Research Title: The role of the Royal Automobile Museum in tourism and heritage education in Jordan
Author: Salem Harahsheh, Rafa Haddad, Published Year: 2016
Taylor & Francis/ Automobile Heritage and Tourism, 39
Faculty: Faculty of Administrative and Financial Sciences

Abstract: Tourism is thriving in Jordan since the peace treaty was signed with Israel in 1994, whereby tourists have flocked the country in millions (MOTA 2000). The number of tourists has doubled and tripled many times since then especially after Petra, Jordan’s foremost tourist attraction, won the second place of the World New Seven Wonders competition in 2007 (Harahsheh 2009). The latest statistics of the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) shows that the number of tourist arrivals to the country was 4.16 million in 2012, increased by 5.1% from 2011 (UNWTO 2013). Most of the tourists come to Jordan from the Middle East (48.2%) followed by Jordanians residing abroad (25.4%), Europe (14.2%), America (4.8%), East Asia/Pacific (4.2%), South Asia (1.9%) and Africa (1.3%). Jordan hosts a lot of natural and man-made attractions that are of great value for tourists to visit. Those include Petra, the new seven wonder of the world, the Dead Sea, the world’s lowest and saltiest natural spa, the Golf of Aqaba with its red corals as well as several Greco-Roman cities (known as the Decapolis) such as Amman (Philadelphia), Jerash (Gerasa) and Um Qais (Gadara) and Crusader castles such as Kerak, Showbak and Ajlun. Jordan hosts also a lot of important world-class museums such as the Royal Automobile Museum, the Children Museum and the Jordan Museum. This chapter in particular examines the Royal Automobile Museum (RAM) in Jordan and the role of that museum in tourism and heritage education as it hosts vintage cars, motorbikes and carting cars owned by the Royal family since 1915. The study focuses on those heritage vehicles as they are employed in the interpretation and presentation of the history of Jordan for almost now 100 years since the Hashemite rule.

Keywords: Jordan, muesums

Research Title: The influence of the Media on the formation of destination image
Author: Salem Harahsheh, Rafa Haddad, , Published Year: 2009
International Conference on Traditions and Transformations: Tourism, Heritage and Cultural Change in the Middle East and North Africa Regio, Centre for Tourism and Cultural Change (CTCC), Leeds Metropolitan University
Faculty: Faculty of Administrative and Financial Sciences

Abstract: Tourism destination image is formed by the media,education, promotion and the word-of-mouth recommendations. The media is playing a double role when dealing with tourism products or tourism destinations. It can create awareness in the source countries towards a certain destination and then forma positive image, and at the same time can deteriorate that destination due to situational factors such as terrorism and war, natural disasters such as Tsunami, diseases such as Bird Flu in the tourism destinations.Recently, the influence of the media upon the formation of tourism destination image in the minds of potential tourists and apparently on their decision-making process when selecting a certain a holiday destination, has increased incredibly (Lexow and Edelheim, 2004). The characteristics of the target market will affect the decision-making process, for example, family groups are most likely to use media sources of information and older people are more likely to rely on the recommendation of family and friends (Gartner, 1993). It is argued therefore, that there is a relationship between what is published in the media and tourists’ motivation to travel (Croy,2004).Through literature review of past research in this area, it is clear that the media have a real influence on the formation of tourism destination image and on the flow of tourists into that destination (Lexow and Edelheim, ibid). A bad political image of a country can have a negative impact on the country tourism image(Media Tenor, 2005). Travel warnings have a crucial impact on both the destination and source countries(Nielsen, 2001). On the other hand, the destination media plays an essential role in projecting a positive image to the target market (Media Tenor, 2006).This paper, therefore, tries to analyse the influence of the media on the formation of tourism destination image in general and to shed a light on the image of Jordan as a tourist destination as projected in the Western media, mainly Britain. Jordan has a relatively positive tourism image in both the British, but the negative political image of the Middle East harms Jordan due its location in the middle of four unrest countries, i.e. Israel, Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq. The findings of this research show a significant influence

