوع الأخلاق من المنظورين الفلسفي والتربوي ، حيث تعد الأخلاق إحدى المرتكزات الأساسية التي تقوم عليها المجتمعات، فهي العنصر الأساسي من عناصر وجود أي مجتمع وبقائه واستمراره، كما أنها المقوم الجوهري من مقومات هويته وكيانه. فالأخلاق تعد من أركان التربية الوطنية، لأن إعداد المواطن أخلاقياً يساعد على بقاء وتماسك المجتمعات، ولا سيما أن تماسك أي مجتمع واستمرار بقائه يعتمد بالدرجة الأولى على المنظومة الأخلاقية التي تحكم سلوك أفراده وتوجهها على نحو سليم. ويأتي الكتاب في ستة فصول ،وهي مفهوم الأخلاق في الفلسفة، أصل الأخلاق، الحاجة الى الأخلاق، الأخلاق والحداثة، مجتمع الأخلاق، الأخلاق والتواصل الاجتماعي. يتناول الفصل الأول (مفهوم الأخلاق في الفلسفة ) ،فالبحث في علم وفلسفة الأخلاق يحتاج في البداية إلى تفكيك مصطلحين أساسيين، ثمّ إعادة تركيبهما في وحدة اندماجيّة ترسم من خلالها صورة العلم ورسمه، كمقدّمة أساسيّة وضروريّة؛ من أجل فهم أهدافه وأهمّيته ومنشأه وآثاره الفردية والاجتماعية وغيرها من الأمور المتعلّقة بأبحاث الفلسفة. فالإصلاح الإنساني الفردي والاجتماعي وحلّ مشاكل البشريّة، وإنقاذها من الظّلم والفساد متوقّف على بناء منظومةٍ أخلاقيّةٍ، وقواعد سلوكيّة أصيلة ويقينيّة وغير قابلة للشكّ. يتناول الفصل الثاني (أصل الأخلاق) ، حيث يتطلب فهم أصول الأخلاق؛ ككل الصفات السلوكية منظورًا تطوريًا يأخذ التطور الفكري والثقافي بالحسبان. ومن الأجدى تحديد أصل الأخلاق بالنظر إلى الصفات الفردية، ثم الديناميكيات الجماعية التي تصيغ الأخلاق البشرية، وتشمل الصفات الفردية كالصفات الغريزية والعاطفية: مثل التعاطف والشعور بالذنب، والقدرات الإدراكية؛ كالقدرة على كبح الاندفاعات والقدرة على المحاكمة العقلية، في حين تتعلق الديناميكيات الجماعية بالتعاون والمنافسة والطرق التي تتطور بها القواعد والمعايير المجتمعية، ومن المؤكد أن كل هذه العوامل الفردية والجماعية متداخلة. ويمكن فهم الأخلاق بوصفها ميزة طبيعية ناتجة عن صفات الغرائز والعواطف المتأصلة التي يصقلها المنطق، فمن المؤكد أن للبشر ميولًا للعنف والقسوة والأنانية، لكن الصفات الاجتماعية التعاونية تفوقت على الميول العدوانية والانعزالية في التكيف البيولوجي والثقافي، إذ ساد التعاون والتعاطف المجتمعات الديمقراطية العلمانية أكثر مما ساد تاريخ البشر، وفي عملية التحسين الاجتماعية المستمرة يبقى المنطق والتفكير النقدي الصارم أفضل أدواتنا. يتناول الفصل الثالث (الحاجة الى الأخلاق) ، فالمشكلة الفلسفية للمعرفة الأخلاقية تطرح عدد لا يحصى من الأسئلة التي تتناول ما يتصل بها من مفاهيم ومبادئ وقيم. مثال ذلك: ما أصل مفاهيم الخير والعدالة والشرف والكرامة؟ وهل هي وليدة التجربة أم أنها فطرية؟ ومما لا شك فيه أن الأخلاق هي الركن الأساس والأهم مطلقاً في حياة الإنسان، ومن أجل ذلك فإن كل الفلسفات والعلوم والحضارات تؤسس للأخلاق وتهتم بدراستها وتطوير العمل بها وتطرح على الأخلاق أسئلة الحكمة ومستجدات العصر وأحداثه، وكان من أهم الأسئلة المطروحة على الأخلاق: ما هي مكانة العقل في الأخلاق؟ وقد جاءت الأجوبة منذ القرنين السابع عشر والثامن عشر الميلاديين ضمن محاولات التفسير لحركتي الكون والطبيعة، حيث مرت بالتفسير الآلي الحركي ومنه إلى التفسير العلمي السببي. ونتج عن كل ذلك اقتراح المبادئ المعيارية للأخلاق والتي اختلفت من ديانة إلى ديانة ومن ثقافة إلى ثقافة، ومن فلسفة إلى أخرى! هذه المبادئ المعيارية العقلية للأخلاق فرضت أحكاما صارمة على الإنسان باعتباره آلة لتطبيق تلك المعايير الأخلاقية. وبناء عليه تأسست القوانين السياسية والنظم المدنية وكذلك المناهج التربوية والتعليمية على فكرة الإلزام الخلقي للإنسان وفق معايير العقل، وتم اعتبار الإنسان الذي لا يلتزم هذه المعايير إنساناً لا أخلاقياً. يتناول الفصل الرابع (الأخلاق والحداثة ) ، فقد سعى الفكر الإنساني في بدايات زمن الحداثة إلى تقريب الوجود من واجب الوجود، بمعنى آخر، إلى تقريب واجب الوجود (المثال)، من الإنسان الواقعي بطبائعه وأهوائه. وكانت الطبيعة عند القدامى تحمل معاني ودلالات بالنسبة للإنسان، حيث أنها انسجام وتناغم وترابط، وكان الإنسان يسعى إلى محاكاة الطبيعة في حياته، في نظامه الاجتماعي والسياسي. وهذا المنحى في الفكر كان لا متناهياً، لا تحده حدود، لأن الطبيعة والكون يحيلان إلى مثال مطلق. يتناول الفصل الخامس ( مجتمع الأخلاق )، نظراً لأهمية الأخلاق وما تنطوي عليه من قناعات وقيم ومبادئ واتجاهات ومهارات في تنظيم علاقات أفراد المجتمع وتوجيه أنشطتهم نحو تحقيق أهداف عامة تخدم المجتمع الذي ينتمون إليه، فأن جميع المجتمعات في هذا العالم المعاصر تعطي أهمية قصوى لمسألة التربية الأخلاقية، بهدف إعداد المواطنين إعداداً متوازناً بحيث يعملوا على التوفيق بين أهدافهم وغاياتهم الشخصية ومطالب ومصالح المجتمع الذي ينتمون إليه. فمن خلال التربية الأخلاقية يتم بناء المنظومة القيمية لدى المواطنين بما يتناسب مع الثقافة والمعايير التي يستند إليها المجتمع وبما يخدم أغراضه وأهدافه وذلك على نحو يجعلهم قادرين على تحمل المسؤولية والقيام بالأدوار التي ينبغي القيام بها، ومساعدة كل مواطن في المجتمع على القيام بوظيفته بكل مسؤولية وموضوعية. وهكذا فإن التربية الأخلاقية تمثل صمام الأمان والقاسم المشترك الذي يجب ان يعمل كل مجتمع على توفيره وتحقيقه لدى كل المواطنين بغية النماء والتطور والحفاظ على الكينونة وتحقيق الأهداف والطموحات المشتركة. فعلى سبيل المثال، عند التزام أفراد المجتمع بالأمانة والابتعاد عن الغش فأن ذلك يشعرهم بالطمأنينة والأمان حيث أنهم يدركون بأن حقوقهم محفوظة بالوقت الذي يشعرون فيه بتماسك مجتمعهم وتوفر العدالة فيه. يتناول الفصل السادس ( الأخلاق والتواصل الاجتماعي )، حيث تبرز أهمية دراسة المسؤولية الأخلاقية في التعامل مع مواقع التواصل بعد بيان تأثيرها على منظومة القيم، حيث بات من الضرورة معالجة مشكلة الاثار السلبية لمستخدمي مواقع الاتصال الاجتماعي على قيم المنظومة الاجتماعية والاسرية، إذ مع تزايد استخدام هذا المواقع تتفاقم اثارها السلبية ليس على مستوى دولة أو أكثر وانما على مستوى العالم الانساني برمته، وفي كل الاحوال تعد الدائرة الاقرب لهذه المعالجة هي الاسرة، ومن هنا تتجلى أهمية استشعار المسؤولية الاسرية في توظيف هذه المواقع في تعزيز القيم الايجابية لدى الابناء وتحجيم القيم السلبية. إنّ الهدف من هذه الكلمة التي تعالج جانبا مهما من الأزمة الأخلاقية التي تعتري التعامل مع وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي، ولعل من ابرزها: التعريف بالمسؤولية الأخلاقية ومواقع التواصل الاجتماعي، وتحديد اهم معالم المسؤولية الأخلاقية في التعامل مع وسائل التواصل الإجتماعي، وكذلك تفصيل صور المسؤولية الأخلاقية بحسب التواصل الفردي والمشترك مع مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي، والمساهمة في معالجة أزمة أخلاقيات وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي. من هنا فإن هذا الكتاب يساعد في اتخاذ القرارات الفردية والجماعية في ضوء الرؤية الحداثية، فيأتي دور الأخلاق في هذا المخطوط لمناقشة (ماهو على المحك) أي محل الجدال، في المعضلات الأخلاقية. إذ يمكن للأخلاق أن تخلق نسقًا من المناهج الأخلاقية والحوارات والمنظومات القيمية، التي يمكن تطبيقها عند معالجة مشاكل المجتمع، وبعد تحديد كل هذه الأنساق بشكل واضح، يبقى الاختيار من مسؤلية الفرد، وواجبه هو اتخاذ القرار السلوكي الصائب بشأن ما عليه فعله، وتحمل العواقب، والتصرف بشكل مناسب لتوابع ذلك القرار. حيث أن التفكير وفق نسق أخلاقي معين بإمكانه اختزال الكثير من الطاقة المهدورة على النزاعات، فالأخلاق تعتمد على الأسس المتغيرة للحياة الإنسانية، من هنا كان لابد من بحثها فلسفيا وتربويا. https://alkutba.gov.jo/ar/node/2314 https://www.raialyoum.com/صدر-حديثا-للدكتورة-أماني-غازي-جرار-كتا/

Keywords: الأخلاق ، الفلسفة ، التربية

311
Title: Four Maqamat “Assemblies” in terms of poetry and poets-Astudy analyzed critically
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This study deals with four Maqamat “Assemblies” in terms of poetry and poets. They are “the Maqama of Poesie” and “The Maqama of Poetry” of Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadhani, “the Maqama of poetry” of Al-Hariri, and “the Maqama of poets” of Al-Saraqusti, the Andalusian. They have been analyzed critically and statistically. The study highlighted the poems and the names of poets in the four Maqamat, in addition to the most critical issues in them.It also focused on artistic style and narrative mechanisms, such as the title, the structure of the introduction, the narrator, the protagonis, the description and others. The study aimed at classifying the poems, the names of the poets, and the critical issues in the Maqamat. Then it analyzed them technically and objectively in a comprehensive manner, based on the common theme of the four Maqamat.

Keywords: Maqamat, Maqamat of poetry, Artistic style.

312
Title: Description of nature in poetry of Ibn al-LabanaAddani al- Andalusi Technical objective study
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This study deals with the description of nature in the poetry of Ibn al-Labanah al-Andalusi: it tackles its patterns in an objective and artistic way, starting from his poetic texts, mixed with other purposes, such as eulogy, love poems, lampoon, and elegy, in addition to his independent texts describing nature and its manifestations. The study monitored different natural appearances described by the poet, as classified into two types: the first represents the aspects of what is called (silent) nature, and the second describes the aspects of the (living) nature, and it studied a number of such appearances. Then the study examined the artistic images and elements through which the poet drew nature, and the most important mechanisms that he relied upon to embody that image, such as the art of simile, metaphor, humanization, and sensory images based on hearing, sound, sight, smell and others.

