81
Research Title: Carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions of organomagnesium reagents with a variety of electrophilic substrates mediated by iron catalysts
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
Organic Communications, 14
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Iron complexes are one of the most promising catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling reactions due to their relatively low cost, widespread availability as well as lower toxicity. Many researches have been successfully done to develop efficient protocols for the cross-coupling reactions of organomagnesium reagents with various substrates mediated by iron catalysts to generate a wide spectrum of important organic compounds.

Keywords: Iron catalysts; organomagnesium reagents; carbon-carbon formation; cross-coupling reactions

82
Research Title: Micellar and Polymer Catalysis in the Kinetics of Oxidation of L-lysine by Permanganate Ion in Perchloric Acid Medium
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
South African Journal of Chemistry, 75
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Kinetics of oxidation of L-lysine by permanganate ion in a perchloric acid medium was investigated to explore the order of the reaction with respect to oxidant and substrate and to study the catalytic behaviour of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The reaction was found to be first-order with respect to the oxidant and the substrate and zero-order with respect to hydrogen ion. Changes in the sodium sulphate concentration produce a non-significant variation in the rate of the reaction. SLS and PEG were found to catalyze the reaction. Surfactant catalysis was modelled by Piszkiewicz’s cooperativity model, while polymer catalysis was explained with the help of the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The temperature dependence of the rate of the reaction was elucidated, and activation parameters were obtained. Interestingly, the reaction was found to possess positive activation entropy indicating the dissociative nature of the transition state and outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. A mechanism of the reaction that is supported by the experimental findings was suggested

Keywords: L-lysine, permanganate ion, micellar catalysis, polymer catalysis, outer sphere electron transfer mechanism

83
Research Title: Kinetics of oxidation of aspirin by Ce(IV) in surfactant, polymer, and mixed surfactant‑polymer media
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
Colloid and Polymer Science, 299
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The catalytic effects of the two surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dimethyldodecylammonium oxide (DDAO), and the two polymers polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVD), on the kinetics of oxidation of Aspirin by Ce(IV) were investigated. Mixed systems of the two surfactants and SDS-PEG/PVD were also examined as catalysts of the reaction. Both surfactants catalyzed the reaction, but the DDAO was found to work only above its critical micelle concentration (CMC), whereas below it a precipitate appeared and retarded the measurements. The catalytic profiles of both surfactants showed maxima, which enabled the application of Piszkiewicz’s model to calculate the cooperative index (n) and dissociation constants (kD) of premicellar substrate-surfactant aggregates. Besides, less values of dissociation constant and a higher value of n were found for DDAO compared to those of SDS. The results proved higher catalytic activity of DDAO because the SDS counter ions may impose some restriction on Ce(IV) diffusion toward the substrate solubilized within the micellar core. Both polymers, PEG and PVD, were found to catalyze the reaction, and their catalytic data was modeled using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Interestingly, the catalytic profiles of mixed SDS-DDAO and SDS-PEG/PVD reflected the detailed surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-polymer interactions reported in the literature. The reaction’s product was identified from UV–VIS spectra assisted by the calculations of reaction stoichiometry and 2,4-dnitrophenylhydrazone test. A mechanism of the reaction that coped with the experimental data was suggested.

Keywords: Micellar catalysis · Polymer catalysis · Mixed-surfactant system · Surfactant-polymer interaction

84
Research Title: Kinetics of oxidation of vanillic acid by colloidal MnO2: correlation of micellar catalysis to the micellar properties of surfactants and mixed surfactants.
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, 133
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Abstract The kinetics of oxidation of vanillic acid by colloidal MnO2 in an acidic medium was investigated and used as a probe to study the micellar catalysis and its correlation to micellar properties of surfactants. Three surfactants were employed; cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), anionic sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), and non-ionic Tween-20 (TW-20), and some compositions of the two mixed systems CTAB-TW-20 and SDS-TW-20. The micellar properties were studied using the conductivity method. The reaction rate was enhanced in the presence of the three surfactants and the mixed systems. The catalytic profiles of the pure and mixed surfactant systems could be used to estimate the critical micelle concentrations of surfactant catalytic systems. Nevertheless, the kinetic measurements could not detect the variations in the micellar structures that occur at post-micellar compositions. Overall, the mixed systems studied showed a negative deviation of ideality with synergetic interaction. Therefore, Rubingh equations were used to calculate the micellar mole fraction and interaction parameters in the mixed surfactant systems.

