1
Research Title: Energy Dependence and Surface Contribution of the Nucleon-Nucleus Optical Potential
Author: Hasan Mohammed Maridi, Published Year: 2020
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, 48
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: The M3Y folding optical potential (OP) is used to analyze 9Be (p,p) 9Be elastic scattering at energies from few to 1000 MeV/nucleon. The M3Y folding-model is used for the real part whereas the volume and surface imaginary parts of OP are taken within the high-energy approximation model that based on the Glauber theory. In addition, the Brieva–Rook approximation is used for the spin-orbit OP. The angular distributions for elastic-scattering cross sections and analyzing powers, reaction, and total cross sections, are calculated using the optical model analysis with the partial-wave expansion method. The results show that these experimental data are reproduced well at a wide range of energy. In addition, clear and interesting energy dependencies are found for the different parts of the OP. A new behavior of the surface imaginary is found at scattering at high energies where the results show that the surface contribution to the imaginary part is very important at high energies as well as at low energies. The volume integrals show systematic energy dependencies. A new energy dependence formula is assumed for M3Y-Paris NN interaction to avoid the negative values of the OP at high energies.

Keywords: Nucleon-Nucleus Optical Potential, Elastic Scattering

2
Research Title: Long -Term Energy Losses Analyses for Jordanian Power System
Author: Ayman Abdel Karim Mohammad Agha, Published Year: 2020
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the electrical energy losses (ΔE) in the Jordanian national electrical power system their types, values, as well as their impacts on overall performance of the energy system. The main focus of the paper is to calculate and investigate the value of the technical losses (ΔET) as well as the commercial losses (ΔEC) to the whole system losses value. In this paper, analyses of the (ΔE) data are carried out for the last sixteen years. This period of time is divided in two equal intervals of time; which are (2000-2007) and (2008-2015). The analyses concentrate mainly on the (ΔEC) with special attention on the black losses of energy (theft), (ΔEB1). The results of the two time periods are compared and evaluated by using statistical indexes. Furthermore the paper attempts to provide answers to the following questions: How and up to what value can (ΔEC) be minimized? What is the economic influence of (ΔEC) in [MWh]? Finally, a set of conclusions and recommendations on the obtained results are along with offered of the commercial losses for the next five years a forecast

Keywords: Electricity losses analyses, commercial losses, thefts of electrical energy.

3
Research Title: Challenges in Conducting a Multiple Qualitative Case Study Approach of Communication Experiences in the Care of Children With Palliative Care Needs
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2020
Sage Research Methods Cases, doi:10.4135/97815297
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate the challenges in conducting a multiple qualitative case study approach in a study that explored the communication experiences in the care of children with palliative care needs. This study employed a collective qualitative case study approach. It was conducted in three pediatric units in a Jordanian hospital. Each case comprised a child aged 1–12 years, their most involved family carer (mothers), physician(s), and nurse(s). Two data collection methods were employed, participant observation and semi-structured interviews, with three categories of participants: mothers, physicians, and the nurses who cared for the children that participated in this study (children were involved in the participant observation; however, they were not interviewed). I decided to avoid interviewing children in this study to avoid any potential harm to them. Within-case and cross-case analysis was undertaken in accordance with Stake’s recommendations. The within-case analysis focused on establishing the contextual background for every case. This was significant to protect the uniqueness of each case within its context and to be consistent with the case study approach. The within-case analysis was presented narratively for every case. Then, cross-case analysis was undertaken to systematically extract the themes and subthemes of each case to identify similarities, differences, and contradictions. The study was based on 15 cases, with a total of 197 observational hours and 60 interviews (conducted with 15 mothers, 12 physicians, and 21 nurses). This study is unique as it applies a qualitative collective case study approach that yields a rich and in-depth understanding of the experiences of communication from more than one perspective. It was underpinned by the interpretative constructivist approach that guided the analysis and accepts more than one interpretation of reality as viewed by the participants.