Keywords: Jordan, tourism, marketing, travel, image, branding

Research Title: Detection of Buried Pipes and Soil Classification Using Remote Sensing
Author: Dr. Abdul-Razzak T. Ziboon, Dr. Mohamed M. Mahmood Al-Iessa, Haifaa N. Hussein, Published Year: 2014
Engineering and Technology Journal, Volume 32 , Part (A)
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: The research aims to employ microwave remote sensing techniques to classify soil with the traditional classification method and to detect buried pipes in soil and compare the results. The three- band IKONOS image and the one band QUICK BIRD image for the study area were used in this study; in addition a topographic map for Baghdad city was used also in this study. followed by field investigations including activities such as survey operations in the area using the GPS device and collecting soil samples from certain positions. Then the properties of soil are determined, this includes determination the physical properties of soil to be used according to the (USCS), Microwave experimental setup has been operated to work with x band for studying the reflection coefficient of these waves from the moisture content and the texture change of soil. Also an experiment has been done to detect the pipes in soil by using (iron, plastic) pipes material with different diameters to determine and study the changes in reflection coefficient The main results of the study that the spatial merge between the three- bands image (IKONOS) and the one band image (QUICK BIRD) produces a new color image with high resolution for the study area which is considered the best in giving explanation to visual sensing of the kind of soil and it has been found that the soil of the study area is predominated by silt and clay.

Keywords: Soil and Remote Sensing, Buried Materials Detection

Research Title: Treatment of Soft Soil by Sand Columns
Author: Dr. Namir K.S. Al-Saoudi, Dr. Mohammad M. Mahmood Al-Iessa, Nawres A. A. Rajab, Published Year: 2014
Engineering and Technology Journal, Volume 32 , Part (A)
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: Stone or sand columns are most widely used to improve the engineeringproperties of soft saturated soils. In principles, sand columns technique is very closeto the well-known stone columns technique and the only difference is the backfillmaterials. The present work focuses on implementing sand columns in soft soil of differentdiameters, different relative densities considering both floating and end bearing types.The model tests were performed inside a steel container (600mm x 600mm and 500 mm in height). Sand columns of diameters ranging between 22mm to 50mm were constructed in beds of soil of undrained shear strength ranging between (15-20) kPa. Each individual sand column was loaded vertically through a rigid circular footing of diameters between 28.6mm to 64.7mm provided an area replacement ratio (as) of (0.6),the ratio of column depth to the column diameter (L/D) was (6). The model test results revealed good improvements of the load carrying capacity of the columns ranging between (1.3 to 1.9) and significant reduction in the settlement over the untreated soil ranging between (0.18 to 0.47). End bearing columns exhibited better results than floating columns and the diameter of column has no effect on bearing capacity as the (as) and (L/D) are constants.

Keywords: Sand columns, Soft soil, Floating, End bearing

Author: Dr. Hussein H. Karim, Dr. Mohammed M. Mahmood Al-Iessa, Raida M. Renka , Published Year: 2009
Engineering and Technology Journal, Volume 27 , No 14
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: Soft clays are widely spread in Iraq particularly in its southern Mesopotamian plain. As many sites within these regions may be used for vital projects; an adequate solution has been found out to improve such clays using stone column and dynamic compaction methods. For this purpose, the present paper has presented the laboratory measurements of the properties of such clays and their settlements at different applied stresses. Thirteen soil model tests have been made, at 27% water content and 9 kPa undrained shear strength, to examine their behaviors under loading .The tested models include : (1) model for untreated soil ; (3) models for soil treated with stone columns (1,2 and 3 columns) with 30mm in diameter and 180mm length ; (9) models for soil treated with dynamic compaction using drop weights 2 , 3 and 5kg at three different drop heights ( 500 , 750 , and 1000mm ) . For dynamic compaction, the behavior of soil stress - settlement reflects two stages for 2 and 3 kg drop weights with slow and rapid settlements respectively. Whereas , three stages were identified using 5kg drop weight with slow, medium and quick settlements. No considerable effect of drop height and no noticeable improvements have been indicated with soil model treated by dynamic compaction except for weight drop of 5kg but with less improvement ratio compared with stone columns model test. Whereas, the behavior of stress settlement using stone columns reflects three stages with slow, rapid and slow (again) settlements . In comparison with untreated soil, the maximum cumulative settlement improvement ratios were 69% and 178% at applied stress of 30 kN/m2 for soil models treated with dynamic compaction ( 5kg drop weight ) and 3 stone columns respectively .