Keywords: Micellar catalysis · Mixed surfactant systems · Colloidal MnO2 · Vanillic acid · Redox reactions

85
Research Title: The oxidation of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid by water-soluble colloidal manganese oxide in surfactant and polymer media: a kinetic and mechanistic approach
Author: Adnan Dahadha, Published Year: 2021
Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, 134
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Abstract Kinetics of the oxidation of both salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid by colloidal manganese oxide (MnO2) have been explored spectrophotometrically by monitoring the decay in the absorbance of colloidal MnO2 at 390 nm in absence and presence of surfactants and polymers. The major goal of this research is the study of the effect of the nature of surfactants and polymers on the rate of the oxidation of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, as well as employing of Piszkiewicz and Menger–Portnoy models to explain the catalytic and inhibition effect of surfactants and polymers. However, the experimental runs have been carried out under the pseudo-first-order reaction conditions with respect to MnO2. The oxidation has been observed to be fractional-order with respect to both of salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, colloidal MnO 2 and H2SO4. The anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the nonionic surfactant Tween-20 have been observed to be reaction inhibitors. Whereas, the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) causes flocculation with oppositely charged colloidal MnO2 and therefore could not be studied further in all cases. On the other hand, PEG 600 and 1500 have played a significant role in enhancing the rates of the reaction. On the basis of observed kinetic results, a plausible mechanism of the reaction and the expected final product have been suggested

Keywords: Manganese oxide · Reduction · Oxidation · Salicylic acids · Micellar catalysis · Surfactant

86
Research Title: La Personnalité et la pensée de Chateaubriand et de Tawfik al Hakime
Author: Mohammad Al-Ghazu, Published Year: 2003
مجلة كلية اللغات والترجمة, 34
Faculty: Language Center

Abstract: La littérature étant un art éternel, elle rassemble dans toute sa diversité les idées et les personnes, et de ce rassemblement et de cette divergence naissent la création et la belle littérature. Voici deux exemples d'écrivains différents de culture, de civilisation, de religion, de langue et de pays, mais qui ont le même amour pour la littérature et l’art. Chateaubriand adore l’architecture, l’Antiquité et les ruines. Hakime est amateur de musique, de peinture et de théâtre. Le premier est un écrivain français, diplomate, voyageur et religieux. Le second est un écrivain égyptien, un juge et un homme qui avait une grande influence sociale en Egypte et dans le monde arabe. Ces deux personnages se ressemblent beaucoup de part de leurs idées, leur mentalité, leur mode de vie, leur état psychologique et leur conduite. Dans cette étude, nous essayerons d’éclaircir certains côtés de la pensée et de la personnalité de ces deux écrivains.

Keywords: Personnalité, pensée, Chateaubriand, Tawfik al Hakime

87
Research Title: La beauté de l'analyse et de la description chez Nerval dans le “Voyage en Orient”
Author: Mohammad Al-Ghazu, Published Year: 2006
المجلة العربية لللآداب, 1
Faculty: Language Center

Abstract: I tried in this research to manifest the ability of Nerval's accurate analysis as well as the ability of describing all what he had seen or heard. He did that in an interesting and distinguished style. In part one , I discussed the aesthetic analysis of the political, religious , and social situations. In part two, I discussed the highly - elevated style of describing the country and people and his love story which he narrates in a beautiful style. He also describes things which he had never seen as the story of Solomon, Queen of saba'a and other stories . I have concluded that the writer used to look for the most wonderful and unusual ideas. He had developed these scenes and views of others through his rich culture and the experience of others

Keywords: beauté, Nerval, Voyage en Orient, analyse, Ghazu

88
Research Title: Le décor tropical et esthétique de "Paul et Virginie" de Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
Author: Mohammad Al-Ghazu, Published Year: 2006
Faculty: Language Center

Abstract: Le décor tropical et esthétique de "Paul et Virginie" de Bernardin de Saint-Pierre Vu la grande réputation de "Paul et Virginie", où Bernardin voulait illustrer les avantages de la vertu et les vices de la civilisation, nous avons essaié de montrer la beauté du décor tropical et esthétique de ce conte moral. Dans la première partie de cette recherche, nous avons cherché le décor extérieur où la beauté exotique et esthétique du paysage, la forêt, l'eau et la température donnent un portrait différent de celui de l'Europe. Dans la deuxième, nous avons sondé le décor intérieur où l'amour, la vertu, la providence et la religion en général adoucissent les moeurs et donnent un grand exemple de la correction de l'âme. L'objectif général de cette recherche était donc d'étudier le décor extérieur et intérieur du contenu de ce roman. C'est un décor exotique, tropical et esthétique qui a participé à la grande réputation de celui-ci