Keywords: Ibn al-LabanaAddani, description of nature, artistic image

313
Title: السعي نحو العدالة الاجتماعية والمواطنة العالمية كمنهج فكري وطموح عالمي للإنسانية
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: في عالمنا اليوم نلمس الكثير من الصراعات والأزمات المتنامية نحو هلاك البشرية اذا ما كتب لها الاستمرار. فأينما نظرنا نجد صراعات مصيرية بين الشمال والجنوب والشرق والغرب. وما من قادر على حل المنازعات السياسية والازمات الاقتصادية المتنازع عليها والكوارث البيئية والاجتماعية، الا وان يلجأ الى حلول العامل السحري المنقذ الأعظم في هذه المعادلة، ألا وهو احلال مبادىء الإنسانية ، فمن آمن بوحدتها على الرغم من تعدد الأطراف والجهات والمتنازعين، لا يجد سوى روح الانسانية لتبقى واحدة في الجوهر مهما اختلفت الأعراق والمذاهب والطوائف والايديولوجيات والمصالح. https://burhaninstitute.org/?p=930

Keywords: عدالة اجتماعية ، مواطنة عالمية ، فكؤ ،انسان

314
Title: المواطنة العالمية والتربية من أجل السلام
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: السلام هدف إنساني وغاية نبيلة تسعى الإنسانية لتحقيقها على امتداد تاريخها الحضاري، وقد ازدادت الدعوة للسلام والعمل على إرساء دعائمه وتعميمه في العصر الحديث كأداة تفاهم تجمع شعوب العالم حول هذا الهدف. لقد بدأ الاهتمام بدراسات السلام كميدان أكاديمي في الجامعات العالمية منذ الخمسينات، وكان التركيز في البداية على السلام في مواجهة العنف المباشر، كما هو الحال في الاعتداء والتعذيب والاضطهاد والحروب، ليتطور فيما بعد إلى تناول العنف غير المباشر، أي ما يعانيه الناس نتيجة للنظم الاجتماعية والسياسية والاقتصادية التي تؤدي إلى الموت أو الانتقاص من آدمية الإنسان وانتهاك حقوقه مثل : التمييز العنصري والتعرض للجوع وإنكار حقوق الإنسان. والتربية دعوة للحياة، والحياة في جوهرها هي السلام مع الذات ومع الآخرين ومع البيئة المادية، ومن هنا فإن التربية من أجل السلام تتراوح في مداها من السلام بين الدول والشعوب إلى الأفراد داخل الأسرة أو الجماعة وأخيراً إلى الإنسان نفسه. https://burhaninstitute.org/?p=1050

Keywords: مواطنة عالمية ، تربية ،سلام

315
Title: TOWARDS SOCIAL JUSTICE AND GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP AS AN INTELLECTUAL APPROACH AND GLOBAL ASPIRATION FOR HUMANITY (IN A STRIFE-RIDDEN WORLD)
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: In today’s world, we encounter a great number of exacerbating conflicts and crises that may even lead to annihilation of human life on this planet, if they are allowed to persist. Into whatever direction we turn, we witness raging fateful North/South and East/West struggles. However, nothing would enable us to overcome such ongoing political conflicts, economic crises, environmental catastrophes or social afflictions other than using a great panacea and supreme instrument of this equation – that is, to put the necessary human principles in place. Whosoever believes in the oneness of humanity – irrespective of the multiplicity and diversity of its parties, regions, and warring factions – finds nothing at the core, save that essentially indivisible human spirit, notwithstanding the diversity of ethnicity, creeds, denominations, ideologies, and interests. Back in the day, the Chinese philosopher Confucius called for the principle of inner peace, and he was followed down through the ages by other expositions, from leaders of thought, of the beneficial effects of establishing peace in solving countless human problems and disputes. In this hypothesis, I will attempt to add to the foundation that those prior advocates of peace had laid down, by establishing that principle of the consciousness of global citizenship is a modern-day panacea for current and future crises and conflicts. https://burhaninstitute.org/?p=1044

Keywords: Social Justice , Global Citizenship, humanity

316
Title: Global Citizenship and Education for Peace
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Peace is a human goal and a noble aspiration towards humanity has been trying to achieve throughout its cultural history. The call for peace, laying down its foundation, and spreading it worldwide has gained momentum in the modern age as a means of creating a rallying point around which the mutual understanding of all peoples of the world may revolve. Peace studies became an area of academic research in universities worldwide in the 1950s. At the onset, the focus was on peace vis-à-vis direct violence, as it is the case with aggression, torture, persecution, and wars. Later, research expanded to tackle indirect violence, i.e., human suffering under social, political, and economic systems that lead to death or belittling people’s dignity and violation of their rights. Racial discrimination, exposure to famine, and denial of human rights are typical examples. Speaking of “education,” it is an invitation to live—and life, in essence, is peace with self, with others, and with the environment. Hence, education for peace ranges in its expanse from peace among nations and peoples, to individual peace in the family or community and, ultimately, to the inner peace of the individual him/herself. https://burhaninstitute.org/?p=1071

Keywords: Global Citizenship , Education , Peace

317
Title: Pathways to Mainstream and Advance the Concept of Global Citizenship Education in the Arab World, Global Citizenship foundation, 2022
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Thinkers and planners for education and higher education agreed on the need for education to serve global citizenship as a potent force in bringing economic, social, and political change, and in enabling the nation to face challenges, and this is clearly affirmed through education for human rights and world education for global citizenship. One can divide the Arab thinkers into five categories, each with a point of view different from the other (Altbach, 1999). The first category of Arab intellectual's rejectionists, who believe that globalization, reflects the higher stages of colonialism created by the technological revolution and information that dominates the capitalist market, as governed by the United States and Western countries. (Jarrar, 2012). The second category of Arab intellectuals is those who welcome globalization. The third category of Arab intellectuals represents the neutral position, which calls for finding an appropriate form of globalization consistent with the interests and aspirations of the Arab countries. The fourth category of Arab intellectuals represents a positive vision being pragmatic and utilitarian (Muasher & Faour, 2011). They think of globalization as a historical phenomenon that Arab nations should treat with caution and prudence. Globalization emphasizes the sovereignty of Arab intellectuals and establishes the Arab cultural identity in order to spread the values of tolerance. https://www.globalcitizenshipfoundation.org/article/pathways-to-mainstream-and-advance-the-concept-of-global-citizenship-education-in-the-arab-world

Keywords: Global Citizenship ,Education,Arab World

318
Title: المسؤولية الجزائية الناشئة عن الإيذاء المبهج في التشريع الأردني
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Law

Abstract: يتناول هذا البحث جريمة حديثة وهي جريمة الإيذاء المبهج وتتم هذه الجريمة من خلال نشر صور أو مقاطع فيديو تسبب أذى للأشخاص الآخرين نتيجة نشرها وتكون مصدر بهجة وفرح لمن يقوم بنشرها من خلال زيادة عدد التعليقات أو الإعجابات والشهرة على مثل هذه المنشورات, العديد من الحالات التي تمت في الأردن ممكن اعتبارها جريمة إيذاء مبهج وأبرز مثال على ذلك حادثة فتى الزرقاء, فكان علينا من خلال هذا البحث توضيح التكييف القانوني لهذه الجريمة وتوعية المشرع الأردني والمجتمع بها, فهذا واجب على أهل القانون, ويظهر من خلال ذلك عدد من النتائج والتوصيات؛ النتائج عدم إنطباق النصوص التقليدية على جريمة الإيذاء المبهج لأنه يتعارض مع القاعدة القانونية الأساسية في القانون الجنائي " لا جريمة ولا عقوبة إلا بنص" وبأنه لا يمكن القياس في المسائل الجزائية فيما يتعلق بنصوص التجريم والعقاب أما التوصيات هو النص صراحه على هذه الجريمة في قانون الجرائم الالكترونية الأردني والمقترح هو كالتالي " يعاقب كل من قام قصداً بنشرأي صور أو مقاطع فيديو أو إخبار متعلقة بالآخرين دون أخذ الموافقة منهم بالحبس مدة ثلاثة أشهر وبغرامة لا تقل عن (2000) الفي دينار و لا تقل العقوبة عن سنة إذا تيقنت المحكمة من الدافع الدنيء للفاعل "اٌ

Keywords: الإيذاء المبهج, وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي, الجريمة,نشر صور ومقاطع فيديو مؤذيه للآخرين

319
Title: Effects of Liraglutide Combined with Low Fat Diet on Neural and Thermogenic Activities of 5' - AMPK in the Hypothalamus: Expectations
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Liraglutide; 5' - AMPK; Hypothalamus; Low Fat Diet

Keywords: Liraglutide; 5' - AMPK; Hypothalamus; Low Fat Diet

320
Title: “Hypothalamic neuroinflammation induced by obesity and the effect of Liraglutide
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Hypothalamic; neuroinflammation ; Liraglutide

Keywords: Hypothalamic; neuroinflammation ; Liraglutide

321
Title: The experience of family carers of children with incurable cancer: a qualitative study from the occupied Palestinian territory
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Background: Treatments for childhood cancers have raised the survival rate, however different forms of malignancy continue to cause untimely deaths, and cancer remains a leading cause of death among children. Global research on paediatric cancer is limited for several reasons. Most research has focused on specific methodologies, including questionnaires with heterogeneous samples. In addition, many studies have covered a broad range of cancer diagnoses, and a wide range of children's ages and periods between diagnosis and treatment. These methods are unable to capture the essence of experiences and cultural differences. This study aimed to explore the experience of family carers of children with incurable cancer in occupied Palestinian territory. Methods: The study was conducted in the Paediatric Cancer Department of Beit Jala Hospital, which is the first public cancer department for children in the West Bank. The family carers of children aged 1-18 years with any type of incurable cancer in this hospital were considered eligible for participation, and the individual most involved in the care of the child was selected. To recruit participants, head nurses of medical and surgical paediatric floors provided assistance in approaching the carers of eligible children. The main objectives of the study were then discussed with the family carers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach was used to analyse the collected information. Ethical approval was obtained from the Beit Jala Hospital ethical review board and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Findings: 14 interviews were conducted. Participants were nine mothers, four grandmothers, and one father. Family carers discussed their caring experiences, including their experiences in administering special treatments, their suffering due to treating irritable children, and the information given to them about their children's illness. Family carers reported that they changed the focus of their care from an initial emphasis on normalising their children's lives to relieving their physical and psychological discomfort. This change of focus accompanied changes in carers' understanding of their child's disease over time. As carers became more realistic regarding the future of their children, they attempted to make their lives as comfortable as possible. Finally, carers discussed the support system around them; they found several resources to support them in the care of their children, including the experiences of other parents of children with similar diseases, the hospital environment, and their religious beliefs. Nevertheless, they stated that they needed more support during this difficult time of their lives. Interpretation: There is a need to support parents of children with incurable cancer in the occupied Palestinian territory. Suggestions to improve the quality of care provided for these parents include the education and recruitment of health care professionals, including social workers and psychologists, to provide emotional and spiritual support.

Keywords: family carers, children with incurable cancer, qualitative study, the occupied Palestinian territory

322
Title: Convergent and criterion-related validity of the short form of the International Physical Activity and the Incidental and Planned Physical Activity Questionnaires in people with multiple sclerosis
Author: Shatha Mofleh Al-Khazaaleh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Background: Assessing physical activity (PA) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is essential to follow-up the recommended PA level. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the Incidental and Planned Exercise Questionnaire (IPEQ) have been widely used, but their validity has not been investigated previously in PwMS. Objective: This study aimed to assess the convergent and criterion validity of the IPAQ and the IPEQ in PwMS. Methods: 50 PwMS were asked to wear an Actigraph for seven days and to fill the IPAQ and IPEQ. Sedentary, moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) levels were recorded. Results: Significant correlations were found between sitting time as reported by IPAQ and sedentary time as recorded by Actigraph (r = 0.41, p = 0.003), VPA by IPAQ and VPA as recorded by Actigraph (r = 0.46, p = 0.001), and MVPA by IPAQ and MVPA by Actigraph (r = 0.36, p = 0.011). IPEQ showed poor both criterion and convergent validity when compared to the Actigraph. Both IPAQ and IPEQ overestimate the intensities of PA for all the derived parameters. Conclusions: Findings of this study are important as they suggest that IPAQ in particular had convergent validity when compared to Actigraph data, but still had the problem of overestimating PA levels.

Keywords: Actigraph; IPAQ; IPEQ; Incidental and Planned Exercise Questionnaire; International Physical Activity Questionnaire; Physical activity; multiple sclerosis.

323
Title: Impact of Accounting Information System on Internal Audit Quality: Mediating Role of Organizational Culture
Author: Qasim Ahmad Alawaqleh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract This study advances the Accounting Information System (AIS) study by exploring the relationship between the AIS internal audit quality. It develops a model based on literature and considers one significant variable of mediation that is organizational culture. The AIS is expected to influence internal audit quality in different contexts, particularly in developing countries. The research model validated using AMOS and SPSS version 25. Based on a sample of 183 internal auditors in Jordanian industrial SMEs, empirical findings support the relationship between AIS and internal audit quality; however, the impact is direct while the organizational culture partially mediates this relationship. The results indicate that the AIS help enhance internal auditors' quality and the organizational culture, ultimately improving internal audit quality. The implications are useful for academics, administrators, and policymakers interested in evaluating the impact of intervening variables on the AIS and the internal audit quality relationship.

Keywords: Keywords: accounting information system, internal audit quality, organizational culture, industrial SMEs, Jordan

324
Title: The Impact of Audit Committee Performance and Composition on Financial Reporting Quality in Jordan
Author: Qasim Ahmad Alawaqleh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract The corporate governance literature indicates efforts to investigate the role of the audit committee (AC) in improving the financial reporting quality (FRQ) after the emergence of financial scandals in many countries in the world, inclusive Jordan. To date, empirical findings are inconclusive enough to address all audit committee characteristics regarding its competency and responsibilities by employing a questionnaire to collect data about this relationship. Thus, this study measures the correlation between AC (performance and composition) and FRQ of manufacturing corporations registered on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). To test this impact empirically, the target population was financial managers, audit committee members, and internal audit managers who are working in manufacturing corporations listed on the (ASE). According to the coefficient (β), the independent variables (Audit Committee Performance and Audit Committee Composition influence the dependent variable FRQ. This research recommends that firms enhance the audit committee work performance and composition to ensure audit committee members effectively enhance the FRQ audit committee is a vital mechanism of the firm's corporate governance system.

