Research Title: Improved Deep Hiding/Extraction Algorithm to Enhance the Payload Capacity and Security Level of Hidden Information
Author: Nameer Nadhem El-Emam, Published Year: 2021
International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS) , Accepted
Faculty: Information Technology

Abstract: Steganography algorithms have become an effective technique for preventing illegal users from obtaining confidential data. This paper has improved a deep hiding/extraction algorithm (IDHEA) to hide a secret message in color images. The proposed algorithm has been applied to enhance the payload capacity and reduce the time complexity. Modified LSB (MLSB) is based on randomly disseminating confidential data on a Cover-Image and has been proposed to replace the number of bits per byte (Nbpb), up to 4 bits, to increase payload capacity and make it difficult to access the hiding data. The number of levels of the IDHEA algorithm has been specified randomly; each level uses a color image, and from one level to the next, the image size is expanded, where this algorithm starts with a small size of a Cover-Image and increases the size of the image gradually or suddenly at the next level, according to an enlargement ratio. Furthermore, lossless image compression based on the run-length encoding algorithm and Gzip has been applied to enable the size of the data hiding at the next level, and data encryption using the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm (AES) has been introduced at each level to enhance the security level. Thus, the effectiveness of the proposed IDHEA algorithm has been measured at the last level, and many statistical and visual measures have checked the performance of the proposed hiding algorithm in terms of embedding capacity and imperceptibility. Comparisons between the proposed approach and previous work have been implemented; it appears that the intended approach is better than the previously modified LSB algorithms, and it works against visual and statistical attacks with the excellent performance achieved by using the detection error (PE). Furthermore, the results confirmed that the Stego-Image with high imperceptibility has reached even a payload capacity that is large and replaces twelve bits per pixel (12-bpp). Moreover, testing is confirmed in that the proposed algorithm can embed secret data efficiently with better visual quality.

Keywords: Steganography; Multi-level Steganography; Deep hiding/extraction; Least significant bit; High payload; high security.

Research Title: Impact of Adenosine Analogue, Adenosine-5-N-Ethyluronamide (NECA), on Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Cells
Author: Mansour Haddad, Published Year: 2021
BioMed Research International, Volume 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Abstract Background and Objectives. To investigate whether there are molecular interactions between adenosine analogue (NECA) and insulin signaling pathways at multiple nuclear receptors and at the metabolic and inflammatory levels. Materials and Methods. Rat L6 skeletal muscle cells were cultured in 25 cm2 flasks. These differentiated cells were treated, and then, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (probe-based) was used to measure the relative mRNA expression level for metabolic, inflammatory, and nuclear receptor genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PGC-1α), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 beta (CPT1B), long-chain acyl-CoA de hydrogenase (LCAD), acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta (ACCβ), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), hexokinase II (HKII), phosphofructokinase (PFK), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A (NR4A) at different treatment conditions. Results. Adenosine-5-N-ethyluronamide (NECA), a stable adenosine analogue, significantly stimulate inflammatory mediator (IL-6) () and nuclear receptors (NR4A) () and significantly modulate metabolic (PFK, LCAD, PGC-1α, and CPT1B) gene expressions in skeletal muscle cells (, , , and , respectively). This present study shows that there is a noteworthy crosstalk between NECA and insulin at various metabolic levels including glycolysis (HKII), fatty acid oxidation (ACCβ), and insulin sensitivity (PDK4). Conclusions. A novel crosstalk between adenosine analogue and insulin has been demonstrated for the first time; evidence has been gathered in vitro for the effects of NECA and insulin treatment on intracellular signaling pathways, in particular glycolysis and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle cells.