Keywords: Soft clay ; Stone column ; Dynamic compaction

Author: Dr. Mohammed Yousif Fattah, Mohammed Faiq Aswad, Dr. Mohammed Mustafa Mahmood Al-Iessa, Published Year: 2008
Engineering and Technology Journal, Volume 26 , No 10
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: For a given foundation to perform to its optimum capacity, one must ensure that the load per unit area of the foundation does not exceed a limiting value, thereby causing shear failure in soil. This limiting value is the ultimate bearing capacity, qu. The classical bearing capacity theories rely on the superposition of three separate bearing capacities – a technique that is inherently conservative – but they also rely on tabulated or curve-fitted values of the bearing capacity factor, N, which may be unconservative. Further approximations are introduced if the footing is circular (multiplicative shape factors are used to modify the plane strain values of , Nc, Nq and N) or if the soil is non-homogeneous (calculations must then be based on some representative strength). By contrast, the method of stress characteristics constructs a numerical solution from first principles, without resorting to superposition, shape factors or any other form of approximation. In this paper, the validation of the method of stress characteristics is tested by solving a wide range of bearing capacity problems. The results are compared with classical bearing capacity theories; namely, Terzaghi, Myerhof, Hansen and Vesic methods. It was concluded that the bearing capacity predicted by the method of stress characteristics for the case of a circular footing in clay ranges between (3.7 – 4.0) greater than Terzaghi, Meyerhof, and Vesic methods. This means that the method is not conservative for this case and can be dependent for economic design of foundations. The bearing capacity predicted by this method increases linearly with (D/B). For all values of the angle of friction, , the method reveals bearing capacity values for smooth footings greater than Terzaghi and Hansen and smaller than Meyerhof and Vesic theories. Considering the foundation to be rough, the method gives bearing capacity values greater than all other methods. The difference increases as the angle of internal friction (increases. This makes the method unreliable for rough foundations.

Keywords: Soil Behavior, Bearing Capacity

Research Title: تحسين التربة الطينية الضعيفة بأستخدام أعمدة الركام المثبتة بالنورة والسمنت
Author: Dr. Namir A-Saoudi, Mr. Mohammed M. M. Al-Iessa, Mr. Mackey Kamel Mohsen, Published Year: 2008
Engineering and Technology Journal, Volume 26, No. 9
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: إن الأعمدة الرملية او الركامية تعتبر من الاساليب الناجحة لتحسين لترب الطينية الضعيفة مـن ناحية زيادة قوة تحملها وتقليل انضغاطيتها , وان سبب نجاحها يعود الى سهولة تنفيذها ورخـص تكاليفها وقد أنتشر استعمالها في السنوات الاخيرة في مناطق متعددة مـن العـالم مثـل انكلتـرا واليابان. في هذا البحث تم اجراء سلسلة من التجارب المختبرية استخدام نماذج صـغيرة مـن الاعمدة بقطر ( 38 ملم ) وبعمق ( 180 ملم ) غرزت في طبقة طينية ضعيفة تـم تحضـيرها داخل حاويات حديدية. لقد استخدمت نسب مختلفة من النورة او السمنت, او كلاهما معا لتثبيـت الاعمدة لغرض زيادة كفائتها. اجري فحص التحميل على كل عمود لغرض معرفة قو التحمـل القصوى وقد تم تحديد كفاءة كل مضاف عن طريق مقارنة قوة التحميل القصوى للترب المعالجة مع الترب غير المعالجة ( qu/qt ( وكانت هذ النسب بحدود ( 7.2 ( للترب المعالجـة بـالحجر المكسر , ( 5 , 4 ( للترب المعالجة بالحجر المكسر المثبـت مـع ( 5 ) ( ( % نورة على التوالي. كذلك كانت النسبة بحدود ( 4 , 5.3 ( للترب المعالجـة بـالحجر المكسـر المثبت مع ( 5 ) ( ( %سمنت , وكانت النسبة حوالي ( 7.3 , 3.3 ( للترب المعالجـة بالحجر المكسر المثبت مع ( 5 ] ( %5.2 %نورة + 5.2 %سمنت ] ( 10] ( % 5 %نورة + 5 %سمنت ] على التوالي.

