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Research Title: Critical Care Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceived Barriers towards Pressure Injuries Prevention
Author: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Published Year: 2018
International Journal of Advanced Nursing Studies, 7(2)
Faculty: Faculty of Nursing

Abstract: Background: Pressure injuries are a considerable problem for hospitalized critically ill and elderly patients, as such injuries produce pain, and reduce total wellbeing, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, as well as often extending those patients’ hospital stays Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine critical care nurses knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers toward pressure injuries prevention. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed, using a questionnaire method to critical care nurses’. The study took place between August and October 2017 and involved ten hospitals: two university hospital, six public hospitals, and two private hospitals. Methods: Data were collected by means of a questionnaire using two valid and reliable instruments: i) the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Assessment Tool 2⋅0, and ii) Attitude Toward Pressure Ulcer Prevention and two newly developed instruments sociodemographic and perceived barriers toward pressure injury prevention. Results: The entire mean knowledge score for the participants was 54.9%, and overall high attitude scores were 76.7%. Level of education, years employed in a critical care unit, training received on pressure injury prevention, and the number of papers read on pressure injury prevention was all identified as having a significant and independent effect on participants’ knowledge concerning prevention of pressure injuries. To evaluate the effect of demographic characteristics on nurses’ attitudes, the only significant variable was "years of employment in critical care units". Shortage of staff was the most commonly cited barrier faced by critical care nurses’ during practice.

Keywords: Attitudes, Barriers, Critical care nurses’, Jordan, Knowledge, Pressure injuries

2
Research Title: Measurement and Nonpharmacologic Management of Sleep Disturbance in the Intensive Care Units
Author: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Published Year: 2018
Crit Care Nurs Q, 42(1)
Faculty: Faculty of Nursing

Abstract: The general goal of this review is to summarize, clarify, and evaluate what is known about patients’ sleep in the intensive care units (ICUs) in terms of sleep measurement and management. In addition, this review focuses on the gap in knowledge in this field. A review of online databases for relevant articles in the period between 2000 and 2017 was conducted. The results of this study indicate that there are several methods to measure patients’ quality of sleep. Polysomnography and actigraphy are the most common standard objective and valid methods used to measure sleep disorders in the ICU. On the contrary, several subjective instruments are used such as the Richards- Campbell Sleep Scale, Verran Snyder Harper Sleep Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, and Sleep Efficiency Index. To improve patients’ sleep in the ICU, various strategies are used internationally. These strategies include reducing the noise and light levels; using relaxation technique, meditation, hypnosis, earplugs, eye masks, relaxation music; and modifying the time of delivering nursing care.

Keywords: ICU patients, nonpharmacologic interventions, sleep quality

3
Research Title: Synthesis, adenosine receptor binding and molecular modelling studies of novel thieno[2,3- d]pyrimidine derivatives
Author: Dr Pran Kishore Deb, Published Year: 2018
Chemical Biology & Drug Design , 91
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy

Abstract: A series of new molecules containing a thieno[2,3- d]pyrimidine scaffold was synthesized and characterized by adopting an efficient synthetic scheme. The effect of a free or substituted amino group at 2- position as well as an oxo- group, imidazole or 1,2,4- triazole ring at 4- position of the scaffold on the affinity and selectivity towards adenosine receptors (ARs) was evaluated. Compounds 17–19 with a free amino group at 2- position along with the presence of an imidazole/1,2,4- triazole ring at 4- position of the scaffold showed selective binding affinities for hA2A AR, whereas carbamoylation of the amino group at 2- position (in the presence of an oxo- group at 4- position of the scaffold) increased the affinity and selectivity of certain compounds (7–10) for hA3 AR. Molecular dynamic simulation study of one of the most active compound 8 (Ki hA1 > 30 μm, hA2A = 0.65 μm, and hA3 = 0.124 μm) revealed the role of important amino acid residues for imparting good affinity towards hA3 and hA2A ARs. Molecular docking studies were carried out for other compounds using the crystal structure of hA2A AR and a homology model of hA3 AR to rationalize their structure–activity relationships. The molecular docking results were in agreement with the experimental binding affinity data of ARs.