Keywords: Adenosine Analogue, Adenosine-5-N-Ethyluronamide (NECA) insulin

Research Title: Impact of Adenosine A2 Receptor Ligands on BCL2 Expression in Skeletal Muscle Cells
Author: Mansour Haddad, Published Year: 2021
applied sceinces, Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Abstract Background: Adenosine plays the role of regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis in various kinds of cells through the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) pathway. Objectives: Since anti-apoptotic (BCL2) expression plays a role in controlling apoptosis in some cell lines, this study was designed to investigate whether adenosine analogue, NECA (non-selective adenosine receptors agonist), selective adenosine A2B receptor antagonist, PSB 603, and a selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CG21680, affect BCL2-gene expression in the skeletal muscle cells of rats. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that CG21680 treatment would significantly intensify BCL2 gene expression in rat skeletal muscle. Methods: Flasks measuring 25 cm2 were employed in culturing the rat L6 skeletal muscle cells. After treating these differential cells, the relative mRNA expression level for the BCL2 gene, at varying conditions of treatment, was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: From the qRT-PCR analysis results, it was concluded that BCL2 expression was markedly amplified after selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680 (p < 0.01) treatment. More prospective validation for the adenosine receptors’ contribution in modulating apoptosis by NECA was delivered by the outcomes from the combined pre-treatment of the cells with NECA and PSB 603. These outcomes show that when starved skeletal muscle cells are treated with a combination of NECA and 100 nM PSB 603, there was a substantial decrease in comparison to either treatment used on its own. Conclusions: This study’s results showed, for the first time, an increase in BCL2 gene expression within skeletal muscle after CGS21680 treatment. Hence, the prospective escalation in BCL2 protein expression might have a protective role to play against apoptosis and avert damage to the skeletal muscle

Keywords: NECA; CGS21680; PSB 603; insulin; skeletal muscle cells; mRNA gene expression; BCL2 and apoptosis

Research Title: The Impact of CB1 Receptor on Nuclear Receptors in Skeletal Muscle Cells
Author: Mansour Haddad, Published Year: 2021
pathophysiology, Pathophysiology 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Abstract Cannabinoids are abundant signaling compounds; their influence predominantly arises via engagement with the principal two G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. One suggested theory is that cannabinoids regulate a variety of physiological processes within the cells of skeletal muscle. Earlier publications have indicated that expression of CB1 receptor mRNA and protein has been recognized within myotubes and tissues of skeletal muscle from both murines and humans, thus representing a potentially significant pathway which plays a role in the control of skeletal muscular activities. The part played by CB1 receptor activation or inhibition with respect to these functions and relevant to targets in the periphery, especially skeletal muscle, is not fully delineated. Thus, the aim of the current research was to explore the influence of CB1 receptor stimulation and inhibition on downstream signaling of the nuclear receptor, NR4A, which regulates the immediate impacts of arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and/or rimonabant in the cells of skeletal muscle. Murine L6 skeletal muscle cells were used in order to clarify additional possible molecular signaling pathways which contribute to alterations in the CB1 receptor. Skeletal muscle cells have often been used; it is well-documented that they express cannabinoid receptors. Quantitative real-time probe-based polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays are deployed in order to assess the gene expression characteristics of CB1 receptor signaling. In the current work, it is demonstrated that skeletal muscle cells exhibit functional expression of CB1 receptors. This can be deduced from the qRT-PCR assays; triggering CB1 receptors amplifies both NR4A1 and NR4A3 mRNA gene expression. The impact of ACEA is inhibited by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant. The present research demonstrated that 10 nM of ACEA notably amplified mRNA gene expression of NR4A1 and NR4A3; this effect was suppressed by the addition of 100 nM rimonabant. Furthermore, the CB1 receptor antagonist led to the downregulation of mRNA gene expression of NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3. In conclusion, in skeletal muscle, CB1 receptors were recognized to be important moderators of NR4A1 and NR4A3 mRNA gene expression; these actions may have possible clinical benefits. Thus, in skeletal muscle cells, a possible physiological expression of CB1 receptors was identified. It is as yet unknown whether these CB1 receptors contribute to pathways underlying skeletal muscle biological function and disease processes. Further research is required to fully delineate their role(s). View Full-Text

Keywords: Keywords: cannabinoid CB1 receptors; ACEA; rimonabant; NR4A; skeletal muscle cells

Research Title: The Impact of CB1 Receptor on Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle Cells
Author: Mansour Haddad, Published Year: 2021
J Inflamm Res. 2021., 2021 Aug 14;14:3959-
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Abstract Background: Various factors trigger the inflammatory response and cytokine activation in skeletal muscle. Inflamed muscle will exhibit significant levels of inflammation and cytokine activity. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, exerts pleiotropic effects on skeletal muscle. Endocannabinoid produced by all cell types binds to a class of G protein-coupled receptors, in particular cannabinoid CB1 receptors, to induce skeletal muscle actions. Objective: The purpose of this research was to discover whether activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in L6 skeletal muscle cells may promote IL-6 gene expression. Materials and methods: L6 skeletal muscle cells were cultured in 25 cm2 flasks and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (probe-based) utilised to quantify IL-6 gene expression levels among different treatment settings. Results: Arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) 10 nM, a persistent selective CB1 receptor agonist, promotes IL-6 gene expression in a time-dependent manner. Rimonabant 100 nM, a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, blocks the impact of ACEA. However, insulin does not change IL-6 gene expression. Conclusion: For the first time, a unique link between ACEA and IL-6 up-regulation has been established; IL-6 up-regulation generated by ACEA is mediated in skeletal muscle through cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation. As a result, cannabinoid CB1 receptors may be useful pharmaceutical targets in the treatment of inflammation and related disorders in skeletal muscle tissues.