Keywords: Keywords: audit committee, financial reporting quality, ASE, Jordan, audit committee performance, audit committee composition

325
Title: Parental Child Rearing Practices in Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to explore parenting practices from the perspectives of Palestinian parents and their children, and concordance between parents and children in their reports of parenting practices, in a culture that is underrepresented in the literature. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) was administered to 120 parents and 120 children drawn from 4 districts in Palestine. Children had higher scores on parental involvement, positive parenting, poor monitoring, inconsistent discipline, and corporal punishment. Three significant parent–child relationships were obtained1: parental involvement (r=.276, P=.003), positive parenting (r=.0301, P=.001), and poor parental monitoring (r=−.241, P=.008). The findings of this study might be used by Palestinian authorities and policy-makers to formulate guidelines and training to aid parental decision-making about child rearing.

Keywords: child rearing, parental perception, rearing practices, school-aged children

326
Title: The Effect of Board of Directors and CEO on Audit Quality: Evidence from Listed Manufacturing Firms in Jordan
Author: Qasim Ahmad Alawaqleh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Abstract This study aims to examine (1) the association between the chief executive officer tenure and audit quality, (2) the relationship between chief executive officer duality and audit quality, (3) the association between board independence and audit quality, (4) the relationship between board size and audit quality, and (5) the role of controlling variables (client size, leverage debt, and business complexity) in controlling these relationships. The research sample includes 325 financial reports from manufacturing firms listed in Amman Stock exchange over the 2014-2018 period. The study relationships are tested by using logistic regression. The results revealed a negative relationship, but not significant between CEO tenure and independent directors with audit quality. In addition, the results showed there is a negative effect of CEO duality on audit quality; also the results revealed that there is a statistically significant effect on the board of directors (board size) on the AQ. In general, the coefficient estimates of controlling variables show that client size and leverage debt positively affect audit quality, and on the contrary, business complexity has an insignificant positive relationship with audit quality. The summary of the study findings play an active role to external auditor opinion on business practice in towered the corporate governance system.

Keywords: Keywords: Audit Quality, Corporate Governance, Chief Executive Officer Tenure, Chief Executive Officer Duality, Board Independence, Board Size

327
Title: Challenges of Clinical Education in a Baccalaureate Nursing Program: Student Perspectives
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Introduction: Clinical education is an essential element in a baccalaureate nursing program, providing nursing students with the required knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes required to deliver professional nursing care after graduation. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the challenges associated with clinical instruction from nursing student perspective. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to identify the challenges associated with clinical instruction from nursing student perspective. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 187 nursing students from three different Universities in Jordan [one governmental and two private]. Results: The major challenges to clinical education were: fear of committing mistakes; lack of facilities for students; lack of knowledge among community and patients about the nursing profession; fear of infection; lack of availability of equipment in the clinical setting; student lack of preparedness and skill in planning care; and lack of collaboration from clinical staff. Conclusion: Understanding the identified challenges is necessary to formulate strategies to address them, to improve curriculum designed and clinical education for nursing students accordingly.

Keywords: Barriers, Challenges, Clinical education, Nursing education.

328
Title: Book : Vitamins and Minerals in Neurosciences : 2.1 Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementias, chapter : α-Tocopherol for Alzheimer’s disease
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Unlike the positive findings from the pre-clinical studies, the evidence of α-Tph effectiveness in humans with MCI or AD is unsatisfactory and requires larger and well controlled trials. Several studies evaluated α-Tph supplementation in combination with AD drugs. Sano and colleagues evaluated the effect of α-Tph (1000 IU, twice daily for 2 years) alone or in combination with selegiline for its effect on improving cognitive function in moderately severe AD. No improvement in cognitive test scores with either treatment was observed (PMID: 9110909). In another study tested the efficacy of α-Tph (2000 IU) with and without memantine in mild-to-moderate AD subjects up to 4 years; compared to placebo group, α-Tph significantly delayed the functional decline in mild-to-moderate AD patients who were taking acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. This effect was not observed in those who received memantine alone or memantine with α-Tph, suggesting α-Tph combination with acetylcholine esterase inhibitors could benefit mild-to-moderate AD patients (PMID: 24381967). However, in another study evaluated α-Tph individually and in combination with the acetylcholine esterase inhibitor donepezil in MCI subjects, α-Tph with and without donepezil didn’t provide benefits and there were no significant differences in the rate of AD progression when compared to the placebo groups (Petersen et al., 2005). Negative results were also reported in AD patients who received α-Tph (400 IU/day) with vitamin C (1000 mg/day) beside their cholinergic therapy for one year (Arlt et al., 2012). Conflicting results were also reported. In another study, Chan and colleagues tested α-Tph (30 IU) prepared in a formulation containing folic acid (400 mg), vitamin B12 (6 mg), S-adenosylmethionine (400 mg), N-acetyl cysteine (600 mg), and acetyl-L-carnitine (500 mg) in 14 subjects with early-stage AD supplemented for one year. The formulation caused a superior neuropsychiatric performance for more than 12 months and caused a delay in clinical progression of approximately 7 months (PMID: 19047474). Based on these promising results, a Phase II study in 106 individuals with AD was conducted. Consistent with the earlier study, compared to the placebo group, the formulation maintained or improved cognitive performance (PMID: 25589719). The studies were further extended to evaluate the formulation in MCI subjects, and similarly the formulation maintained or improved cognitive performance (PMID: 26402075). While these results are promising, the findings suggest that a combinatorial approach could provide superior neuroprotection than individual α-Tph.

Keywords: α-Tph , AD

329
Title: Fast detection technique for voltage unbalance in three-phase power system
Author: Mohammed Bani Younis, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: In this paper, the problem of voltage unbalance in the three-phase power systems is examined. A fast detection technique (FDT) is proposed to detect the voltage unbalance precisely and speedily. The well-known detection methods require more than one cycle time to detect the unbalanced voltages, whereas the proposed technique detects the unbalanced situations speedily in a discrete manner. Reducing the time duration required to detect the unbalanced voltages will enhance the dynamic response of the control system used to balance these voltages. The FDT acquires the instantaneous values of the three load voltages, calculates the sum and the space vector for these voltages at each sample, and utilizes these parameters to detect the voltage unbalance accurately within a quarter of the cycle time. A proof-of-concept simulation model for a real power system has been built. The parameters of the aqaba-qatrana-south amman (AQSA) Jordanian power system are considered in the simulation model. Also, several test cases have been conducted to test and validate the capabilities of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Power distribution; Power quality; Space vector; Voltage unbalance

330
Title: تمكين المرأة في الادارة المحلية في الاردن
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: يقدم دراسة للوثيقة الارشادية للمارسة النزاهة والشفافية والمساواة بين الجنسين أثناء العملية الانتخابية للادارة المحلية (المرشحين والمنتخبين )

Keywords: تمكين المرأة، الادارة المحلية ، الاردن،النزاهة ،الشفافية ،المساواة،الانتخابات،ادارة محلية

331
Title: Gene Associated Divergence of COVID-19 Morbidity & COVID-19 Vaccines
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: indeed caused a considerable increase in morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Abstract There is an underlying complex interplay between the infectious agents and the human host, which is related to different biological mechanisms. Phenotypic spectrums associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 range from asymptomatic to severe systemic complications such as pneumonia, respiratory failure, and death. Around 15 % of cases are severe. Some are accompanied by a dysregulated immune system or a cytokine storm, and others with both. There is increasing evidence that the severe manifestations of COVID-19 might attribute to human genetic variants. Polymorphisms in genes that are related to immune deficiency and or inflammasome activation (cytokine storm) are examples of these variants. The question is, is the variability of the hosts’ genetic background the reason behind the different responses to COVID-19? Or are there other factors? Case reports and GWAS studies showed that the susceptibility to severe viral infections was associated with the genetic variants in the immune response genes. Identifying the candidate’s genes is likely to aid in explaining why COVID-19 symptoms are severe to some but not others. Not to mention that it will provide insights that help us further understand the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, to then make it possible to come out with more effective treatments and vaccines. There are forty genes associated with viral susceptibility. Twenty-one of them were associated with severe SARS-CoV disease and severe COVID-19. Some of these genes are implicated in the TLR pathways and others in C-lectin pathways. Additionally, there are some genes related to inflammasome activation (cytokine storm). This explains the diverse observations of the disease’s severity associated with genes. A vaccine should protect humans against SARS-CoV-2 severe infection and death. It acts against infection, disease, or transmission. A vaccine capable of reducing any of these elements will contribute t

Keywords: COVID-19, Vaccines

332
Title: Aqueous core microcapsules as potential long-acting release systems for hydrophilic drugs
Author: Yazan Mohammad Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: We have previously optimized the internal phase separation process to give rise to aqueous core microcapsules with polymeric shells composed of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactide) (PLA). In this study, the ability of these microcapsules to act as controlled release platforms of the model hydrophilic drug phenobarbital sodium was tested. Furthermore, the effect of the initial amounts of drug and water added to the system during microcapsule synthesis was investigated. Finally, the effect of varying polymer properties such as end functionalities, molecular weights, and lactide to glycolide ratios, on the characteristics of the produced microcapsules was studied. This was done by utilizing seven different grades of the polyester polymers. It was demonstrated that, within certain limits, drug loading is nearly proportional to the initial amounts of drug and water. Furthermore, drug encapsulation studies demonstrated that ester termination and increases in polymeric molecular weight result in lower drug loading and encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, drug release studies demonstrated that ester termination, increases in molecular weight, and increases in the lactide to glycolide ratio all result in slower drug release; this grants the ability to tailor the drug release duration from a few days to several weeks. In conclusion, such minor variations in polymer characteristics and formulation composition can result in dramatic changes in the properties of the produced microcapsules. These changes can be fine-tuned to obtain desirable long-acting microcapsules capable of encapsulating a variety of hydrophilic drugs which can be used in a wide range of applications.

Keywords: Internal phase separation, PLA, PLGA, Long-acting release, Phenobarbital sodium

333
Title: TOWARDS SOCIAL JUSTICE AND GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP AS AN INTELLECTUAL APPROACH AND GLOBAL ASPIRATION FOR HUMANITY (IN A STRIFE-RIDDEN WORLD)
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: In today’s world, we encounter a great number of exacerbating conflicts and crises that may even lead to annihilation of human life on this planet, if they are allowed to persist. Into whatever direction we turn, we witness raging fateful North/South and East/West struggles. However, nothing would enable us to overcome such ongoing political conflicts, economic crises, environmental catastrophes or social afflictions other than using a great panacea and supreme instrument of this equation – that is, to put the necessary human principles in place. Whosoever believes in the oneness of humanity – irrespective of the multiplicity and diversity of its parties, regions, and warring factions – finds nothing at the core, save that essentially indivisible human spirit, notwithstanding the diversity of ethnicity, creeds, denominations, ideologies, and interests. file:///C:/Users/aj8in/Desktop/Towards-Social-Justice-Global-Citizenship-dr-Amani-Jarrar-1 (1).pdf

Keywords: SOCIAL JUSTICE , GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP , GLOBAL , HUMANITY

334
Title: Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of FINCA (fibrosis, neurodegeneration, and cerebral angiomatosis) syndrome beyond infancy
Author: Tawfiq Froukh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Fibrosis, neurodegeneration, and cerebral angiomatosis (FINCA, MIM#618278) is a rare clinical condition caused by bi-allelic variants in NHL repeat containing protein 2 (NHLRC2, MIM*618277). Pulmonary disease may be the presenting sign and the few patients reported so far, all deceased in early infancy. Exome sequencing was performed on patients with childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) and additional neurological features. The chILD-EU register database and an in-house database were searched for patients with NHLRC2 variants and clinical features overlapping FINCA syndrome. Six patients from three families were identified with bi-allelic variants in NHLRC2. Two of these children died before the age of two while four others survived until childhood. Interstitial lung disease was pronounced in almost all patients during infancy and stabilized over the course of the disease with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD) evolving as the key clinical finding. We expand the phenotype of FINCA syndrome to a multisystem disorder with variable severity. FINCA syndrome should also be considered in patients beyond infancy with NDD and a history of distinct interstitial lung disease. Managing patients in registers for rare diseases helps identifying new diagnostic entities and advancing care for these patients.

