Research Title: Recomposing Fragments: The case of the Reinvention of al-Khulafaa Mosque in Baghdad
Author: Saba Sami Mehdi AL-ALI, Nawar Sami Mehdi AL-ALI, Published Year: 2018
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: When The Iraqi architect Mohamed Makiya (1914-2015) was commissioned in 1961 to build a mosque in the old commercial center of Baghdad, near the 13th century minaret of Suq al-Ghazl, the only element left of the al-Khulafaa Abbasid Mosque which stood there several centuries ago. The design problem he faced was threefold: first, the question of how to deal with, and preserve, this remaining historical fragment; second, how to evoke the memory of the famous Abbasid mosque with its unknown architecture totally lost due to historical events, and third, how to deal with the complicated site facts of restricted area, openness to a grand modernist street, and a surrounding of organic fabric of traditional Suqs ( markets) . The paper investigates the above mentioned issues starting with the architectural style of the new created mosque in relation to the old minaret and the Abbasid style. The argument reveals that by relying on classical Islamic vocabulary, articulated with modernist concrete elements at different scales, the architect reinterpreted the Abbasid mosque type not as a totality, but as fragments that surround, complement and converse with the historical element he had in-situ, reinventing a new architectural totality, a new mosque type, but still reminiscent of its precedent. (Published online in the Conference website: https://eauh2018.ccmgs.it/ Conference name : E.A. U. H. - Rome 2018 : Urban Renewal and Resilience August 29 - September 01, 2018)

Keywords: Mohammed Makiya, Baghdad Historical Center, Al-Khulafaa Mosque, Types of mosques, Minaret of Suq el-Ghazl

Research Title: Re-shaping ' The Private for the Public' concept in Traditional Courtyards: a case study in the Traditional Center of Baghdad.
Author: Nawar Sami Mehdi AL-ALI , Saba Sami Mehdi AL-ALI, Published Year: 2018
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: Abstract The paper presents the case of two preserved/revitalized Ottoman buildings: Al-Qushlah and the Public Courts. Both are located in the traditional center of Baghdad, in a mixed-use area. Since their construction was during the 19th century, they housed different state bodies, and their ample geometrical courtyards were of restricted uses. The two buildings also witnessed major rehabilitation between the years 1987 – 1994 in an attempt to preserve their aesthetic and historical values, and reuse them with respect to these values, but they remained without any remarkable involvement in the Baghdadi life. After the political and military events of 2003, then the end the disturbance of 2006, and under an emerging public tendency toward engaging the area with cultural activities, especially on Fridays, both buildings were opened to public during the year 2013, granting access to their courtyards, and then partial access to the indoor spaces. Different groups of civil societies, activists, artists, poets and writers, gather and hold their activities within the courtyards of these two buildings. This new tendency reshaped the inherent relationship between (the private and the public) of the Islamic traditional courtyards in public buildings (e.g. Mosques, Khans, Madrassas) within the urban life, and presented a new conception for such relationship, in these two buildings. This paper demonstrates how the main concept of (the Private) and (the Public) has changed for the courtyards of the Ottoman Al-Qushlah and The Courts buildings, due to the new change in urban life. This change flipped the traditional basics, turning (the private for the public), and brought the flow of the walking crowd from the surrounding area into these two open spaces. This change filled the courtyards with a joyful atmosphere, which extended gradually to the indoor spaces. The courtyards transformed to be extensions for the urban spaces rather than extensions to their own buildings, in a situation of a reversed functionality. The attention was shifted from the appreciation of the buildings themselves to their courtyards. The paper investigates, through spatial analysis, this conversion, showing how these two buildings failed to be active in the Baghdadi life for two decades after their restoration, until this transformation. The study tracks down the evolvement of the two courtyards through the history of the area and their buildings and compares between their current conditions versus the traditional conception of courtyards in the Public buildings in Baghdad. The study involves an analysis of the function type, movement flow and spatial characteristics, and suggests a new strategy to consider the Baghdadi public courtyard type, from a different perspective, to maintain the old fabric of the historical center of Baghdad. (Published online in the Conference website:https://eauh2018.ccmgs.it/ Conference name : E.A. U. H. - Rome 2018 : Urban Renewal and Resilience August 29 - September 01, 2018)

Keywords: Urban; Baghdadi courtyard; Mutannabi; Saray; Functionality; Public space; Quishla; Qishlaq.