Keywords: Keywords: ACEA; cannabinoid CB1 receptors; inflammation; interleukin 6; skeletal muscle.

Research Title: The Crime of Begging, a Comparative Study of the Jordanian, French, Belgian and German
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative lnquiry, 12,3
Faculty: Law

Abstract: The significant increase in the number of beggars is a dangerous indication of what the situation will be in the future, especially since most of them take begging as a profession or a craft and consider it a means of subsistence, and many of them have become an excellent way for criminals to achieve their goals by exploiting them in exchange for small sums. This applies to Jordan, France, Belgium and Germany. Therefore, there is a need to talk about this important topic. This research leads to many findings and recommendations, the most important of which is that most of the laws agreed to criminalize begging by stipulating it in the penal codes thereof. Each law has conditions for considering this act criminal. However, they vary in severity. The most severe punishment was in the Jordanian law, then comes the French law, then the Belgian law, and finally the German law. I hope the legislators in Jordan, France, Belgium and Germany will increase the punishment for beggars and those who use beggars to work in begging and I hope they will set up a special system for beggars that regulates all the matters related thereto, as this will give greater importance to this serious crime in society. I also hope that the Jordanian legislator will give the court and the competent judge, not the Minister of Social Development, the powers to release beggars, because the competent authority is fundamentally the judicial authority, not the executive authority.

Keywords: Begging,the homeless,packman

Research Title: إشكالات تنفيذ الحكم الجزائي "دراسة مقارنة
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
الجامعة الاسلامية غزة ,
Faculty: Law

Abstract: تناقش هذه الدراسة بحث الإشكاليات في تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية التي تعترض تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية بهدف الوصول إلى العدالة الإجرائية للأفراد والمجتمع، لتطمئن نفوس الأفراد إلى التطبيق العادل للقانون وحمايتهم من الضرر الواقع عليهم وذلك لما يحمله من الضمانات الهامة ضد الاعتداء على الحقوق والحريات و بما أن تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية تنفيذا مطابقا للقانون يعد من متطلبات العدالة الأولى فقد حاولت هذه الدراسة تسليط الضوء عليه لأهميته في إعطاء الفرد ضمانةً حقيقيةً من احتمال التنفيذ الخاطئ على شخصه أو ماله من خلال وجود السلطة القضائية في مرحلة التنفيذ التي تهدف إلى حماية الحريات العامة للأفراد ومراقبتها على كل الإجراءات التي تمس الحريات والتي يجب أن تكون فوق كل اعتبار . و تعنى هذه الدراسة بمعالجة مشكلة قانونية تتمثل فيما يعترض تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية الصادرة من المحاكم سواء أكانت عوارض قانونية أو قضائية مما يؤثر على سير تنفيذ الأحكام الجزائية وما يترتب عليها من نتيجة تتمثل في إيقاف تنفيذ هذه الأحكام مما يعرقل الوصول إلى العدالة الجزائية المطلوبة من وراء تنفيذها وبالتالي التأثير على سير الدعوى والخصومة الجزائية, بالإضافة إلى ما تستتبعه هذه الدراسة من التصدي للعديد من المشكلات التنفيذية التي لم يتوصل الفقه المعاصر إلى حلول قاطعة فيها وقد خلصت الدراسة أخيرا في نتائجها إلى أن دعوى الإشكال تعد من الدعاوى التكميلية ذات الطبيعة الخاصة والمتفرعة من الدعوى الجزائية الأصلية ، والتي لا بد من مراعاة كافة شروطها الشكلية والموضوعية للوصول إلى هدفها في تحقيق العدل في تطبيق القانون