Keywords: cerebropulmonary disease, childhood interstitial lung disease, cholesterol pneumonia, FINCA, lung fibrosis, lipoid pneumonitis, multi-organ disease, NHLRC2

335
Title: المواطنة العالمية والتربية من أجل السلام .. كما يجب أن تكون
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: السلام هدف إنساني وغاية نبيلة تسعى الإنسانية لتحقيقها على امتداد تاريخها الحضاري، وقد ازدادت الدعوة للسلام والعمل على إرساء دعائمه وتعميمه في العصر الحديث كأداة تفاهم تجمع شعوب العالم حول هذا الهدف. لقد بدأ الاهتمام بدراسات السلام كميدان أكاديمي في الجامعات العالمية منذ الخمسينات، وكان التركيز في البداية على السلام في مواجهة العنف المباشر، كما هو الحال في الاعتداء والتعذيب والاضطهاد والحروب، ليتطور فيما بعد إلى تناول العنف غير المباشر، أي ما يعانيه الناس نتيجة للنظم الاجتماعية والسياسية والاقتصادية التي تؤدي إلى الموت أو الانتقاص من آدمية الإنسان وانتهاك حقوقه مثل : التمييز العنصري والتعرض للجوع وإنكار حقوق الإنسان. والتربية دعوة للحياة، والحياة في جوهرها هي السلام مع الذات ومع الآخرين ومع البيئة المادية، ومن هنا فإن التربية من أجل السلام تتراوح في مداها من السلام بين الدول والشعوب إلى الأفراد داخل الأسرة أو الجماعة وأخيراً إلى الإنسان نفسه. https://burhaninstitute.org/?p=1050

Keywords: المواطنة العالمية ،التربية ، السلام

336
Title: Investigating the efficiency of financial markets: Empirical evidence from MENA countries
Author: Izzeddien Naef Ananzeh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: The market efficiency hypothesis has become an important concept for all investors looking to own internationally diversified portfolios, which coincides with an increase in investment flows between all countries, both developed and undeveloped. This study was aimed at investigating the efficiency of a group of Arab stock markets located in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region according to the Random Walk Hypotheses (RWH) at weak form. The study covered the markets of Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain, and Oman. The empirical results of all tests used in this study rejected the RWH at a weak form for all markets through all tests applied – Unit root test, Variance Ratio Test, and Run Test. The result of this study contradicts the results of many studies conducted on developed and emerging markets. This can be a good indication of the ineffectiveness of the reforms that have been adopted by responsible bodies on these markets. Based on this result, all efforts made to expand and deepen these markets should be intensified by improving liquidity, transparency, enhancing investment culture in these countries; supporting legislative and regulatory reforms to attract investment, and developing the financial sector in these markets as a whole.

Keywords: MENA markets, market efficiency, financial markets, unit root tests, run test, variance ratio test

337
Title: السعي نحو العدالة الاجتماعية والمواطنة العالمية كمنهج فكري وطموح عالمي للإنسانية
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: في عالمنا اليوم نلمس الكثير من الصراعات والأزمات المتنامية نحو هلاك البشرية اذا ما كتب لها الاستمرار. فأينما نظرنا نجد صراعات مصيرية بين الشمال والجنوب والشرق والغرب. وما من قادر على حل المنازعات السياسية والازمات الاقتصادية المتنازع عليها والكوارث البيئية والاجتماعية، الا وان يلجأ الى حلول العامل السحري المنقذ الأعظم في هذه المعادلة، ألا وهو احلال مبادىء الإنسانية ، فمن آمن بوحدتها على الرغم من تعدد الأطراف والجهات والمتنازعين، لا يجد سوى روح الانسانية لتبقى واحدة في الجوهر مهما اختلفت الأعراق والمذاهب والطوائف والايديولوجيات والمصالح. قديما نادى كونفوشيوس بمبدأ السلام الداخلي، وتعاقب العديد من المفكرين في محاولة لإبراز أثر احلال السلام في حل الكثير من القضايا والمنازعات. وفي طرحي هذا أحاول البناء على ما بناه الأوائل من دعاة السلام ،من خلال إضفاء صفة للمواطنة العالمية المنشودة باعتبارها الحل السحري العصري لأزمات وصراعات الحاضر والمستقبل، ألا وهي المتمثلة في مبدأ محبة الإنسان والآخر والكون باعتباره وطنا لكل مواطن بالمعنى العالمي https://burhaninstitute.org/?p=930

Keywords: العدالة الاجتماعية ،المواطنة العالمية ،منهج فكري، الإنسانية

338
Title: ‎A Feature Model Based Configuration Reuse for Context-aware Systems‎
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Most of Self-Adaptive Systems (SAS) use Feature Models (FMs) to represent their complex ‎architecture and benefit from reusing commonalities and variability information. However ‎triggering SAS reconfiguration process, each time a system needs to be adapted, continues to ‎cost time and effort. Current FM techniques have modelled SAS concepts, focusing on ‎representing and reusing elementary features without taking into consideration modelling and ‎reusing configurations. This work presents an extension to the FM in order to remedy this ‎important problem by introducing and managing the configuration feature. Evaluation shows that ‎the reuse of configuration feature reduces reconfiguration process effort and time during the run ‎time in order to meet the required scenario according to the context.‎

Keywords: Self-Adaptive system, Feature Model, System reuse, Configuration management, Variability ‎modelling‎

339
Title: ‎A Holystic Self-adaptive systems model‎
Author: Said Ahmad Ammar Ghoul, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: The recent self-adaptive software systematic literature reviews stated clearly the following ‎insufficiencies: (1) the need for a holistic self-adaptive software model to integrate its different ‎aspects (2) The limitation of adaptations to context changes (3) The absence of a general and ‎complete adaptations’ picture allowing its understandability, maintainability, evaluation, reuse, and ‎variability. (4) The need for an explicit and a detailed link with resources, and (5) a usual limitation ‎to known events. ‎ In order to metigate these insufficiencies, this paper is proposing a holistic model that integrates the ‎operating, adaptations, and adaptations’ manager aspects. The proposed model covers all possible ‎adaptations: operating (dealing with software functions failures), lifecycle (handling adaptations ‎required by some software lifecycle steps), and context (facing context changes events). The ‎presented work introduces the concept of software adaptations process integrating the ‎specifications of all the above kind of adaptations. In fact, this work shows an explicit trace to its ‎pure bio-inspired origin. ‎ An application of the proposed approach on a “car industry case study” demonstrated its feasibility ‎in comparison with similar works that proved its meaningful added value and its promising research ‎perspectives.‎

Keywords: Self-adaptive software, bio-inspired approach, adaptation events, immune system.‎

340
Title: Enhancing the LTE-Based Intelligent Transportation System’s Performance
Author: Qadri Jamal Al-Hamarsheh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Intelligent transportation system is considered as one of the main features of the new generation of the wireless systems. Furthermore, both of high speed data transmission and processing play a crucial role for these generations. In this work, two main propositions have been detailed in order to attain an improvement in such intelligent systems performance and to enhance both of data transmission and processing speed. Thus, a proposed clustering algorithm will be presented for grouping mobile nodes based on their speeds besides the assignments of the head nodes that will not be updated every cycle, while the ordinary ones themselves will execute their attaching heads continuously. In order to enhance the speed of data transmission and processing, a parallel-processing technique is emphasized. This is based on a variety of wavelet baby functions to attain the target of increasing the speed with low complexity. In addition, the optimization of the transmitted power phenomenon, the Multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is used to provide such privilege via the parallel processing criterion. There have been five main efficiency factors involved in this investigation; namely complementary cumulative distributions, bit rates, energy efficiency, the cluster head life time and the ordinary nodes reattaching-head average times.

Keywords: UWB-MB-OFDM · V2V · Energy efficiency · Clustering algorithm

341
Title: V2V BER Enhancement based on FFH-OFDM
Author: Qadri Jamal Al-Hamarsheh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This paper describes the performance enhancement for the V2V communications based on LTE systems. Due to the mobility factor among the communicating nodes, V2V systems have a major drawback from the bandwidth point of view. Thus, a study of the V2V systems based on BER performance enhancement has been investigated. This proposition is based on making use of both of fast frequency hopping orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and the multiple antennas to mitigate the Doppler spread effect on the V2V clustering benchmark, which contains both of a clustering weighting factor based stage and a multiparallel processing stage. The results show a noticeable stability compared to our previously published work by almost 25%, which also exceeds the achieved results from the Lower-ID DCA from both of the speed and communication range.

Keywords: OFDM, FFH, V2V, Clustering Algorithm

342
Title: CYBER ETHICS, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE MEDIATING ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE SHARING
Author: Shadi Mohammad Al-Tahat, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This paper improves our understanding of an important imperative for entrepreneurship which is knowledge sharing and commitment to cyber ethics, due to the extent of the risk to that they are exposed to entrepreneurs should understand the importance of cyber ethics when they share knowledge with each other.The purpose of this article is to examinethe relationship between internet ethics and entrepreneurship and the mediating role of the exchange of knowledge in the Jordanian SME S. The researchers used a descriptive, analytical approach to analyze and classify data; 296 Valid Questionnaires were used, anda descriptive analytical approach was utilizedfor data analysis.The "probability sampling method" was applied for data collection.The main findings are that internet ethics affect entrepreneurship and the exchange of information. Also, the exchange of information has an impact on entrepreneurship as an intermediary role through the study. This study's findings can be used to gain a deeper insight into the workplaces of Jordanian companies and emphasize the valuable role of Cyber Ethics in explaining the employee's behavior in different organizations.

Keywords: Cyber Ethics , Entrepreneurship, Knowledge Sharing

343
Title: Earnings management, ownership structure and the firm value: An empirical analysis
Author: Hassan Hamad Aldboush, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: There are always conflicts of interest between managers (agents) and owners (leaders), but not necessarily the degree of disagreement. This is due to a conflict of interest or a division of responsibility. The purpose of this research is to look at the effects of earnings management and ownership structure on business value. The public firms included for this research were listed on the Amman Stock Exchange between 2015 and 2019. The purposive sampling strategy is used in this research to examine the sample, providing seven businesses as the test sample. In the regression analysis, multiple regression and descriptive statistics were applied. According to the conclusions of this research, earning management, managerial ownership, and institutional ownership have minimal effect on business value. Aside from that, the findings suggest that family ownership has a significant favorable influence on business worth. To maximize the firm's valuation, it is recommended that these firms strictly adhere to the CG mechanism as a requirement. The function of CG as an independent or moderating variable, on the other hand, is still debatable.

Keywords: Earnings management (EM); Firm value (FV); Ownership structure (OS).

344
Title: Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Performance: The Role of Job Satisfaction
Author: Shadi Mohammad Al-Tahat, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of Human Resource Management Practices (HRMP) on improving Employee Performance (EP). The study is accomplished by hypothesizing the impact of HRMP on EP, additionally, this impact is theorized to be mediated through job satisfaction. Employee engagement is also taken into account because of the potential moderating effect it has within the theorized model. Data was collected from 480 questionnaires which were distributed among commercial banks' workers in Jordan and were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques (SEM), path analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Analysis of a moment structures (AMOS) software version 24 was applied to complete our analysis. The results show that HRMP had a positive impact on EP, as well as job satisfaction and its components (job stability and job enrichment). The mediating role of job satisfaction (enrichment and stability) was discovered. Finally, employee engagement emerged as a moderating variable linking HRMP and EP. The findings of this study show the importance of the role played by job satisfaction and employee engagement in achieving human resources performance goals. Future analysis is recommended to gain deeper insight into the relationship between HRMP, job satisfaction, worker training, and performance appraisal

Keywords: Human Resource Management Practices, EP, Job Satisfaction

345
Title: Seroprevalences of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in Jordanian women who had a recent spontaneous abortion
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: This cross-sectional study investigates Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum among 445 recently spontaneously aborted (RSA) Jordanian women using ELISA and indirect fluorescent antibody (at a cut-off value of 1/200) tests, respectively. The type of hospital, age, cat and dog contacts, raw and barbecued meat and wild plant consumption, number of abortions, and stillbirths were tested as independent variables using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The true seroprevalences were 22.1% for T. gondii-IgG, 22.7% for N. caninum-IgG, 2.6% for T. gondii-IgM, 10.6% for N. caninum-IgM, 0% for T. gondii-IgG and IgM, 6.7% for N. caninum-IgG and IgM, and 4.6% and 0% for both parasite IgG and IgM, respectively. T. gondii-IgM-seropositivity was associated with the number of abortions with odds ratios (OR) of 2.4 and eating barbecued meat (OR = 0.12). N. caninum-IgG-seropositivity was associated with having a dog in the house (OR = 2.6), and with stillbirth (OR = 0.1). N. caninum-IgM was associated with visiting a private-hospital (OR = 2.7). RSA Jordanian women are equally exposed to both parasites with significantly (p < 0.05) higher seroprevalence of N. caninum-IgM compared to T. gondii-IgM suggestive of active infections among RSA women in Jordan.

Keywords: Neospora caninum; Jordanian women, Spontaneous abortion

346
Title: Virtual Coaching Delivered by Pharmacists to Prevent COVID-19 Transmission
Author: Asma Ahmad El-Shara, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Background: While the role of pharmacists in the current pandemic control has been recognized worldwide, their coaching efforts to improve the public’s behaviors that could prevent COVID-19 transmission has been rarely investigated. Objectives: To assess whether pharmacist-based virtual health coaching sessions could increase the proportion of people who practised healthy social behaviors, to test whether this model can increase the public acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, and to measure whether these behaviors could actually prevent contracting COVID-19. Method: In this randomized controlled trial, adults who matched specific criteria were randomly allocated into 2 arms. The active arm received 12 pharmacist-based virtual coaching sessions delivered via Zoom® over a month. Participants allocated to the control arm received no coaching. At the end of the last coaching session, both groups were asked to complete a structured questionnaire for outcome assessment. Participants in the active group were followed up to 2weeks after the end of the last coaching session to check if they contracted COVID-19 or not. The SPSS software version 26.0 (IBM Corp., Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 300 participants who gave consent for participation, 295 completed the study (147 from the active arm and 148 from the control arm). The proportion of those using face masks, avoiding crowds, and willing to be isolated if infected in the active arm was increased from 51.70%, 53.74%, and 59.86% at baseline to 91.83%, 80.27%, and 96.59% at the end of coaching, respectively (all with P<.05). In addition, the proportion of behaviors, such as disinfecting surfaces, not touching the T-zone, and avoid sharing personal belongings with colleagues at work was increased from 36.05%, 27.89%, and 46.93% at baseline to 63.94%, 52.38%, and 87.75% at the end of coaching, respectively (all with P<.05). Avoid touching the T-zone (OR=0.43; 95% CI, 0.24-0.89) and using disposable tissues (OR=0.30; 95% CI, 0.18-0.77), each versus using face masks appropriately were more likely to get COVID-19. Conclusion: Pharmacist-based virtual health coaching could be a potential strategy to increase the proportion of behaviors that could curtail the spread of COVID-19.