Keywords: تربة طينية ضعيفة , تثبيت التربة , اعمدة الركام

Research Title: علاقة وضعية لتخمين مقدار الانتفاخ في الترب المنتفخة
Author: Mr. Mohammed Mustafa Mahmood Al-Iessa, Published Year: 2000
Al-Muhandis Journal - Iraqi Engineers Union, Volume 4 , Dec. 2000
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: الطرق المستخدمة لتقييم نوع و مقدار الانتفاخ المتوقع للترب المنتفخة تنوعت بين استخدام الطرق غير المباشرة (بالاستفادة من واحدة او اكثر من الخواص الفيزياوية للتربة), الطرق المباشرة بأستخدام جهاز فحص الانضمام, تنفيذ موديلات حقلية, او استخدام التمثيل الرياضي لمحاكاة تصرف التربة. بالاضافة الى ذلك فقد اقترحت عدة معادلات وضعية تربط بين خواص التربة و قابلية التربة الانتفاخية. العمل الحالي يربط بين قابلية التربة الانتفاخية و بعض الخواص الفيزياوية البسيطة للتربة من خلال معادلة وضعية جديدة. المعادلة المستنبطة تستند الى نتائج فحوصات الانتفاخ التي اجريت على ثلاث انواع من التربة و التي تم فحصها تحت تأثير احمال مسلطة مختلفة و كثافات جافة اولية و نسب رطوبة اولية مختلفة و بعدد نماذج يبلغ (81) نموذج. المعادلة المقترحة من هذا العمل لها معامل توافق مقبول يبلغ (0.87).

Keywords: تربة منتفخة , توقع مقدار الانتفاخ

Research Title: Effect of Particle Size of Sand on Failure Loads
Author: Dr. Namir A-Saoudi, Mr. Mahmoud Rashid Mahmoud, Mr. Mohammed M. M. Al-Iessa, Published Year: 2000
3rd Scientific Engineering Conference, Army Engineering College, Baghdad - Iraq
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: The present paper is focused towards investigating the effect of particle size of sand and the degree of packing (relative density) on the ultimate bearing capacity of a strip footing founded on a layer of sand. Model tests simulating plain strain conditions were used. The results showed that at loose state, the fine size exhibited higher load at failure, while in the medium dense and dense states, the medium size provided the maximum load at failure.

Keywords: Sand, Bearing Capacity, relative Density

Research Title: Heave Prediction from Element Tests and Full Scale Model
Author: Dr. Namir A-Saoudi, Dr. Mohammed M. M. Al-Iessa, Published Year: 1998
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: A full scale model of an expansive soil was constructed, and its behavior was monitored. Laboratory tests were performed on the same soil to predict the swelling of the soil. A comparison between the results of the field model and the laboratory tests was conducted, and a correlation was proposed to predict the behavior of an expansive soil.

Keywords: Heave , Expansive Soil