Keywords: Challenges, multiple case study, children, palliative care

4
Research Title: Using Advanced Technology in Nursing Education in Palestine
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2020
The Revolutionary Power of Nursing Science: Health Equity, Policy, and Practice, the Eastern Nursing Research Society,, Massachusetts; USA
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Background: Technology has been shown to have a profound effect on education in the 21st century. Using technology in nursing education has become indispensable, due to the need to link theoretical courses with hospital-based practice. Therefore, nursing educators and students must possess high levels of competency in communication and information technology. There has been little research in the Middle East regarding the use of technology in education. Most research on this subject has been carried out in Western countries. Palestine is an example of a developing country with many political issues that can affect its educational environment. However, few studies have been conducted in Palestine that investigate this issue from robust perspectives. Consequently, the present study investigates the experiences of using advanced technology in nursing education from the perspectives of lecturers, students, administrators, and lab technicians at two Palestinian universities. Methodology: This study employed a mixed method of research design. It was conducted in two Palestinian universities and employed several data collection methods: participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and curriculum analysis. A purposeful sampling strategy was adopted to recruit the participants. Maximum variation sampling was employed in order to include participants with different characteristics, which will improve the transferability of the findings to a broader setting. Within-case and cross-case data analysis was undertaken in accordance with Stake’s (2006) recommendations. Findings: Six interviews have been collected to date: assistant professor (n=3) and lecturers (n=3). The initial findings revealed several facilitators and challenges regarding the use of advanced technology in nursing education in Palestine. Although using technology was perceived to be time-consuming initially, lecturers pointed out that technology facilitated their work after they mastered its usage. Technology saved time and effort, for example by providing an accurate grading system for exams. Additionally, some educators reported that they encouraged adopting different technological means by their students who demonstrated advanced technological capabilities. Using technology enabled educators to communicate with students, especially during difficult political circumstances. However, educators reported several challenges pertaining to the use and sustainability of technology in the classroom. The high cost, especially as a part of the university’s budget, was one of the most prominent obstacles to adopting technology. Lack of skills in using technology was another obstacle faced by Palestinian professors. The resistance of some faculty members to the change represented by the adoption of technology was a third obstacle. Finally, educators reported that while it was very important to adopt advanced technology in education, some students could use it negatively, such as to cheat on exams. Conclusion: The study findings reveal several facilitators and challenges faced by Palestinian nursing educators in the use of technology. Continuous training of educators is imperative for increasing the use of communication and technology in nursing education. There is a need for updated policies to avoid advanced technology’s perceived negative consequences and maximize its benefits.

Keywords: Advanced technology, Higher education, Nursing, Palestine

5
Research Title: Views and experiences of using advanced technologies in higher education of health care professionals: A mixed method systematic review
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2020
The Revolutionary Power of Nursing Science: Health Equity, Policy, and Practice. the Eastern Nursing Research Society, Massachusetts; USA
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Background: The teaching of healthcare professionals has shifted from conventional teaching methods, and has almost fully embraced the use of technology-based learning instead. It is thought that the use of sophisticated technology in a healthcare training setting has been successful, on account of the value and experience it adds to both the teaching and learning processes, as well as its widespread use within healthcare practice. Since this widespread use of technology is a relatively recent occurrence in the realm of healthcare higher education, there exists a need for the evaluation of how it is experienced, used and viewed. This review synthesises both qualitative and quantitative data regarding user views and experience of technology within healthcare higher education, in an attempt to gather useful insights into how use of such technologies can be improved. Methods: Both quantitative and qualitative data was used for this mixed-method review. The data was combined into a single synthesis, using an integrated approach. The review took note of relevant papers concerning the use of advanced technology among healthcare professionals within higher education, and included the views of both students and lecturers from healthcare related courses such as; nursing, medicine (MBChB), dentistry, medical laboratory science/technology and pharmacy. Eight databases were searched in October 2018, followed by hand searching of related reference lists. The Mixed-Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT – Version 2011) was used to assess the methodological quality of the review. Results: In total, 13 papers were used for the review – ten quantitative, two mixed-method and one qualitative study. Nine of these studied focussed on the experiences of nurses, two on medical doctors, one on pharmacy students, and one on dentistry. The two synthesised findings that were generated are explained below. Facilitators of using advanced technology: It was indicated that technology is an indispensable tool in healthcare education. Many benefits associated with its use were revealed, which included; improved clinical competency, improved overall quality of education, improved patient outcomes, improved research and evidence-based practice skills, improved peer networking, co-working and collaboration, improved learning experience and outputs, and an enhanced understanding of self-directed learning. The results revealed that in order to fully utilise advanced technologies, the provision of adequate resources, as well as access to technical support and mentorship, is required. Challenges of using advanced technology: There were numerous factors which hindered the widespread adoption of advanced technology in healthcare education. These factors included; the high costs involved, a lack of relevant or adequate equipment, a lack of knowledge or understanding in such technology, a dearth of technical support, failure of technology, heavy workloads combined with time constrains, users having a negative attitude towards the use of technology, as well as a more generalised aversion to change. Conclusions: While the use of advanced technology for the training of healthcare professionals is generally embraced, it is not without problems. It is necessary for institutions to offer relevant and accessible support to both students and teachers, in order to improve the use of such technology in teaching and learning practice. Research in future should seek to understand the influence of advanced technology on the education and training of professionals within the healthcare sector.