Keywords: pharmacists, education, medication safety, residency training, programs

347
Title: The Role of E-Word of Mouth in the Relationship between Online Destination Image, E-satisfaction, E-Trust & E-Service Quality for International Tourists Perception
Author: Shadi Mohammad Al-Tahat, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Destination Image as a development which comprises of interrelated assessments converged with general impressions and convictions dependent on data preparing from an assortment of sources after some time; little research has concentrated on picture arrangement corresponding to this kind of goal, this article explores the mediating role of Online Image on the connection between E-WOM and E-service quality, E-satisfaction, E- trust The result of Structural equation Modelling (AMOS) path analysis affirmed that estimation model fulfilled the necessity and evidence the solidness of things,builds and correlation. All the four conditions for estimation model was met: things stacking above 0.7; unwavering composite quality (CR) above 0.7; Average Variance Extraction (AVE) above 0.5. The scholastics and industry will profit by the usage of this examination. Likewise, the tourist industry division can draw from these outcomes as references and proposals inside the impediments of the study. Future research headings were proposed to deal with the restrictions.

Keywords: E-Word of Mouth; Online Destination Image; E-Trust & E-Service Quality; Online Destination Image.

348
Title: Antibiotic prescribing errors generated by the use of an electronic prescribing system in the emergency department : A mixed method study
Author: Asma Ahmad El-Shara, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Context: Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics can result in serious patient harm. Aims: To investigate the incidence, nature, clinical severity, and causes of antibiotic prescribing errors (APEs) in the emergency department (ED) of a large hospital in Jordan. Methods: A mixed-method approach was used to explore the incidence and types of APEs by direct observation of electronic prescriptions (EPS) of antibiotics over four weeks, and to identify causes of errors by semi-structured interviews with ED physicians. The clinical severity of APEs was rated by a committee of experts. SPSS V26 and NVivo 10 were used for the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Results: The incidence of APEs caused by the use of EPS was 4.3%. Wrong quantity (32.62%), wrong dose (15.25%), and duplicate drugs (13.55%) were identified as the most common types of APEs. More than one-third of APEs identified were deemed clinically significant, seven were serious, and one was lethal. Minor and significant antibiotic APEs across physicians who attended workshops on EPS and those who did not were 75.00% versus 46.77% (p = 0.001) and 18.75% versus 52.41% (p = 0.013), respectively. Three major causes of errors were identified: 1) System-related (system crash, drop-down menu), 2) user-related (lack of computer skills), and 3) workplace-related (overcrowding, inadequate staffing). Conclusions: APEs generated by the use of EPS were common in EDs in Jordan, clinically significant, and multifactorial. Further research is required to cover pharmacists’ perspectives of this kind of errors.

Keywords: antibiotics; emergency departments; prescribing errors.

349
Title: The oxidation of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid by water-soluble colloidal manganese oxide in surfactant and polymer media: a kinetic and mechanistic approach
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Abstract Kinetics of the oxidation of both salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid by colloidal manganese oxide (MnO2) have been explored spectrophotometrically by monitoring the decay in the absorbance of colloidal MnO2 at 390 nm in absence and presence of surfactants and polymers. The major goal of this research is the study of the effect of the nature of surfactants and polymers on the rate of the oxidation of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, as well as employing of Piszkiewicz and Menger–Portnoy models to explain the catalytic and inhibition effect of surfactants and polymers. However, the experimental runs have been carried out under the pseudo-first-order reaction conditions with respect to MnO2. The oxidation has been observed to be fractional-order with respect to both of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, colloidal MnO 2 and H2SO4. The anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the nonionic surfactant Tween-20 have been observed to be reaction inhibitors. Whereas, the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) causes flocculation with oppositely charged colloidal MnO2 and therefore could not be studied further in all cases. On the other hand, PEG 600 and 1500 have played a significant role in enhancing the rates of the reaction. On the basis of observed kinetic results, a plausible mechanism of the reaction and the expected final product have been suggested

Keywords: Manganese oxide · Reduction · Oxidation · Salicylic acids · Micellar catalysis · Surfactant

350
Title: التعليم بوصلة التنمية المستدامة
Author: Amani Ghazi Jarrar, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: يسعى كتاب (التعليم بوصلة التنمية المستدامة ) إلى تقديم رؤية مستقبلية من أجل إعادة هندسة التعليم لخدمة بناء المنظومة التربوية على أسس علمية تراعي القيم الإنسانية عند تخيل التعليم لإنتاج شباب حضاري قادر على التغيير الإيجابي المنشود لخدمة المجتمع الإنساني كافة . ولغايات تحقيق ذلك في عالمنا المعاصر، كان لا بد من البدء بعالمنا العربي الأكثر تراجعا في المجال التربوي التعليمي ، حيث تناول الكتاب أحد عشر فصلا . وخير ما يمكن البدء فيه عمليا وعلميا هو ما عرض في الفصل الأول من حيث مراجعة تاريخ التربية والتعليم في الوطن العربي باعتباره البدايات الواجب الوقوف عليها لتفحص الماضي من أجل نظرة نقدية حقيقية لا تقبل التجميل بل تحاكي الواقع بوضوح لتقييمه بشفافية . ويتناول الفصل الثاني فلسفة التربية والتعليم في القرن الحادي والعشرين باعتبارها الأساس في أي تغيير يجب أن يطاله الباحث الراغب في إعادة البناء للحصول على نتائج أفضل تتخلص من عقد ومشاكل الماضي ونقاط الضعف ،مما يتطلب منا تحليل شامل للمنظومة التربوية. ولأن المعلم أداة التغيير الرئيسية ،كان لابد من تخصيص الفصل الثالث لبحث الابداع وتنمية المعلم ، فلم يعد مقبولا اتباع أدوات وآليات تقليدية ،بل كانت ضرورة تبني استراتيجيات ابداعية من أجل التعليم الجيد . وقد تم اختيار الفلسفة كمحرك رئيسي للتعليم الجيد ،فقد تناول الفصل الرابع الفلسفة وتنمية التفكير . كما يبين الكتاب ان تعليم الفنون والموسيقى ضرورة وليست ترفا من أجل تنمية الحس الجمالي ،فتناول الفصل الخامس ذلك بشيء من التوضيح . ولأن الشباب هم فرسان التغيير ،ولأن نظرة المجتمع للمرأة تعتبر من أهم القضايا الواجب تغييرها في مجتمعات المعرفة ، فقد خصص الفصل السادس لهذه الغاية . أما الفصل السابع فقد خصص لبحث كيفية تطوير العقلية الريادية وأهمية إعادة التفكير في قطاع التعليم عموما ، حيث ضرورة الاهتمام بالتربية من أجل التنمية المستدامة بالشكل الأمثل المنشود،وهو مدار بحث الفصل الثامن . كما تناول الفصل التاسع أهمية بناء الانسان الاخلاقي ليتمكن من الانخراط في عالم اليوم باعتباره مواطنا عالميا . وقد عالج الفصل العاشر إصلاح وإثراء التعليم والمنظومة التربوية بالمجمل ، مما مهد بالتالي الى معالجة الفصل الحادي عشر من حيث إعادة تخيل التعليم في مجتمع المعرفة وفي زمن الأزمات ،فقد آن الأوان لإعادة هندسة التعليم من أجل التنمية المستدامة لتحقق نجاحات منشودة على مستوى الإنسانية . https://www.addustour.com/articles/1192242-«التعليم-بوصلة-التنمية-المستدامة»-كتاب-جديد-للدكتورة-أماني-غازي-جرار https://anbaalwatan.com/newsid=340392.htm https://www.petra.gov.jo/Include/InnerPage.jsp?ID=4553&lang=ar&name=culture_news

Keywords: التعليم ،التنمية المستدامة

351
Title: Kinetics of oxidation of vanillic acid by colloidal MnO2: correlation of micellar catalysis to the micellar properties of surfactants and mixed surfactants.
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Abstract The kinetics of oxidation of vanillic acid by colloidal MnO2 in an acidic medium was investigated and used as a probe to study the micellar catalysis and its correlation to micellar properties of surfactants. Three surfactants were employed; cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), anionic sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), and non-ionic Tween-20 (TW-20), and some compositions of the two mixed systems CTAB-TW-20 and SDS-TW-20. The micellar properties were studied using the conductivity method. The reaction rate was enhanced in the presence of the three surfactants and the mixed systems. The catalytic profiles of the pure and mixed surfactant systems could be used to estimate the critical micelle concentrations of surfactant catalytic systems. Nevertheless, the kinetic measurements could not detect the variations in the micellar structures that occur at post-micellar compositions. Overall, the mixed systems studied showed a negative deviation of ideality with synergetic interaction. Therefore, Rubingh equations were used to calculate the micellar mole fraction and interaction parameters in the mixed surfactant systems.

Keywords: Micellar catalysis · Mixed surfactant systems · Colloidal MnO2 · Vanillic acid · Redox reactions

352
Title: The Mediating Role of Creativity in the Influence of the Entrepreneurial Mindset on Corporate Entrepreneurship
Author: Shadi Mohammad Al-Tahat, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Entrepreneurship is one of our economy's most significant component and a skill that is taken into account when starting a business or even when striving to be an excellent worker. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the role that creativity in the northern Jordanian banks plays in the relationship between the entrepreneurial mindset and corporate entrepreneurship. The sample consists of 363 bank employees from various departments. They were conveniently selected and analysed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results showed that creativity has a positive and significant impact on the relationship between the entrepreneurial mindset and corporate entrepreneurship. The results also showed that the entrepreneurial mindset had a significant and positive impact on corporate entrepreneurship. According to the research results it was recommended that: All bank employees need to work on an entrepreneurial strategy at their various levels and roles in positions of responsibility in the fundamental concepts, associated with methods of the entrepreneurial mindset in terms of enhancing their operations to provide their clients with a successful and modern service.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial mindset, Corporate entrepreneurship, Creativity, Jordanian Banks

353
Title: Kinetics of oxidation of aspirin by Ce(IV) in surfactant, polymer, and mixed surfactant‑polymer media
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The catalytic effects of the two surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dimethyldodecylammonium oxide (DDAO), and the two polymers polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVD), on the kinetics of oxidation of Aspirin by Ce(IV) were investigated. Mixed systems of the two surfactants and SDS-PEG/PVD were also examined as catalysts of the reaction. Both surfactants catalyzed the reaction, but the DDAO was found to work only above its critical micelle concentration (CMC), whereas below it a precipitate appeared and retarded the measurements. The catalytic profiles of both surfactants showed maxima, which enabled the application of Piszkiewicz’s model to calculate the cooperative index (n) and dissociation constants (kD) of premicellar substrate-surfactant aggregates. Besides, less values of dissociation constant and a higher value of n were found for DDAO compared to those of SDS. The results proved higher catalytic activity of DDAO because the SDS counter ions may impose some restriction on Ce(IV) diffusion toward the substrate solubilized within the micellar core. Both polymers, PEG and PVD, were found to catalyze the reaction, and their catalytic data was modeled using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Interestingly, the catalytic profiles of mixed SDS-DDAO and SDS-PEG/PVD reflected the detailed surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-polymer interactions reported in the literature. The reaction’s product was identified from UV–VIS spectra assisted by the calculations of reaction stoichiometry and 2,4-dnitrophenylhydrazone test. A mechanism of the reaction that coped with the experimental data was suggested.