Author: Nawar Sami Mehdi AL-ALI, Published Year: 2017
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: Al-Qushlah is a monumental building, situated on the bank of the river Tigris in old Baghdad. It dates back to the nineteenth century Ottoman period, and reflects a hybrid between the Ottoman traditions and European methods in architecture. The building had a major attempt of rehabilitation in 1987 - 1989. This attempt is the main subject of this paper . The argument is based on a recognition of the different parts of the building , and accepting the fact that they are a result of an overlaid additions and modifications of several periods. The paper aims to demonstrate how the re -designing process was integrated with the process of restoration, to fulfill the goal of rehabilitating. ( Published in the hard copy of the conference book, Paper is copyright protected in favor of the publisher of the conference book. Conference name: International Congress - Preserving Transcultural Heritage: Your Way or My Way?: questions on authenticity, identity, and patrimonial proceedings in the safeguarding of architectural heritage created in meeting of cultures. 05th - 08th of July 2017 University of Lisbon , Lisbon, Portugal)

Keywords: Ottoman; Redesign; Restoration; Rehabilitation; Baghdadi.

Research Title: Effect of steel fibers on the developed stresses in deformed headed bar
Author: SAAD ALI AL-TAAN, Published Year: 2015
7th International conference on fibre concrete , Czeck Republic
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: This investigation studied the effect of steel fibres on the developed stress in headed bars. One concrete mix is used with a weight proportions of (1:1.7:3:0.45;cement:sand:gravel and water cement ratio respectively) and gave a minimum cylinder strength of 37.5 MPa. The variables included three bars sizes (10, 12 and 16 mm), embedment depths(50, 55, 60, 65, 95 and 100 mm,) three plane dimensions of a 10 mm thick square steel head (20×20, 25×25 and 30×30 mm) welded to the bars, and the steel fibres volume percentage (0.4,0.8 and 1.2). The steel fibres were of the Harex type with irregular cross section, 16 mm long and an equivalent aspect ratio of 19.64. The test results showed that the developed stress in the bars increased with the embedment depth and with the steel fibres percentage considerably, while the used dimensions of the square steel head does not affect the steel stress significantly. The failure mode of the concrete specimens was sudden and brittle while that of the fibrous concrete specimens showed a gradual and ductile mode of failure.

Keywords: Embedment, fibres, headed reinforcement, pullout, stress.

Research Title: Evaluation of Wastewater Bio-filtration Using Activated Carbon Filter Made from Date Pits
Author: Mohammad younes, Published Year: 2018
A&WMA’s 111th Annual Conference & Exhibition , Hartford, Connecticut; USA
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: Wastewater treatment using Biological filter is an emerging technology. Nowadays, date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) production and processing are increasing all over the world due to its nutrition content. Date pit is one of the most important date processing by product and it represents around 10% of fruit weight. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of using a date pit’s activated carbon in a biological filter to enhance the bio-filtration process and reduce the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent water. A date pits pyrolysis was implemented to produce a charcoal activated carbon, and then it has been crushed and activated by heat. Finally, three filtration columns were prepared, one with silica sand only, the second is with silica sand and commercial coconut activated carbon and the third is with silica sand and date pit activated carbon. The date pits filter shows relatively better performance of COD and pH removal. However, more research and tests are recommended on larger scale. Moreover, further test and analysis are required to determine the optimum dosage and particle size.

Keywords: solid waste management, date pits

Author: Mohammad younes, Published Year: 2018
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) emissions and methane (CH4) oxidation were investigated in a landfill locat-ed in tropical climate in Malaysia to measure spatial and seasonal variations in CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the capacity of CH4 oxidation in the landfill cover soil, seasonal varia-tion of CH4 oxidation, and the impact of CH4 oxidation on composition of LFG emissions. The measurements were conducted within eight months during the rainy and dry seasons. CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured using a fabricated static flux chamber. The averages of CH4 and CO2 emissions were determined using the geospatial average (g/m2/d) with lesser error. The combination of the gas concentrations (CH4 and CO2) below the cover soil and the surface CH4 and CO2 fluxes at four stations were utilized to determine the average CH4 oxidation capacity (%). The results of the study showed that CH4 and CO2 emissions were not spatially uniform and ranged from 0 to 1,602 g/m2/d and 5 to 2,753 gm-2 d-1 in both seasons. In addition, higher CH4 and CO2 emissions and lower CH4 oxidation capacity were observed in the rainy season in contrast to the dry season.