Keywords: adenosine receptors, binding, homology modelling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine

4
Research Title: Molecular dynamics simulation strategies for designing carbon-nanotube-based targeted drug delivery
Author: Dr Pran Kishore Deb, Published Year: 2018
Drug Discovery Today, 23
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy

Abstract: The carbon nanotube (CNT)-based target-specific delivery of drugs, or other molecular cargo, has emerged as one of the most promising biomedical applications of nanotechnology. To achieve efficient CNT-based drug delivery, the interactions between the drug, CNT and biomolecular target need to be properly optimized. Recent advances in the computer-aided molecular design tools, in particular molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies, offer an appropriate low-cost approach for such optimization. This review highlights the various potential MD approaches for the simulation of CNT interactions with cell membranes while emphasizing various methods of cellular internalization and toxicities of CNTs to build new strategies for designing rational CNT-based targeted drug delivery to circumvent the limitations associated with the various clinically available nonspecific therapeutic agents.

Keywords: carbon nanotube (CNT), target-specific delivery of drugs, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation

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Research Title: Chapter 2 - Physicochemical Aspects to Be Considered in Pharmaceutical Product Development
Author: Dr Pran Kishore Deb, Omar Al-Attraqchi, Prof Abdul Muttaleb Yousef Jaber , Published Year: 2018
Dosage Form Design Considerations, Academic Press (Elsevier), 1
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy

Abstract: The physicochemical properties of both the active pharmaceutical ingredient and the excipients are of prime importance that needs to be taken into consideration during the development of all the pharmaceutical dosage forms. These properties can significantly influence the physical and chemical stability of the drug during production, storage, in addition to the pharmacological action inside the patient’s body. In this chapter, the basic physicochemical properties of drugs are discussed, while emphasizing their impacts on the various aspects of pharmaceutical products formulations.

Keywords: Physicochemical propertieschemical stabilityphysical stabilitydrugs solubility

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Research Title: Chapter 11 - Protein and Tissue Binding: Implication on Pharmacokinetic Parameters
Author: Dr Pran Kishore Deb, Omar Al-Attraqchi, Published Year: 2018
Dosage Form Design Considerations, Academic Press (Elsevier), 1
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy

Abstract: The binding of drugs to plasma and tissue proteins has significant consequences on both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug because only the free fraction of the drug can freely diffuse across membranes to different tissues of the body. Moreover, only the free fraction of the drug is considered to be pharmacologically active, while the bound form of the drug is usually pharmacologically inactive. Further, it is the free drug that undergoes metabolism and excretion from the body. This chapter emphasizes the binding of drugs to the major plasma proteins along with their implications of binding on different pharmacokinetic parameters such as the volume of distribution, clearance, and half-life, respectively. Finally, common in vitro and in vivo methods used for measuring protein binding are also discussed in addition to the newer in silico methods for the prediction of protein binding of drugs.

Keywords: Plasma protein bindingtissue bindingpharmacokinetics parametersmeasuring protein bindingprotein binding kinetics

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Research Title: Chapter 5 - Particulate Level Properties and its Implications on Product Performance and Processing
Author: Dr Pran Kishore Deb, Sara NidalAbed, Prof Abdul Muttaleb Yousef Jaber, Published Year: 2018
Dosage Form Design Parameters, Academic Press (Elsevier), 2
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy

Abstract: The pharmaceutical industry relies on different aspects of the manufacturing and formulation of drugs and related products. In particular, particulate levels of properties as well as the processing have the greatest impact on pharmaceutical products performance. A change in the properties of the particulate matter including the physical, chemical, and the mechanical properties may affect the various pharmaceutical products behaviors such as the solubility, stability, bioavailability, content uniformity, and many other aspects. In this regard, both researchers as well as manufacturers pay their utmost attention to particles characterization as a way to control and evaluate final products performance. In the last few decades many new technologies have been introduced to the pharmaceutical industries for particle design, characterization, and evaluation. Besides, several approaches were also developed to enhance the manufacture processing and the performance of pharmaceutical products in order to produce new dosage forms with enhanced qualities. This chapter provides an insight into various levels of solid states, their properties, and the mechanisms of particle–particle interactions. Pharmaceutical particle technologies introduced to improve drug solubility and bioavailability are also discussed. Characterization of various physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of particles and their impact on product manufacturing and performance are discussed in brief. A particular focus is given to different processing parameters, evaluation of drug performance, and various implications of particles. Effect of particulate properties on powders, semisolid dosage forms like pastes, thermal conductivity, and others along with various regulatory guidelines are also emphasized in this chapter.