Keywords: Micellar catalysis · Polymer catalysis · Mixed-surfactant system · Surfactant-polymer interaction

354
Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT AND TRANSFORMATIONAL AND TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES:EVIDENCE FROM JORDAN; GREATER AMMAN MUNICIPALITY
Author: Shadi Mohammad Al-Tahat, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: Employee Engagement has been at the forefront of focus for human resources researchers and scientists,who believe that Employee Engagement can be a key driver of business success. The purpose of this analysis is to identifythe association between Employee Engagement and Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles. Data were collected and analyzed from a survey of 273 full-time employees who workin the Greater Amman Municipality at Jordan. The data was analyzed with different statistical tools (Mean, Correlation and Z-values) using SPSS. The findings exposed a significant positive association between bothTransformational and Transactional Leadership Stylesand Employee Engagement. It also found that Transformational Leadership is a better indicator of Employee Engagement when compared with Transactional Leadership

Keywords: Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Employee Engagement, Greater Amman Municipality, Jordan

355
Title: Micellar and Polymer Catalysis in the Kinetics of Oxidation of L-lysine by Permanganate Ion in Perchloric Acid Medium
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Kinetics of oxidation of L-lysine by permanganate ion in a perchloric acid medium was investigated to explore the order of the reaction with respect to oxidant and substrate and to study the catalytic behaviour of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The reaction was found to be first-order with respect to the oxidant and the substrate and zero-order with respect to hydrogen ion. Changes in the sodium sulphate concentration produce a non-significant variation in the rate of the reaction. SLS and PEG were found to catalyze the reaction. Surfactant catalysis was modelled by Piszkiewicz’s cooperativity model, while polymer catalysis was explained with the help of the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The temperature dependence of the rate of the reaction was elucidated, and activation parameters were obtained. Interestingly, the reaction was found to possess positive activation entropy indicating the dissociative nature of the transition state and outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. A mechanism of the reaction that is supported by the experimental findings was suggested

Keywords: L-lysine, permanganate ion, micellar catalysis, polymer catalysis, outer sphere electron transfer mechanism

356
Title: Carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions of organomagnesium reagents with a variety of electrophilic substrates mediated by iron catalysts
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Iron complexes are one of the most promising catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling reactions due to their relatively low cost, widespread availability as well as lower toxicity. Many researches have been successfully done to develop efficient protocols for the cross-coupling reactions of organomagnesium reagents with various substrates mediated by iron catalysts to generate a wide spectrum of important organic compounds.

Keywords: Iron catalysts; organomagnesium reagents; carbon-carbon formation; cross-coupling reactions

357
Title: Towards a Sustainable Highway Road-based Driving Protocol for Connected and Self-Driving Vehicles
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Fuel consumption and gas emissions of traveling vehicles have become of great consideration for green environmental researchers. Several technologies have been developed to enhance the efficiency of daily traveling vehicles in terms of fuel consumption. Moreover, many protocols have been developed to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions of traveling vehicles. However, most of these protocols were dedicated to downtown and urban areas, since they are considered more consuming scenarios. Drivers spend a long time traveling over highways toward a targeted destination. Small mistakes could lead to greater fuel consumption; the percentage of extra fuel consumption can be drastically increased when drivers repeatedly make the same efficiency mistakes during their trips. In this work, we aim to introduce a green protocol to assist drivers and self-driving vehicles to drive efficiently over highways in order to reduce the fuel economy and gas emission of their vehicles. This protocol is designed to keep the speed of the traveling gasoline vehicles steady as much as possible in order to save energy and enhance efficiency. It also smooths the acceleration and deceleration reactions of vehicles when required. The performance of the proposed protocol has been evaluated using an extensive set of experiments.

Keywords: Green protocol, Driving assistant protocol, Efficient protocol, Fuel consumption, Gas emission, Highway.

358
Title: DRUG RELEASE CONTROL AND ENHANCEMENT USING CARRIERS WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF CAPMUL® MCM C8
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Objective: The main aim of this study was to design a drug carrier capable to control and enhance the release of poorly water soluble drugs. Methods: Three polymeric formulations, based on poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and loaded with different Capmul® MCM C8 concentrations (0, 10 and 20 % w/w), were prepared. Felodipine, which is a poorly soluble substance, was selected as a model drug. The effect of Capmul® MCM C8 on swelling behavior and in vitro release profile of the prepared polymer was investigated in PBS. Results: The swelling profiles of allformulationswere statistically similar, which indicated the non-significant effect of added Capmul® MCM C8 on polymer's swelling behavior. All formulations showed a delayed drug release. Formulation-F3, which is loaded with 20% w/wCapmul® MCM C8 displayed a significant higher release compared to the other formulations. Conclusion: Capmul® MCM products, which are widely used in food industries, can be used to improve the oral delivery of poorly soluble substances. The optimized formulation exhibited the ability to control and enhance the release of the model drug.

Keywords: Capmul® MCM C8, Drug delivery, Free radical polymerization, Bioavailability enhancement

359
Title: Context Prediction of Highways Based on The Vehicular Traffic Distribution
Author: Maram Bani Younes, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Traffic distribution over highways affects several applications and functionalities of traveling vehicles. The level of traffic congestion has been scaled over road networks based on the traffic density, traveling speed or estimated traveling time of the investigated road scenario. These measurements have been used individually or combined with other parameters to indicate the level of the traffic congestion on certain road scenario. In this paper, we propose a context-aware traffic prediction technique. It predicts the context of the highway scenarios in terms of the existence of obstacles, broken vehicles, or entrance/exit points based on the distribution of vehicles' traveling speed. From the experimental study, we can see that the proposed protocol have succeeded to predict the context of the highway. Our results indicate that our propose scheme exhibit good performance based upon an extensive set of simulation experiments.

Keywords: Context predictions; Context-Aware; Network-based; Road network; Traffic densities; Traffic distributions; Traffic prediction; Traveling time; Traveling vehicle; VANET

360
Title: Pharmaceutical Mini-Tablets Overview
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Oral dosage forms are considered as the most preferred dosage forms to various age groups of patients. However, conventional solid dosage forms (tablets and capsules) have been associated with some issues; such fluctuation in the plasma drug concentration and swallowing difficulty for some patients. This advocates the need for the continuous development and improvement of tablets and capsule to enhance therapeutic efficacy and increase patient acceptance. Mini tablets technology has been developed to minimize these problems. It aims to facilitate oral administration with minimal swallowing difficulty (especially in pediatrics and geriatrics) and deliver a therapeutic agent, selectively and effectively, to be targeted in a certain position in the body. The most benefit of this technique is the ease of production with facilitated control of stability problems. The size and shape uniformity, with smooth surface area, make minitablets attractive to be incorporated with different medications for the efficient treatment of chronic diseases. This overview outlines properties, production requirements, formulation options and evaluation methods of mini tablets

Keywords: Mini Tablets, multiple unit dosage forms, compressed mini tablets.

361
Title: THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF EXTERNAL AUDIT PROCEDURES
Author: Nashat Ali Al-Masri, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This research investigates the role of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) in enhancing the quality of external audit procedures. An empirical survey was conducted to gather the data using online questionnaire to achieve the research aim about how AIS influence the quality of external audit procedures. The research hypotheses were tested regression analysis. The findings illustrate that there is a statistically significant impact of the availability of appropriate AIS in improving some aspects of the external audit quality. This research highlighted that external auditors believe the significant function of AIS on the quality of external audit procedures. The results also show how AIS can enhance the quality of external audit performance. The findings also illustrate that elements and applications of AIS contribute significantly to improve the quality of the external audit procedures (the planning for the audit process, audit testing procedures, risk assessments, implementation of the audit), which indicates the availability of components computer and technology Due to the recent development in IAS and the use of computerized systems and applications in the audit process and the importance of the study stems from the lack of such studies related to the extent of the role of using AIS on the external auditing process. AIS are assumed to improve audited accounting information and external audit procedures for audit firms.

Keywords: Accounting information System; Quality of external audit procedures; Information technology

362
Title: Characterization of Insulin Mucoadhesive Buccal Films: Spectroscopic Analysis and In Vivo Evaluation
Author: Randa Shehda Mansour, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Insulin mucoadhesive buccal films (MBF) are a noninvasive insulin delivery system that offers an advantageous alternative route of administration to subcutaneous injection. One major concern in the formulation of insulin MBF is the preservation of an insulin secondary structure in the presence of the other film components. Buccal films were formulated using chitosan, glycerin, and L-arginine. The MBF-forming solutions (MBF-FS) and the films (MBF) were examined for their chemical and structural stability and for their in vivo activity. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) of the insulin-loaded MBF showed that each individualized unit dose was at least loaded with 80% of the insulin theoretical dose. Results of Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) measurements revealed that MBF-FS retained the -helices and –sheets conformations of insulin. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-microspectroscopy (FTIR-MS) examination of insulin MBF revealed the protective action of L-arginine on insulin structure by interacting with chitosan and minimizing the formation of an unordered structure and -strand. A blood glucose-lowering effect of insulin MBF was observed in comparison with subcutaneous (S.C) injection using a rat model. As a result; chitosan-based MBFs were formulated and characterized using SRCD and FTIR-MS techniques. Furthermore, the results of in vivo testing suggested the MBFs as a promising delivery system for insulin.

Keywords: insulin; chitosan; mucoadhesive; buccal films; synchrotron radiation circular dichroism;FTIR-microspectroscopy; in vivo

363
Title: التَّشْجير اللّغوي للدّوال في العربية: مُقاربة اجتماعية
Author: Muhammad Ismail Amayreh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: مصطلح "التشجير" يناسب طبيعة العربيّة؛ فالألفاظ فيها تتفرّع غالبًا من الجذور؛ فيصبح كلّ جذر كشجرة تختلف عن غيرها، بسبب لا يعود دائما إلى الشجرة اللغويّة نفسها، بل يرجع إلى ما يتداوله المجتمع من ألفاظ هذه الشجرة. إنَّ التشجير اللغويّ تعبير عن جدليّة العلاقة بين اللغة بقوانينها من جهة، والمجتمع باستعماله مفردات وهجرته أخرى، وتأليفه الكلام على نحوٍ مقبول في المعهود الاجتماعيّ للغة. وقد سعت الدراسة إلى استجلاء إجابة عن تساؤل تثيره هذه الجدلية: هل تُملي اللغة قوانينها بتحديد الألفاظ المستعملة، والمجتمع هو المتلقي لهذه الإملاءات ؟ أم أن اللغة تقدم خيارات ينتقي المجتمع من بينها ما يلائمه؟ وقد سارت منهجية الدراسة على رصد نماذج من الدوال وتحليلها، لاستجلاء معالم هذا التشجير اجتماعيا، وتوصلت إلى نتائج منها: أن التأثير في علاقة اللغة بالمجتمع تبادلي،كما أنه لا يمكن فهم السلوك اللغوي دون الالتفات إلى هذه تكاملية هذه العلاقة. كلمات مفتاحية: تشجير ، تأثير اجتماعي، صياغة لغوية، علاقة ، دوال ، كلمات مستعملة.

Keywords: تشجير ، تأثير اجتماعي، صياغة لغوية، علاقة ، دوال ، كلمات مستعملة.

364
Title: IoT-Based Real-Time Monitoring System for Epidemic Diseases Patients: Design and Evaluation
Author: Kasim Mousa Al-Aubidy, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Epidemic diseases patients need constant monitoring of their health, whether in the hospital or at home, and this requires great costs. The employment of information and communication technologies and artificial intelligence concepts helps reduce these costs. This paper introduces a real-time monitoring system for monitoring pneumonia patients that will allow doctors to monitor the health of their patients remotely through smartphones or internet-connected devices. To verify the proper functioning of this system, a real-time monitoring device was developed and tested. A secure mechanism is designed to establish a wireless connection to the monitoring unit.

Keywords: Healthcare; Epidemic diseases patients; Pneumonia patients; Real-time patient monitoring.

365
Title: IoT Based Remote Laboratory for Solar Energy Experiments: Design and Implementation
Author: Kasim Mousa Al-Aubidy, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Remote laboratories offer real experiences that students deal with over the Internet using computers or smartphones. This paper presents a technical method for connecting real devices in a laboratory so that students can access them over the Internet to conduct real experiments on devices in the lab from anywhere, anytime. The proposed remote lab includes a set of experiments, and each experiment has a set of devices. Each experiment is designed in a way that allows the learner to select a certain experiment and study the functions of each device to achieve its objective. By using the remote laboratory, students will be able to study the basic characteristics of each component used in the experiment and measure several parameters in order to acquire the necessary skills they need. This paper presents the hardware and software design of a remote solar lab and the results obtained from laboratory experiments conducted online. The next step is to implement the proposed system in the Solar Energy Laboratory at the Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Philadelphia University, Jordan. Remote laboratory, IoT, Embedded systems, E-learning, Blended learning.

Keywords: Remote laboratory, IoT, Embedded systems, E-learning, Blended learning.

366
Title: السؤال البرلماني في دستور المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية لسنة ١٩٥٢ وتعديلاته
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Law

Abstract: تتطرق هذه الدراسة إلى السؤال البرلماني من حيث شروطه وإجراءاته ومدى فاعليته في العمل الرقابي من أَعضاء مجلس النواب في الأردن, والإشكالية في مدى كفاية التنظيم التشريعي الأردني وأثر ذلك في تحقيق الإصلاح الحكومي, وأُتْبِعَ المنهج الوصفي والتحليلي بوصف نصوص الدستور الأردني لسنة 2591 وتحليلها وما طرأ عليه من تعديلات وأثرها في آليات ووسائل الرقابة البرلمانية، وكذلك نصوص الأنظمة الداخلية وأحكامها لكل من مجلسي النواب والأعيان, وقُس ِمَ هذا البحث إلى مبحثين؛ المبحث الأول: ماهية السؤال البرلماني والمبحث الثاني: الآثار المترتبة على توجيه السؤال البرلماني, وأهم النتائج والتوصيات؛ فالنتائج أنه بموجب نص المادة )221 /أ( من النظام الداخلي لمجلس النواب، أَنه عند رد الوزير المختص على السؤال المقدم من عضو البرلمان وعرضه عليه، يعلن النائب السائل اكتفاءه بالرد حيث يغلق عندها بحث الموضوع - أَو أَ ن يُ بدي العضو رغبته بالكلام - إِذْ يُعطى له وحده حق ُ الر َدِ على الوزير وبإيجاز، أما التوصيات فأتمنى تعديل النص السابق وإشراك جميع النواب في المناقشة؛ لأَن َ النائب لا يمثل نفسه، بل يمثل الشعب الذي انتخبه

Keywords: السؤال البرلماني، الرقابة البرلمانية، التشريع الاردني

367
Title: Auxiliary verbs in Jordanian Arabic
Author: Ibtisam Hussein Jamil, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Abstract There are a number of helping verbs in Jordanian Arabic that are confused with light verbs or serial verbs. This paper, first, establishes the criteria on which they have been identified as auxiliary verbs. The paper shows the similarities and differences between the inflection of lexical verbs and AUX’s in JA. It also tackles the loss of θ-assigning properties which is the crucial property that differentiates between AUX and lexical and serial verbs. Second, given the fact that Arabic has rich verbal morphology which provides enough justification for factoring TP into TP and AspP (and perhaps AgrP), the study adopts an articulated version of the IP, in which inflection is separated into its constituent components, each has a maximal functional projection. The study also builds on Ouhalla's proposal (1990, 2005) that auxiliaries originate outside the VP shell. Based on evidence from the distribution of VP adverbs, negation and floating quantifiers, the paper proposes that auxiliaries in Jordanian Arabic are classified under two lexical auxiliary groups. T-aux are borne in a functional projection under T, but raise to T0 to carry and reflect tense, while Asp-aux are base-generated under Asp0 and only raise to T in the absence of a T-Aux.