Keywords: Advanced technology, Higher education, Health care professionals, Systematic review

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Research Title: Work stressors faced by health professionals working with children with palliative care needs: multiple case study approach from jordan
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2020
BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 10
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Background A broad overview of the existing literature reveals that nurses often feel inadequately trained or prepared in terms of the communication skills needed to deal with the difficult situations. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experience of communication in the care of children with palliative care needs, from the perspective of physicians, nurses, and mothers in Jordan. Methods This study employed a collective qualitative case study approach. It was conducted in three paediatric units in a Jordanian hospital. Each case comprised a child aged 1–12 years, their most involved family carer (mothers), physician(s) and nurse(s). Two data collection methods were employed: participant observation and semi-structured interviews with three categories of participants: mothers, physicians, and the nurses who cared for the children that participated in this study. Results The study was based on 15 cases, with a total of 197 observational hours and 60 interviews (conducted with 15 mothers, 12 physicians and 21 nurses). The findings indicate that the healthcare professionals struggled to communicate with families of children with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions. For instance, many found it difficult to communicate with parents when delivering an initial diagnosis, when the child’s health deteriorated, or if the child’s death was imminent. Doctors also reported feeling blamed for the ineffectiveness of treatment plans and cited this as their primary difficulty. Nurses also revealed that work pressure often limited their ability to provide optimum patient care and to communicate effectively with patients and their families. Other nurses reported difficulty in offering emotional support. Conclusions The continuous education and specialised training for professionals, which provides staff with specialised communication skills and emotional support for children and parents is imperative in improving the clinical practice in the healthcare settings with limited access to specialist palliative care.

Keywords: Work stressors, health professionals, children, palliative care, Jordan

7
Research Title: 96 Understanding the meaning attributed by jordanian parents of children with cancer to their illness: a phenomenological study
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2020
BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 10
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Background Jordanian culture is a variant of Arab-Islamic culture that comprises two intertwined strands: the interpretation of Islamic religion and vernacular Arab culture. Few studies have been conducted in the Middle East to explain the way culture shapes and reflects parents’ lived experiences and interactions with their children, particularly concerning the meaning and philosophy of disease. Methods The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of Jordanian parents of children with cancer. The study investigated the cultural meaning of illness and how it affected parents’ lived experiences of their children’s illness. The study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenological approach informed by the philosophy of Martin Heidegger and used semi-structured interviews. The study was conducted in one paediatric oncology unit in one Jordanian hospital. Results Twenty-five interviews were collected from 24 mothers and one father. During the interviews, the parents expressed that their spiritual beliefs helped them accept their child’s disease. Showing patience towards the suffering of their children was perceived as an important value the parents tried to stick to despite the deep suffering the children were experiencing. All the parents demonstrated a thankful approach as they perceived that everything that happens to their child is according to destiny. The beliefs the parents held about their child’s illness were perceived to positively affect the way they interacted with them. This was especially so in sensitive situations, such as their reactions to initial diagnoses and receiving bad news. Conclusion The findings of this study will inform the education of health professionals and increase their understanding of the beliefs and practices demonstrated by the study’s participants and their integration into supportive patient plans.

