Research Title: Antidiabetic activity of the aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2014
Int J Adv Pharm Biol Chem, 3
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome associated with an abnormal high blood glucose concentration due to insufficient insulin secretion or defective in insulin action. The present study was attempted to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of Foeniculum vulgare in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Keywords: Antidiabetic activity; Foeniculum vulgare

Research Title: An insight on synthetic and medicinal aspects of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine scaffold
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2017
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 126
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine scaffold is one of the privileged hetrocycles in drug discovery. Its application as a buliding block for developing drug-like candidates has displayed broad range of medicinal properties such as anticancer, CNS agents, anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, CRF1 antagonists and radio diagnostics. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have acquired greater attention amid medicinal chemists, and many of the lead compounds were derived for various disease targets. However, there is plenty of room for the medicinal chemists to further exploit this privileged scaffold in developing potential drug candidates. The present review briefly outlines relevant synthetic strategies employed for pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives. It also extensively reveals significant biological properties along with SAR studies. To the best of our understanding current review is the first attempt made towards the compilation of significant advances made on pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines reported since 1980s.

Keywords: Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidineAnti-cancer agentsAnti-infectious agentsCNS agentsAnti-inflammatory agentsRadiopharmaceuticals

Research Title: Synthesis, antiproliferative activity and docking study of novel rhodanine derivatives as Bcr-Abl T1351 inhibitors
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2017
Research on Chemical Intermediates, 43
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A series of novel N-substituted rhodanines 6a–g were synthesized by a microwave synthesizer, and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity. Most of the compounds showed inhibition against K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner and in particular compounds 6a, 6b and 6f exhibited most potent activity with an IC50 value of 19.62, 24.01 and 22.91 µg/ml by MTT assay. Further in silico docking studies of the above compounds against Bcr-Abl T1351 protein showed good binding affinity, thus indicating that the compounds behave as third generation inhibitors. A dose-dependent increase in LDH release upon treatment with 6a–g complements the MTT assay for anti-proliferative activity. Flow cytometry of 6a showed that it interferes with the cell division by indicating G1 phase arrest followed by apoptosis.

Keywords: Synthesis; antiproliferative activity; docking; rhodanine derivatives

Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2018
WCP2018 (18th World Congress of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology), Japan
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic necrotizing bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which has been a bane of humanity for thousands of years and remains as one of the flourishing health problems in the world. The global resurgence of TB and development of drug resistance imposes for an imperative attention of medicinal chemists to develop innovative anti-mycobacterial agents as no new classes of anti-TB agents.


Research Title: Phyto-Engineered Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) with Potential Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Activities Under in vitro and in vivo Conditions
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2020
Phyto-Engineered Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) with Potential Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Activities Under in vitro and in vivo Conditions, 15
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: A diabetic ulcer is one of the major causes of illness among diabetic patients that involves severe and intractable complications associated with diabetic wounds. Hence, a suitable wound-healing agent is urgently needed at this juncture. Greener nanotechnology is a very promising and emerging technology currently employed for the development of alternative medicines. Plant-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been intensively investigated and regarded as an alternative strategy for overcoming various diseases and their secondary complications like microbial infections. Hence, we are interested in developing phyto-engineered gold nanoparticles as useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of infectious diseases and wounds effectively.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, antibacterial, antioxidant, wound healing, in vivo mice model

Research Title: Neurological Consequences of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Concurrence of Treatment-Induced Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events in COVID-19 Patients: Navigating the Uncharted
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2021
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 8
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: evere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and invade the human cells to cause COVID-19-related pneumonia. Despite an emphasis on respiratory complications, the evidence of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection is rapidly growing, which is substantially contributing to morbidity and mortality. The neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 may have several pathophysiological underpinnings, which are yet to be explored. Hypothetically, SARS-CoV-2 may affect the central nervous system (CNS) either by direct mechanisms like neuronal retrograde dissemination and hematogenous dissemination, or via indirect pathways. CNS complications associated with COVID-19 include encephalitis, acute necrotizing encephalopathy, diffuse leukoencephalopathy, stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic), venous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. These may result from different mechanisms, including direct virus infection of the CNS, virus-induced hyper-inflammatory states, and post-infection immune responses. On the other hand, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, hyposmia, hypogeusia, and myopathy are the outcomes of peripheral nervous system injury. Although the therapeutic potential of certain repurposed drugs has led to their off-label use against COVID-19, such as anti-retroviral drugs (remdesivir, favipiravir, and lopinavir-ritonavir combination), biologics (tocilizumab), antibiotics (azithromycin), antiparasitics (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), and corticosteroids (dexamethasone), unfortunately, the associated clinical neuropsychiatric adverse events remains a critical issue. Therefore, COVID-19 represents a major threat to the field of neuropsychiatry, as both the virus and the potential therapies may induce neurologic as well as psychiatric disorders.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events