Keywords: Jordanian Arabic; auxiliary verb; Tense; Aspect; inflection; agreement.

368
Title: ضوابط التكييف القانوني في التشريع الجزائي الأردني
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Law

Abstract: هذا البحث دراسة وصفية تحليلية؛ بهدف الوقوف على مدى تقيد المشرع الأردني بمبدأ المشروعية من جهة وعدم إفلات المجرمين من العقاب من جهة أخرى واستعرض الباحث أهم ضوابط التكييف القانوني ومنها قاعدة التقيد بالاختصاص النوعي وحق الدفاع, موضح موقف المشرع الأردني في قانون أصول المحاكمات الجزائية من هذه الضوابط والتطبيقات القضائية ذات الصلة. وخلصت الدراسة أن المشرع الأردني في قانون أصول المحاكمات الجزائية لم ينص على تنبيه المشتكى عليه عندما يتم تغيير وصف التهمة وإنما نص على أن تأجل القضية لمدة مناسبة حتى يستطيع المشتكى عليه من تقديم الأدلة التي تنفي التهمة الجديدة له, وأتمنى أن يتم النص صراحة في التشريع الأردني بأن يتم تنبيه المشتكى عليه بشكل صريح عند تغيير وصف التهمة.

Keywords: المحاكمات الجزائية, التكييف القانوني, المشرع الأردني

369
Title: Stress levels and coping strategies among Jordanian parents caring for newly diagnosed children with leukemia: A cross sectional descriptive correlational study
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the stress experienced and coping approaches exhibited by Jordanian parents of children recently diagnosed with leukemia. Method: This cross-sectional study collected data from parents of children who had been diagnosed with leukemia within the previous three months (N = 130; 57 fathers (43.8%) and 73 mothers (56.2%), age (Mean = 37.5, SD = 8.4)). The Parenting Stress Index–Short Form was used. Similarly, parents’ coping approaches were assessed with the Coping Health Inventory for Parents. Results: Parents’ mean total stress and coping strategies scores were 108 (± 26.8) and 93.9 (± 15.6), respectively. There were significant negative relationships between parents’ stress levels and age (r = -0.46, p = .01), education level (f = 28.5, p < .05), and income (r = -0.65, p = .01). Additionally, there were significant positive relationships between parents’ coping strategies and age (r = 0.34, p = .01) and income (r = 0.53, p < .01). There were non-significant differences between fathers’ and mothers’ stress levels and coping strategies. Conclusions: Parents of children with leukemia experienced high stress. The findings also confirmed the negative relationship between parents’ stress, age, education level, and income; and the positive relationship between parents’ coping strategies, age, and income.

Keywords: Stress; coping strategy; Jordanian; children; leukemia, parenting

370
Title: criminal liability resulted from the sexual harassment crime according to the Jordanian penal code
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Law

Abstract: The protection of the female or male is the duty of any country in the world which matter starts by protecting the body against sexual assault which has been criminalized by the legislator in the Jordanian Penal Code through explicit provisions providing for criminalizing a number of crimes, eg the crime of rape when the victim is a female only or the crime of molestation when the victim is being (a male or female) or of inappropriate flirtation in a public place or inappropriate flirtation in a private place. In fact, and as for the verbal or gestural sexual harassment, then the same was not approached by the Jordanian Penal Code. Yet, would the traditional provisions be sufficient to criminalize the same or that explicit legal provisions should be laid down? In addition, what is the criterion for the existence or non-existence of the sexual harassment for which this crime that has been spreading largely in the Jordanian …

Keywords: crime, sexual Harassment,penal code

371
Title: جريمة التهريب الجمركي وفقاً لأحدث تعديلات قانون الجمارك الأردني" دراسة تحليلية
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Law

Abstract: إن التنظيم القانوني لجريمة التهريب الجمركي في الأردن لها عواقبها الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والسياسية والأمنية ومع ذلك فإن الدراسات القانونية بما يتعلق بهذه الجريمة قليلة، ولهذا كان لابد من توضيح الأركان القانونية لها وأن تكون هذه الجريمة بيد السلطة القضائية دون أي سلطة أخرى وبيان مكامن النقص والثغرات القانونية الجزائية التي نص عليها قانون الجمارك الأردني، ولقد توصلت هذه الدراسة إلى عدد من النتائج والتوصيات ومن أهمها. أما بالنسبة للنتائج فالمشرع الأردني في قانون الجمارك أعطى سلطة المصالحة في جرائم التهريب الجمركي للوزير(وزير المالية) وهذا يؤدي إلى إسقاط الدعوى الجزائية عن المهربين أما بالنسبة للتوصيات أتمنى على المشرع الأردني تعديل المادة 212 من قانون الجمارك بإلغاء السلطة الممنوحة للوزير(وزير المالية) في عمل المصالحة في جرائم التهريب الجمركي وحتى لو كانت هذه المصالحة تتم عن طريق إصدار دليل للتسويات الصلحية من الوزير ونشرها في الجريدة الرسمية وهذا ما تطرقت إليه المادة 213/ب من القانون السابق والسبب في ذلك خوفًا من تداخل المصالح الخاصة والتدخلات وهذا يتعارض مع المصلحة العامة؛ لأنه عند عمل المصالحة قد لا تكون لمصلحة الأردن وكأنه تنازل عن حقوق الأردنيين وإنما يجب أن تكون هذه السلطة بيد القضاء باعتباره صاحب الصلاحية والاختصاص وليس بيد السلطة التنفيذية المتمثلة بوزير المالية.

Keywords: التهريب, الجمارك, الجزاء,الضابطة العدلية

372
Title: إشكالات تنفيذ الحكم الجزائي "دراسة مقارنة
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Law

Abstract: تناقش هذه الدراسة بحث الإشكاليات في تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية التي تعترض تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية بهدف الوصول إلى العدالة الإجرائية للأفراد والمجتمع، لتطمئن نفوس الأفراد إلى التطبيق العادل للقانون وحمايتهم من الضرر الواقع عليهم وذلك لما يحمله من الضمانات الهامة ضد الاعتداء على الحقوق والحريات و بما أن تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية تنفيذا مطابقا للقانون يعد من متطلبات العدالة الأولى فقد حاولت هذه الدراسة تسليط الضوء عليه لأهميته في إعطاء الفرد ضمانةً حقيقيةً من احتمال التنفيذ الخاطئ على شخصه أو ماله من خلال وجود السلطة القضائية في مرحلة التنفيذ التي تهدف إلى حماية الحريات العامة للأفراد ومراقبتها على كل الإجراءات التي تمس الحريات والتي يجب أن تكون فوق كل اعتبار . و تعنى هذه الدراسة بمعالجة مشكلة قانونية تتمثل فيما يعترض تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية الصادرة من المحاكم سواء أكانت عوارض قانونية أو قضائية مما يؤثر على سير تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية وما يترتب عليها من نتيجة تتمثل في إيقاف تنفيذ هذه الأحكام مما يعرقل الوصول إلى العدالة الجزائية المطلوبة من وراء تنفيذها وبالتالي التأثير على سير الدعوى والخصومة الجزائية, بالإضافة إلى ما تستتبعه هذه الدراسة من التصدي للعديد من المشكلات التنفيذية التي لم يتوصل الفقه المعاصر إلى حلول قاطعة فيها وقد خلصت الدراسة أخيرا في نتائجها إلى أن دعوى الإشكال تعد من الدعاوى التكميلية ذات الطبيعة الخاصة والمتفرعة من الدعوى الجزائية الأصلية ، والتي لا بد من مراعاة كافة شروطها الشكلية والموضوعية للوصول إلى هدفها في تحقيق العدل في تطبيق القانون

Keywords: إشكالات التنفيذ, الحكم الجزائي, الدعوى,الخصومة

373
Title: The Crime of Begging, a Comparative Study of the Jordanian, French, Belgian and German
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Law

Abstract: The significant increase in the number of beggars is a dangerous indication of what the situation will be in the future, especially since most of them take begging as a profession or a craft and consider it a means of subsistence, and many of them have become an excellent way for criminals to achieve their goals by exploiting them in exchange for small sums. This applies to Jordan, France, Belgium and Germany. Therefore, there is a need to talk about this important topic. This research leads to many findings and recommendations, the most important of which is that most of the laws agreed to criminalize begging by stipulating it in the penal codes thereof. Each law has conditions for considering this act criminal. However, they vary in severity. The most severe punishment was in the Jordanian law, then comes the French law, then the Belgian law, and finally the German law. I hope the legislators in Jordan, France, Belgium and Germany will increase the punishment for beggars and those who use beggars to work in begging and I hope they will set up a special system for beggars that regulates all the matters related thereto, as this will give greater importance to this serious crime in society. I also hope that the Jordanian legislator will give the court and the competent judge, not the Minister of Social Development, the powers to release beggars, because the competent authority is fundamentally the judicial authority, not the executive authority.

Keywords: Begging,the homeless,packman

374
Title: Challenges faced by mothers caring for children with leukaemia duringCOVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Purpose:This study aimed to investigate the experiences of parents who care for children diagnosed with leukae-mia. This paper is focused solely on reporting the interviewfindings from participating mothers regarding thechallenges of caring for children with leukaemia in the context of the COVID-19.Design and methods:The study took place in a Jordanian hospital where a descriptive qualitative design approachwas applied on one oncologyfloor and an oncology clinic. Semi-structured interviews were conducted withmothers of children aged 1–12 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Inductive thematic analysis approachwas undertaken. Written consent was obtained from all participants.Results:Fifteen interviews were conducted withfifteen mothers. Four major themes reflect the different chal-lenges parents and children face during the COVID-19 pandemic: children refusing to wear masks, social isola-tion, family relationship andfinancial concerns.Conclusions:Thefindings of the current study present important data for health care professionals to help themunderstand the challenges faced by parents and children with leukaemia, especially during the COVID-19 pan-demic.Practical implications:This study suggests activating emotional support teams in hospitals. These teams can ac-tively help mothers express their concerns and worries which might otherwise foster self-blame, guilt andisolation.

Keywords: Challenges,Mothers,Children,Leukaemia,COVID-19,Qualitative

375
Title: Pharmacy students' knowledge and attitude of prescribing errors
Author: Asma Ahmad El-Shara, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Background: Medication errors, particularly prescribing errors (PEs), are a major concern in the healthcare field. The growing incidence of PEs poses a risk to patients and a challenge for healthcare management. Pharmacists can play a major role in observing, intervening, and correcting PEs. Aim: The study was conducted to measure pharmacy students' knowledge of and attitude towards PEs. Method: The study was a cross-sectional survey based on the Likert scale to assess pharmacy students' attitudes towards PEs. Due to the accessibility of the sample, purposive sampling was used as the sampling method, and a structured questionnaire as the data collection method. The study targeted all students enrolled in the fifth year Bachelor of Pharmacy programme at the University of Petra in Jordan. Results: The number of students who completed the questionnaire was 125. Most of the participants (81, 64.8%) thought PEs are not common in Jordan. The majority of students (122/125, 97.6 %) believed that PEs could lead to death. Around a quarter of students, 26.4% (33/125) believed that PEs were secondary to other medical issues such as hospital infections. Most students (120/125, 96.0 %) believed that only the person who committed PEs was responsible. The majority of respondents (90/125, 72.0 %) do not believe that intervening on and correcting PEs was a major responsibility of pharmacists only. Students had good knowledge about general terms and features of medication errors, particularly PEs. However, students had many misconceptions about detecting specific scenarios of PE events. In addition, students had a lack of knowledge about PEs incidence in Jordan as most of them thought PEs are not common in Jordan. The odds of students’ agreement about the extent of PEs in Jordan were 3.56 times more likely in students who experienced a PE in their life than students who did not (OR 3.56; 95%CI 1.09%-11.62%; p=0.036). Conclusion: Senior pharmacy students at the University of Petra had an overall positive attitude toward statements related to the importance of PEs and the role of pharmacists in the intervention on and correction of PEs.The undergraduate curriculum should contain modules about patient safety and medication errors. Teaching students appropriate skills to detect and intervene.