Keywords: Parents; children; cancer; phenomenology, Jordanian

8
Research Title: Nanomaterials in Nutraceuticals Applications.
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Published Year: 2020
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Diverse strategies are adopted to fight against various diseases and probable health risks. Besides the pharmaceutical approach, diet-based strategies are also deemed apt to avert various disorders. “Nutraceuticals” considered as bioactive components found in natural products. Bioactive components are additional nutritional ingredients that typically present in small quantities of foods that are used in dayto- day life and strongly believed to play a crucial role in the maintenance of our health. The food products used as nutraceuticals can be categorized as dietary fiber, prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and other different types of herbal/natural foods. These nutraceuticals facilitate in combating a number of the major health problems including microbial infections. In recent years, nanotechnology-based formulations like micro- and nanoencapsulation have been a rising interest for nutraceutical, food and pharmaceutical applications. To enhance nutritional quality and stability of the nutraceuticals, one option is to encapsulate the functional ingredients using food-grade or “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) materials that can exhibit controlled-release behavior. These diversity of building blocks and formulation methods led to nanocarriers like nanoemulsion, nanodispersion, nanoparticles, liposomes etc. with diverse physicochemical properties and functional characteristics. Based on the above-mentioned facts, this chapter provides an insight of some of the emerging nanomaterial-based applications being commercialized in nutraceuticals. A glimpse on various research work undertaken for the nanomaterials in the field of nutraceuticals is also discussed in this chapter.

Keywords: Nanomaterials · Nutraceuticals · Nanoformulations · Physicochemical parameters

9
Research Title: Nanomedicines in cancer management: diagnosis, therapy and nanodrug delivery.
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Published Year: 2020
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Cancer is one of the most controversial diseases known for humanity and emerged as a global health problem all the time. The drug discovery scientists and clinicians have attempted to cure cancer since centuries. Conventional cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy have many limitations including low specificity, lack of stability, rapid drug clearance, biodegradation and limited targeting besides number of side effects associated with these treatments on the actual patients. Nanomedicine has evolved over the past few years and became a breakthrough technology for the diagnosis and the treatment of several cancer types. Specifically, the drug is being carried out through carriers called nanoparticles in which the properties of these carriers are very important for the successful treatment of deadly diseases like cancer. In this chapter, we describe the application of nanotechnology and nanomedicines in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Further,we discuss the targeted-nanodrug delivery to cancer cells in a broad context. Moreover, we provide a glimpse on marketed nanomedicines available for the management of cancer.

Keywords: Nanodrug delivery · Nanomedicine · Brain cancer · Breast cancer · Lung cancer · Nanoparticles

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Research Title: The importance of nano-materials characterization techniques
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Published Year: 2020
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The potential application of nanotechnology in the medical field ranges from nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronics biosensors, can be extended to molecular nanotechnology like biological machines. Nanomaterial characterization is a keystone for the development and adoption of nanomaterials for certain applications. The unique and novel physico-chemical properties of nanomaterial gave rise to a number of characterization techniques. Therefore, nanoparticles are characterized to study various physical and chemical features such as composition, structure size, morphology, surface area, optical properties, surface composition, oxidation state, and electrochemistry. The characterization of nanomaterials should not be limited to a single technique, because usually multiple measurements are needed to capture all pertinent nanomaterial characteristics. Hence, in this chapter, details of different characterization techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Xray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and zeta potential (ZP) are discussed.

Keywords: Nanomaterials · X-ray diffraction · Transmission electron microscopy · Dynamic light scattering · Zeta potential · Scanning electron microscopy