Keywords: CH4 oxidation, landfill cover soils, LFG emission, seasonal variation, spatial varia-tion, methane oxidation

Research Title: Modelling CO2 and NOx on signalized roundabout using modified adaptive neural fuzzy inference system model
Author: Mohammad younes, Published Year: 2018
Environmental Engineering Research , 23(1)
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: Air quality and pollution have recently become a major concern; vehicle emissions significantly pollute the air, especially in large and crowded cities. There are various factors that affect vehicle emissions; this research aims to find the most influential factors affecting CO2 and NOx emissions using Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) as well as a systematic approach. The modified ANFIS (MANFIS) was developed to enhance modelling and Root Mean Square Error was used to evaluate the model performance. The results show that percentages of CO2 from trucks represent the best input combination to model. While for NOx modelling, the best pair combination is the vehicle delay and percentage of heavy trucks. However, the final MANFIS structure involves two inputs, three membership functions and nine rules. For CO2 modelling the triangular membership function is the best, while for NOx the membership function is two-sided Gaussian.

Keywords: Air pollution, Air quality index, ANFIS, Traffic congestion, Transportation emissions

Research Title: Selecting the Affected Factors on Pavement Distress Problems Using Analytical Hierarchy Process [AHP]
Author: Mohammad younes, Published Year: 2018
International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: This study describes the implementation of analytical hierarchy process [AHP] in pavement multi-criteria selection problem solving. The practice of expressing flexible pavement distress priority is widely accepted. However, an insistent demand exists for a technique that allows decision makers to determine their priorities, rational weights of the importance of pavement distress priority and the ranking of these factors. In this study, AHP is adopted in selecting the best level of distress in flexible pavements in Malaysia as an example of a tropical region. Knowledgeable and experienced experts in flexible pavement maintenance at jabatan kerja raya [JKR] and Kumpulan Ikram Sdn Bhd [IKRAM] were interviewed; as pairwise comparisons, their inputs were structured. Four criteria are set as follows: cracking, surface defects, surface deformations and patching and potholes. These criteria developed into a few other sub-criteria. Results show that cracking is the most significant factor [0.5500], followed by surface deformations [0.2300], patching and potholes [0.1600] and surface defects [0.0600]. Thus, cracking has the most significant distress among the four factors.

Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process; Flexible pavement; Pavement maintenance; Pavement deterioration

Author: Nabil Musa, Published Year: 2008
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), Volume 9, Issue 7,
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: In this paper, the problem of interaction of a discontinuous wave with the heterogeneity between two elastic isotropic media with different density parameters is considered. The research object is non-stationary wave with strong discontinuity generated in non-homogeneous elastic medium. The work aims to investigate the diffraction of the discontinuous wave in an interface between two anisotropic media and analysis of received results depending on the anisotropy parameters values. The research method considered is the zeroth approximation of the ray method. The simulation processes of mechanical interaction of elastic discontinuous waves with interfaces between rock media with different properties (particularly, anisotropy parameters) is proposed. The results of the simulation, showed that, the discontinuous wave transformation in the interface planes, not only wave polarization and front geometry can be changed, also the wave intensity can be increased or decreased. This type of the wave diffraction can be accompanied by essential change of the wave intensity in different zones of the wave front. The work results can be implemented for the design of construction of structures, transport and mine destination with the aim of their seismic protection and their screening from action of discontinuous waves generated by different technical failures.

Keywords: shielding, discontinuous waves, anisotropic layered media, elastic medium, ray method.

Research Title: Critical buckling of drill strings in cylindrical cavities of inclined bore-holes.
Author: Nabil Musa, Published Year: 2016
Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation 6 (2016) 25-38, vol.6
Faculty: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract: Abstract Notwithstanding the fact that the problem of drill string buckling (Eulerian instability) inside the cylindrical cavity of an inclined bore-hole attracts attention of many specialists, it is far from completion. This peculiarity can be explained by the complexity of its mathematic model which is described by singularly perturbed equations. Their solutions (eigen modes) have the shapes of boundary effects or buckles (harmonic wavelets) localized in zones of the bore-hole that are not specified in advance. Therefore, the problem should be stated in the domain of entire length of the drill string or in some separated part including an expected zone of its buckling. In the paper, a mathematic model for computer analysis of incipient buckling of a drill string in cylindrical channel of an inclined bore-hole is elaborated. The constitutive equation is deduced with allowance made for action of gravity, contact, and friction forces. Computer simulation of the drill string buckling is performed for different values of the bore-hole inclination angle, its length, friction coefficient, and clearance. The eigen values (critical loads) are found and eigen modes (modes of stability loss) are constructed. The numerical results for the case when the inclination angle equals friction angle coincide with ones obtained analytically.

Keywords: Keywords: deep drilling, inclined bore-holes, drill strings, stability, singularly perturbed problem.