Research Title: Curcumin-Celecoxib: a synergistic and rationale combination chemotherapy for breast cancer
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2021
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 25
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Over-expression of COX-2 has been linked with various molecular signaling such as carcinogenesis, invasiveness, and malignant tumour metastasis. Besides, the use of celecoxib is also related to lowering the risk of breast cancer. This study therefore designed to explore the synergistic inhibitory effect of the combination of curcumin and celecoxib on the growth of human breast cancer cells.

Keywords: MDA-MB-231, Human breast cancer, Celecoxib, Curcumin, COX-2, Adjuvant molecule, Cytotoxicity, ADME/T

Research Title: Emerging therapeutic approaches to combat COVID-19: present status and future perspectives
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2021
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 8
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has emerged as a fast-paced epidemic in late 2019 which is disrupting life-saving immunization services. SARS-CoV-2 is a highly transmissible virus and an infectious disease that has caused fear among people across the world. The worldwide emergence and rapid expansion of SARS-CoV-2 emphasizes the need for exploring innovative therapeutic approaches to combat SARS-CoV-2. The efficacy of some antiviral drugs such as remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, etc., are still tested against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, there is a large global effort to develop vaccines for the protection against COVID-19. Because vaccines seem the best solution to control the pandemic but time is required for its development, pre-clinical/clinical trials, approval from FDA and scale-up. The nano-based approach is another promising approach to combat COVID-19 owing to unique physicochemical properties of nanomaterials. Peptide based vaccines emerged as promising vaccine candidates for SARS-CoV-2. The study emphasizes the current therapeutic approaches against SARS-CoV-2 and some of the potential candidates for SARS-CoV-2 treatment which are still under clinical studies for their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2. Overall, it is of high importance to mention that clinical trials are necessary for confirming promising drug candidates and effective vaccines and the safety profile of the new components must be evaluated before translation of in vitro studies for implementation in clinical use.

Keywords: therapeutic approaches; COVID-19

Research Title: Computation in BioInformatics: Multidisciplinary Applications
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: COMPUTATION IN BIOINFORMATICS Bioinformatics is a platform between the biology and information technology and this book provides readers with an understanding of the use of bioinformatics tools in new drug design. The discovery of new solutions to pandemics is facilitated through the use of promising bioinformatics techniques and integrated approaches. This book covers a broad spectrum of the bioinformatics field, starting with the basic principles, concepts, and application areas. Also covered is the role of bioinformatics in drug design and discovery, including aspects of molecular modeling. Some of the chapters provide detailed information on bioinformatics related topics, such as silicon design, protein modeling, DNA microarray analysis, DNA-RNA barcoding, and gene sequencing, all of which are currently needed in the industry. Also included are specialized topics, such as bioinformatics in cancer detection, genomics, and proteomics. Moreover, a few chapters explain highly advanced topics, like machine learning and covalent approaches to drug design and discovery, all of which are significant in pharma and biotech research and development. Audience Researchers and engineers in computation biology, information technology, bioinformatics, drug design, biotechnology, pharmaceutical sciences.

Keywords: BioInformatics; Multidisciplinary Applications

Research Title: Handbook on nanobiomaterials for therapeutics and diagnostic applications
Author: Balakumar Chandrasekarn, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Handbook on nanobiomaterials for therapeutics and diagnostic applications

Keywords: Handbook on nanobiomaterials for therapeutics and diagnostic applications