Keywords: Prescribing errors, Pharmacy students, Jordan, Medication errors, Patient safety

376
Title: PMMA bone cement containing long releasing silica-based chlorhexidine nanocarriers
Author: Yazan Mohammad Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are still an extremely concerning eventuality after joint replacement surgery; growing antibiotic resistance is also limiting the prophylactic and treatment options. Chlorhexidine (a widely used topical non-antibiotic antimicrobial compound) coatings on silica nanoparticles capable of prolonged drug release have been successfully developed and characterised. Such nanocarriers were incorporated into commercial formulation PMMA bone cement (Cemex), without adversely affecting the mechanical performance. Moreover, the bone cement containing the developed nanocarriers showed superior antimicrobial activity against different bacterial species encountered in PJI, including clinical isolates already resistant to gentamicin. Cytocompatibility tests also showed non inferior performance of the bone cements containing chlorhexidine releasing silica nanocarriers to the equivalent commercial formulation.

Keywords: PMMA,Nanotechnology, Bone cement, Nanoparticles,Antimicrobial,TJR,PJI

377
Title: The effect of working capital management and credit management policy on Jordanian banks’ financial performance
Author: Nashat Ali Al-Masri, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This study investigated the impact of Working Capital Management (WCM) and Credit Management Policy (CMP) on the Financial Performance (FP) of Jordanian banks (JB). The study data were obtained from 16 Jordanian banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) between 2017 and 2020. The study used panel data to investigate the relationship between the two independent variables, WCM and CMP, and the dependent variable FP; 64 financial reports to Jordanian banks were analyzed to measure this relationship. To test hypotheses, multiple regression was used. The study found a statistically significant relationship between WCM and FP, and the independent variable was able to explain 34.1% of the changes that occur in the dependent variable. In addition, the outcome approved that there is a statistically significant relationship between CMP and FP. Furthermore, CMP explained about 41.8% of changes in the dependent variable. The findings of this study indicate support for the banks’ performance; a bank may need to lengthen client credit terms, prolong the cash transfer cycle, and require a more extended payment period when judging on WCM. Keywords: working capital, credit management, financial performance.

Keywords: working capital, credit management, financial performance.

378
Title: جمع المخطوطات العربية في ضوء مكاتبات المستشرقين مع مثقفي حلب (ق11هـ/17م)
Author: Rasha Abdullah Alkhatib, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: يدرس هذا البحث جمع المخطوطات العربية في ضوء بعض المكاتبات الباقية ضمن أوراق ثلاثةٍ من المستشرقين الأوروبيين: يعقوب خوليوس، وإدوارد بوكوك، وليفينوس وارنر، المتبادلة بينهم وبين بعض مسلمي مدينة حلب، من العلماء المعروفين أو من المثقفين المغمورين في ق11هـ/ 17م، الذين ساعدوا المستشرقين في تعلُّم اللغة العربية وجمع المخطوطات. ويقدم في القسم الأول منه تعريفاً بسِيَرهم، وهم: • الشاعر محمد بن عمر العُرْضي (ت1071هـ/1660م) • أبو الوفا بن عمر العُرْضي (ت1071هـ/1660م) • صالح العرضي (- ؟) أو الحكيم صالح أفندي بن نصر الله (ت1081هـ/1669م) • الدرويش أحمد بن الحاج حسام الكَلَشْـني (توفي قبل 1080هـ/ 1670م) • الشيخ فتح الله بن محمود البيلوني (ت1042هـ/1632م) وقد كان لهؤلاء وغيرهم اتصالٌ ببعض المستشرقين، الذين قدِموا إلى الشرق وأقاموا فيه رفقة قنصليات بلادهم؛ من أجل دراسة لغاته وجمع مخطوطاته؛ ليتسنى لهم دعم تدريس اللغات الشرقية في الجامعات الأوروبية، التي كان أشهرها في ذلك الوقت يشهد تأسيس أقسامٍ خاصة لدراستها وفي مقدمتها اللغة العربية، مثل: جامعة ليدن في 1599م، وجامعة أمستردام في 1632م، وجامعة كمبردج في 1633م، وجامعة أكسفورد في 1636م( ). وفي القسم الثاني من البحث نعرض نصوص المكاتبات بين المستشرقين وبعض مثقفي حلب، ومعظمها يُنشر للمرة الأولى باللغة العربية؛ كي تكون موضع الفحص والدرس أمام الباحثين في مجالات متنوعة، وقد كانت المكاتبات قد انتشرت في القرن11هـ/17م بين الناس في مختلف شؤون الحياة اليومية، وهي ذات أهمية خاصة لأنها دليل نادر على حيوية الحياة الأدبية في العصر العثماني، على العكس من الصورة السائدة عن جمود الأدب العربي آنذاك. هذا إلى القيمة التوثيقية التاريخية التي تحملها المكاتبات وتوثّق من خلالها جانباً غير مشتهر من عمل المستشرقين لاقتناء المخطوطات العربية من بلادها، ألا وهو مساعدة أهل البلاد للمستشرقين في نسخ المخطوطات وشرائها لهم، وانكبابهم على هذا الأمر دون أن يكون فيه ما ينتقص من أمانتهم أو يصيبهم بتهمة التفريط في التراث.

Keywords: جمع المخطوطات العربية - المستشرقون - حلب في القرن 11هـ / 17م - الأدب في العصر العثماني

379
Title: الأشعار الأندلسية المتنازع في نسبتها
Author: Rasha Abdullah Alkhatib, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: يرمي هذا البحث إلى تتبع ظاهرة انتشرت في المصادر الأدبية التي نقلت لنا نصوصاً من الشعر الأندلسي، وهي ظاهرة نسبة بعض الأشعار إلى غير قائليها، أو نسبتها إلى شاعرين أو أكثر من الشعراء الأندلسيين أو غير الأندلسيين. وقد قمنا برصد جملة من النصوص الشعرية الأندلسية التي تنازع نسبتها شاعران أو أكثر، وحاولنا بيان الأسباب التي أدت إلى مثل هذا الاختلاف في النسبة، وجعلناها في أربعة أقسام: أسباب تتصل بالشعراء أنفسهم، وأسباب تتصل بالشعر، وأسباب تتصل بالتأليف وطرق تحمُّل الروايات والأخبار، وأسباب تتصل بشعر الشاعرات الأندلسيات. وأوردنا أمثلة على كل سببٍ من الأسباب، وقمنا بترجيح الرواية التي نراها صحيحة، اعتماداً على جملة من المعايـير: مثل الرواية الأقدم زمنياً، ونصّ المصادر على الاختلاف في النسبة وترجيحها لروايةٍ بعينها، ووجود الأبيات في ديوان الشاعر، إنْ كان جمَعَه بنفسه، وما عُرِف عن راوي الشعر من ضعف أو مصداقية. وقد لاحظنا في هذا البحث أن الشعر الذي وقع الاختلاف في نسبته كان كلُّه مقطوعاتٍ قليلةَ عددِ الأبيات.

Keywords: الشعر الأندلسي، نسبة الشعر، تنازع النسبة، المصادر الأندلسية

380
Title: الأجراءات القانونية للحد من إنتشار التطرف من وجهة نظر طلبة الدراسات العليا بالجامعة الأردنية
Author: Hisham Nabeel Bani Amer, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: هدف البحث التعرف إلى دور الإجراءات الوقائية (السياسية والاجتماعية والتربوية والحزبية والنقابية والاقتصادية) في الحد من انتشار التطرف في الأردن من وجهة نظر طلبة الدراسات العليا بالجامعة الأردنية، واتبع منهج المسح الاجتماعي بالعينة، حيث بلغت العينة العشوائية (١٧٥) مبحوثا، وتم تطوير استبيان يغطي محاور الدراسة ويجيب عن تساؤلاتها. وتوصلت الدراسة إلى أن الإجراءات السياسية أكثر الإجراءات الوقائية تأثيرا في الحد من انتشار التطرف، تليها الإجراءات الوقائية الحزبية والنقابية لدورها في تكوين الفرد ودمجه بالمجتمع، كما جاءت الإجراءات الوقائية الاقتصادية في المرتبة الثالثة في الأهمية للحد من انتشار التطرف، وأوصت الدراسة إلى أن الإجراءات الوقائية تحد من انتشار التطرف بشكل ملحوظ وشامل وتكلفة أقل من باقي الإجراءات التي تكافح التطرف، فلابد من إجراء إصلاح سياسي ودعم العمل الحزبي والنقابي والحد من ظاهرة البطالة وتدني الأجور من أجل تحقيق وقاية أفضل في المجتمع تحول من انتشار التطرف.

Keywords: التطرف

381
Title: The Aesthetics of language in the Poem “An Apparition manifested out of a white hand of his” by Hazem Al-Qartajani
Author: Omar Faris Yousif AlKafaween, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This paper investigates the aesthetics of language in the poem “An Apparition manifested out of a white hand of his” by Hazem al-Qartajani, in which the poet praisedthe Caliph Al-Mustansir (D 675 Ah/ 1276 Ad), one of the kings of the Hafsian State in Tunisia. This study looks at the most prominent semantic fields related to the poet's poetic dictionary such as the field of colors, the field of nature and the field of warterms, in order to represent the purpose of the poem, in addition to highlighting its artistic effect in the text. The study aims to address the significant linguistic and aesthetic phenomena used by the poet to reflect his ideas and figurative images such as antonymy, synonymy and intertextuality. This is achieved through studying the relationship between form and structure, and how the linguistic choices play a role in portraying the poet’s ideas and making the text poetic

Keywords: Aesthetics of language, Hazem Al-Qartajani, Semantic fields, linguistic phenomena

382
Title: Novel R225C variant identified in the HGD gene in Jordanian patients with alkaptonuria
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare metabolic disease which is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. It is characterized by the accumulation of homogentisic acid over time in various tissues of the body particularly connective tissues. This genetic disease is caused by mutation of the Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene which encodes for enzyme essential for the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine. The aim of the present study is to investigate variant types in Jordanian patients with alkaptonuria. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples of the participated AKU family members (n = 23). The 14 exons of HGD gene for the proband were amplified using specific PCR primers. The sequenced data were analysed and the pathogenicity of the identified variants were predicted using the online bioinformatics programs: PolyPhen2, SIFT and Mutation taster. The analysis showed that the proband was compound heterozygous for the missense mutations A122V and R225C found within E6 and E10, respectively. R225C variant is novel and the genotyping of the family members indicated that HGDA122V and HGDR225C alleles were fully segregated. Moreover, the cousins of the proband who are AKU patients inherited the homozygous pattern of the novel mutation. This study extends the pathogenic mutations spectrum of the HGD gene. It identified the novel mutation R225C and at the same time confirmed the high prevalence of the founder mutation A122V in Jordanian AKU patients.

Keywords: alkaptonuria, autosomal recessive, compound heterozygous, Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene, missense mutation

383
Title: Variant Analysis of Alkaptonria Families with Significant Founder Effect in Jordan
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Background. Metabolic disorder alkaptonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the HGD gene, and a deficiency HGD enzyme activity results in an accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA), ochronosis, and destruction of connective tissue. Methods. We clinically evaluated 18 alkaptonuria patients (age range, 3 to 60 years) from four unrelated families. Furthermore, 11 out of 18 alkaptonuria patients and 7 unaffected members were enrolled for molecular investigations by utilizing Sanger sequencing to identify variants of the 14 exons of HGD gene. Results. We found that the seven patients from the 4 unrelated families carried a recurrent pathogenic missense variant (c.365C>T, p. Ala122Val) in exon 6 of HGD gene. The variant was fully segregated with the disease in affected family members while the other unaffected family members were heterozygous carriers for this variant. Additionally, the clinical features were fully predicted with alkaptonuria disorder. Conclusion. In this study, we confirmed that the most common variants in Jordanian AKU patients was c.365C>T, p. Ala122Val in exon 6 of HGD gene. Additionally, we correlated the clinical and genetic features of AKU patients at various ages (3-60 years).

Keywords: alkaptonuria; Variants; Jordan ;

384
Title: Psychological Effects of Quarantine on Syrian Refugees, Compared to the Jordanian Populations.
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: To ward off the outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2019, the Jordanian government applied quarantine to the Jordanian population in addition to Syrian refugees. We evaluated the quarantine's psychological effect on people in Jordan after three weeks of quarantine. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in our sample population was determined using a higher than twenty score on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). The 2380 people who received the survey online demonstrated a high prevalence of PTSD. In which PTSD showed incidence of 82.5% and 66.5 in Syrian refuges and Jordanian populations, respectively. This study also reports the trend toward more increased PTSD prevalence in Syrian refugees compared to the Jordanian population depending on age, education, and the household's combined monthly income. Knowledge and awareness of quarantined people's interactions are crucial to optimizing control of infectious diseases and reducing adverse impacts on those quarantined. Keywords: coronavirus disease; COVID-19future ; Syrian refugees; Jordanian population; quarantine; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Keywords: : coronavirus disease; COVID-19future ; Syrian refugees; Jordanian population; quarantine; post-traumatic stress dis