Keywords: Paul et Virginie, décor extérieur, décor tropical, la civilisation, exotique, esthétique,paysage

89
Research Title: Antibiotic prescribing errors generated by the use of an electronic prescribing system in the emergency department : A mixed method study
Author: Asma Ahmad El-Shara, Published Year: 2021
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, 10 (1)
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Context: Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics can result in serious patient harm. Aims: To investigate the incidence, nature, clinical severity, and causes of antibiotic prescribing errors (APEs) in the emergency department (ED) of a large hospital in Jordan. Methods: A mixed-method approach was used to explore the incidence and types of APEs by direct observation of electronic prescriptions (EPS) of antibiotics over four weeks, and to identify causes of errors by semi-structured interviews with ED physicians. The clinical severity of APEs was rated by a committee of experts. SPSS V26 and NVivo 10 were used for the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Results: The incidence of APEs caused by the use of EPS was 4.3%. Wrong quantity (32.62%), wrong dose (15.25%), and duplicate drugs (13.55%) were identified as the most common types of APEs. More than one-third of APEs identified were deemed clinically significant, seven were serious, and one was lethal. Minor and significant antibiotic APEs across physicians who attended workshops on EPS and those who did not were 75.00% versus 46.77% (p = 0.001) and 18.75% versus 52.41% (p = 0.013), respectively. Three major causes of errors were identified: 1) System-related (system crash, drop-down menu), 2) user-related (lack of computer skills), and 3) workplace-related (overcrowding, inadequate staffing). Conclusions: APEs generated by the use of EPS were common in EDs in Jordan, clinically significant, and multifactorial. Further research is required to cover pharmacists’ perspectives of this kind of errors.

Keywords: antibiotics; emergency departments; prescribing errors.

90
Research Title: Virtual Coaching Delivered by Pharmacists to Prevent COVID-19 Transmission
Author: Asma Ahmad El-Shara, Published Year: 2021
Hospital Pharmacy, July 2021
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Background: While the role of pharmacists in the current pandemic control has been recognized worldwide, their coaching efforts to improve the public’s behaviors that could prevent COVID-19 transmission has been rarely investigated. Objectives: To assess whether pharmacist-based virtual health coaching sessions could increase the proportion of people who practised healthy social behaviors, to test whether this model can increase the public acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, and to measure whether these behaviors could actually prevent contracting COVID-19. Method: In this randomized controlled trial, adults who matched specific criteria were randomly allocated into 2 arms. The active arm received 12 pharmacist-based virtual coaching sessions delivered via Zoom® over a month. Participants allocated to the control arm received no coaching. At the end of the last coaching session, both groups were asked to complete a structured questionnaire for outcome assessment. Participants in the active group were followed up to 2weeks after the end of the last coaching session to check if they contracted COVID-19 or not. The SPSS software version 26.0 (IBM Corp., Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 300 participants who gave consent for participation, 295 completed the study (147 from the active arm and 148 from the control arm). The proportion of those using face masks, avoiding crowds, and willing to be isolated if infected in the active arm was increased from 51.70%, 53.74%, and 59.86% at baseline to 91.83%, 80.27%, and 96.59% at the end of coaching, respectively (all with P<.05). In addition, the proportion of behaviors, such as disinfecting surfaces, not touching the T-zone, and avoid sharing personal belongings with colleagues at work was increased from 36.05%, 27.89%, and 46.93% at baseline to 63.94%, 52.38%, and 87.75% at the end of coaching, respectively (all with P<.05). Avoid touching the T-zone (OR=0.43; 95% CI, 0.24-0.89) and using disposable tissues (OR=0.30; 95% CI, 0.18-0.77), each versus using face masks appropriately were more likely to get COVID-19. Conclusion: Pharmacist-based virtual health coaching could be a potential strategy to increase the proportion of behaviors that could curtail the spread of COVID-19.

Keywords: pharmacists, education, medication safety, residency training, programs