Keywords: إشكالات التنفيذ, الحكم الجزائي, الدعوى,الخصومة

Research Title: جريمة التهريب الجمركي وفقاً لأحدث تعديلات قانون الجمارك الأردني" دراسة تحليلية
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
مجلة جامعة الحسين بن طلال ,
Faculty: Law

Abstract: إن التنظيم القانوني لجريمة التهريب الجمركي في الأردن لها عواقبها الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والسياسية والأمنية ومع ذلك فإن الدراسات القانونية بما يتعلق بهذه الجريمة قليلة، ولهذا كان لابد من توضيح الأركان القانونية لها وأن تكون هذه الجريمة بيد السلطة القضائية دون أي سلطة أخرى وبيان مكامن النقص والثغرات القانونية الجزائية التي نص عليها قانون الجمارك الأردني، ولقد توصلت هذه الدراسة إلى عدد من النتائج والتوصيات ومن أهمها. أما بالنسبة للنتائج فالمشرع الأردني في قانون الجمارك أعطى سلطة المصالحة في جرائم التهريب الجمركي للوزير(وزير المالية) وهذا يؤدي إلى إسقاط الدعوى الجزائية عن المهربين أما بالنسبة للتوصيات أتمنى على المشرع الأردني تعديل المادة 212 من قانون الجمارك بإلغاء السلطة الممنوحة للوزير(وزير المالية) في عمل المصالحة في جرائم التهريب الجمركي وحتى لو كانت هذه المصالحة تتم عن طريق إصدار دليل للتسويات الصلحية من الوزير ونشرها في الجريدة الرسمية وهذا ما تطرقت إليه المادة 213/ب من القانون السابق والسبب في ذلك خوفًا من تداخل المصالح الخاصة والتدخلات وهذا يتعارض مع المصلحة العامة؛ لأنه عند عمل المصالحة قد لا تكون لمصلحة الأردن وكأنه تنازل عن حقوق الأردنيين وإنما يجب أن تكون هذه السلطة بيد القضاء باعتباره صاحب الصلاحية والاختصاص وليس بيد السلطة التنفيذية المتمثلة بوزير المالية.

Keywords: التهريب, الجمارك, الجزاء,الضابطة العدلية

Research Title: criminal liability resulted from the sexual harassment crime according to the Jordanian penal code
Author: Moayd Husni Al-Kawaldah, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Law

Abstract: The protection of the female or male is the duty of any country in the world which matter starts by protecting the body against sexual assault which has been criminalized by the legislator in the Jordanian Penal Code through explicit provisions providing for criminalizing a number of crimes, eg the crime of rape when the victim is a female only or the crime of molestation when the victim is being (a male or female) or of inappropriate flirtation in a public place or inappropriate flirtation in a private place. In fact, and as for the verbal or gestural sexual harassment, then the same was not approached by the Jordanian Penal Code. Yet, would the traditional provisions be sufficient to criminalize the same or that explicit legal provisions should be laid down? In addition, what is the criterion for the existence or non-existence of the sexual harassment for which this crime that has been spreading largely in the Jordanian …

Keywords: crime, sexual Harassment,penal code

Research Title: Dynamic Performance Evaluation of Inverter Feeding a Weak Grid Considering Variable System Parameters
Author: Khaled Ahmed Al-zaareer, Published Year: 2021
IEEE access,
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Interfacing a weak grid imposes challenges on distributed generators (DGs). These challenges include transient frequency and voltage dynamics that can destabilize the system. Accordingly, this paper investigates the grid stiffness based on different scenarios and the dynamics of a grid feeding DG connected to a weak grid. Moreover, the dynamic effects of the physical and control parameters on the system's stability are deeply analyzed and evaluated. Especially, complete mathematical models and graphical representation are carried out to precisely examine the impact of the system parameters on the stability and performance of the DG. Therefore, stable deployment of renewable energy resources into power networks can be achieved as well as an efficient and robust performance of DGs can be ensured when connected to weak grids. The obtained results show the importance of the performed study in optimal sizing and designing the output alter of the inverter and the impact of tuning the control parameters on the system dynamics. As a result, a proper design of system physical and control parameters can be accurately achieved considering all factors affect the system performance. The paper also conducts detailed and elaborated analyses and simulations to evaluate the performance of a PI-controlled RC damped inverter connected to a weak grid. The proposed alter design of the interfacing inverter can significantly extend the integration of DGs into microgrids without requiring complex control schemes or oversized components.

Keywords: Distributed generator, dynamic performance, frequency, stability, transient, weak grid.