Keywords: Particulate propertiesmechanism of particle interactionsparticle technologiesregulatory guidelines

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Research Title: Chapter 19 - Applications of Computers in Pharmaceutical Product Formulation
Author: Dr Pran Kishore Deb, Published Year: 2018
Dosage Form Design Parameters, Academic Press (Elsevier), 2
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy

Abstract: The traditional way of discovery, development, and formulation of a new drug is tedious, highly time-consuming, as well as costly with high attrition rates. However, with continuous advancements of in silico technologies and algorithms, the virtual screening strategies have emerged as reliable and unavoidable alternative or complementary approaches to conventional methods at the different stages of the discovery and development of drugs until they reach the market. Current sophistication of in silico approaches not only aid in the speed of the process but also promoting the design, discovery, and optimization of new chemical entities (NCEs) more rationally while reducing the attrition rate at the later stages of development and formulation of drugs. This chapter mainly focuses and discusses the basic concepts, methodology, applications, and pitfalls of various computer-aided expert systems, artificial neural networking (ANN), and computer simulation strategies that are presently being used for the design and development of pharmaceutical formulations. An attempt has also been made to contextualize the chapter with an overview of the role of various in silico structure-based drug design approaches (molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation) and ligand-based drug design strategies (quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) and pharmacophore modeling) that are being currently used in order to gain insight into the binding interactions of biological target proteins with their substrates or drug molecules for the design, discovery, and optimization of lead molecules along with the prediction of pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity—ADMET) properties.

Keywords: Computer-aided drug designcomputer-aided pharmaceutical formulationexpert systemscase-based reasoningartificial neural networking (ANN)computer simulationvirtual screening (VS)structure-based drug designligand-based drug design

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Research Title: Chapter 20 - Patents and Other Intellectual Property Rights in Drug Delivery
Author: Dr Pran Kishore Deb, Published Year: 2018
Dosage Form Design Parameters, Academic Press (Elsevier), 2
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy

Abstract: Intellectual property rights (IPRs) provide social and technological benefits as they encourage innovation while maintaining exclusive rights of an innovator. Implicit in the economic growth of the various innovative companies over the past 50 years is reflected the fact that they have sought the shelter of IPRs to gain incentives to discover while excluding the competitors. IPRs also recognize the work of inventors and allows free flow of information. The present chapter explains the various types of IPRs and their relevance in drug delivery systems while highlighting the legal measures to prevent infringement of such rights. It emphasizes the impact of such rights on the pharmaceutical companies and consumers along with the current scenario at the international level as well as in India.

Keywords: Patentsintellectual property rightseconomic growthdrug deliverycurrent scenario

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Research Title: Chapter 16 - Package Types for Different Dosage Forms
Author: Dr Pran Kishore Deb, Published Year: 2018
Dosage Form Design Parameters, Academic Press (Elsevier), 2
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy

Abstract: Packaging is a major component in the development of drug formulations in the pharmaceutical industry. There is a close relationship between a pharmaceutical formulation and its package and it is a major concern too from the drug stability and safety point of view. The packaging of pharmaceutical products is an integral part of product development which keeps the product stable during its entire life cycle. Packaging imparts luster, identification, and protection of a product from environmental and transportation stress. Different types of packaging materials are available for the various pharmaceutical dosage forms. With recent advancements in the field of packaging technology, there is a continuous requirement to upgrade the packaging methodologies to meet the demand of the market and user-friendly packaging. This chapter includes different types of packaging material including container and closure, ideal characteristics of packaging material, tamper-resistant packaging including bubble pack, blister pack, film wrapper, tape seals, and evaluation parameters for different packaging materials. Advanced technologies in pharmaceutical packaging including blow–fill–seal technology; child-resistant packaging is also covered in this chapter.

Keywords: Advanced packaging technologypackaging materialpackage typespharmaceutical containers and closurescontainer codingregulatory compliance