411
Research Title: The Moderating Effect of Corporate Governance on Corporate Social Responsibility and Information Asymmetry: An Empirical Study of Chinese Listed Companies
Author: Fahd Mohammed Saleh Al-Duais, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Business

Abstract: This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and information asymmetry (IA), as well as the role of corporate governance (CG) as a moderating factor. This paper employs panel data regression analysis. The CSR disclosure scores are collected from the HX database by way of Hexun.com, while financial data are collected from the CSMAR database. The association between CSR and information asymmetry is examined using generalised least squares (GLS). The current evidence shows that CSR disclosure reduces information asymmetry. In addition, the findings illustrate that particular aspects of CG moderate the relationship between CSR and information asymmetry. More specifically, board size, CEO duality, and board independence positively affect the bid–ask spread. Moderation by the independence board positively affects the relationship between CSR disclosure and information asymmetry. Since the sample is derived from large Chinese companies, the results should be supported by samples obtained from the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and, subsequently, comparisons with the entire stock market. In future studies, we recommend conducting research using other variables as proxies regarding information asymmetry. The current study extends existing research on CSR and IA by adding both board characteristics and ownership concentration variables as moderating variables.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility; information asymmetry; corporate governance; disclosure; China

412
Research Title: Influence of Symmetry Theory on Understanding the Qur'anic Ayas *
Author: Ibtisam Hussein Jamil, Published Year: 2022
Jordan Journal of Modern Languages and Literatures, 14
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Symmetry theory is a well-known mathematical theory, which has been applied to physics and chemistry as well as other scientific disciplines. Here, we apply the symmetry theory to language in general and to the Holy Quran in specific. We argue that there is ample evidence for this theory in language such as the X-bar theory, parallelism and the mirror image derivation across languages. We show that there are vertical as well as horizontal types of symmetry, some of which have a line of symmetry while others have a virtual point. The data is analyzed from a semantic angle with some reference to syntax. We focus on symmetry at the Aya (verse) level. The paper found that symmetry can help interpret Ayas of similar wording or similar structures. It also found that symmetry theory presents a solution for the either-or-pause Ayas. Further, it showed how symmetry theory help solve ellipsis in the Holy Quran. Finally, the paper revealed that there are symmetry-less sentences that communicate propositions without the need for a symmetrical image.

Keywords: Symmetry Theory, the Holy Quran, X’ Theory, Semantics, Discourse Analysis

413
Research Title: Influence of Symmetry Theory on Understanding the Qur'anic Ayas *
Author: Ibtisam Hussein Jamil, Published Year: 2022
Jordan Journal of Modern Languages and Literatures, 14
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: Symmetry theory is a well-known mathematical theory, which has been applied to physics and chemistry as well as other scientific disciplines. Here, we apply the symmetry theory to language in general and to the Holy Quran in specific. We argue that there is ample evidence for this theory in language such as the X-bar theory, parallelism and the mirror image derivation across languages. We show that there are vertical as well as horizontal types of symmetry, some of which have a line of symmetry while others have a virtual point. The data is analyzed from a semantic angle with some reference to syntax. We focus on symmetry at the Aya (verse) level. The paper found that symmetry can help interpret Ayas of similar wording or similar structures. It also found that symmetry theory presents a solution for the either-or-pause Ayas. Further, it showed how symmetry theory help solve ellipsis in the Holy Quran. Finally, the paper revealed that there are symmetry-less sentences that communicate propositions without the need for a symmetrical image.

Keywords: Symmetry Theory, the Holy Quran, X’ Theory, Semantics, Discourse Analysis

414
Research Title: الخصائص الفيزيائية لزمن نطق صوت الراء /r/ المضطرب نطقيا بنوع التشويه في العربية وعدد دورات التكرار المتشكلة معه - دراسة مقارنة بين الراء السليم والراء المعتل
Author: Ibtisam Hussein Jamil, Published Year: 2022
دراسات للعلوم الإنسانية, 49
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: يعنى هذا البحث بدراسة الخصائص الفيزيائية لزمن إنتاج صوت الراء في العربية وعدد دورات التكرار المتشكلة معه في حالتي النطق السليم المعتل وركز على نوع واحد من أنواع الاضطرابات النطقية وهو نوع "التشويه" الناتج عن أسباب وظيفية( ) ، واكتفى من التشويه بثلاثة أشكال هي الأكثر شيوعا لدى فئة البالغين وهي: "التشويه الخلفي التقريبي" و "التشويه الخلفي المكرر" و " التشويه اللثوي المنكفئ". اعتُمِد عشرة مرضى من كل شكل من أشكال التشويه، بالإضافة إلى عشرة مشاركين ينتجون الراء بصورته السليمة. تم تسجيل المادة الصوتية باستخدام جهازCSL ثم حُللت الخصائص الصوتية باستخدام برنامج Praat. وقد أجريت المقارنة بين الراء السليم في سياق صائت الفتحة في مواضع كَلِميّة متنوعة، وفي وضعَيِ التضعيف والسكون، لتُدرس بذلك التمايزات الفيزيائية بين الراء السليم من جانب، والراء المشوَّه من جانب آخر.

Keywords: معدل زمن النطق، الراء السليم، الراء المعتل، التشويه، دورة التكرار

415
Research Title: Amino acids effects on heterocyclic amines formation and physicochemical properties in pan-fried beef patties
Author: Zaher Qassim Al-Bashabsheh, Published Year: 2020
Journal of Food Science, volume={85}, numbe
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: The effects of surface application of amino acids on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and meat quality properties were evaluated in pan-fried beef patties (230 °C/15 min). Tryptophan, lysine, leucine, and proline at three concentrations, 0.05%, 0.20%, and 0.50% (w/w), were tested. The meat crusts were analyzed for HCA content using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that surface application of all tested amino acids significantly reduced total HCA content (P < 0.05), and the interaction of amino acid type and concentration significantly affected (P < 0.05) both individual and total HCA formation. Tryptophan at 0.50% reduced total HCAs the most (0.92 ng/g, 93% inhibition), followed by 0.50% lysine (1.94 ng/g, 84% inhibition), while leucine (3.95 ng/g, 64% inhibition) and proline (4.71 ng/g, 56% inhibition) were less effective at 0.50%. In addition, applying amino acids to meat surface significantly influenced (P < 0.05) pH and surface color change of beef crusts; particularly, lysine at 0.20% and 0.50% increased pH and a* (redness) but reduced b* (yellowness), while tryptophan and leucine at 0.50% increased L* (whiteness). No significant effect was observed on cooking loss. Adding amino acids at 0.50?fected (P < 0.05) formation of aldehydes and pyrazines (as the key flavor compounds of fried beef). Overall, the results of this study suggested that adding amino acids to ground beef patties could effectively mitigate mutagenic HCA formation during cooking.

Keywords: Amino acids, GC-MS, HCAs, LC-MS, Meat

416
Research Title: Investigating the Synergetic Effect of Various Natural Antioxidants to Inhibit 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine (PhIP) Formation in Model Systems
Author: Zaher Qassim Al-Bashabsheh, Published Year: 2020
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research,, Vol. 8, No. 11, 682-
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Natural antioxidants have many biological functions and serve as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. Although the antioxidant effects of many spices and flavonoid compounds on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) formation have been evaluated, research related to the synergistic antioxidant effect of various spices and flavonoids on PhIP formation is not well studied. In addition, at least some research shows a combination of compounds inhibits HCAs more strongly than a single antioxidant. Therefore, in this study, binary combinations of two antioxidant spices like piperine and capsaicin and two flavonoid compounds like genistin and catechin were investigated using a chemical model system that contained glucose, creatinine, and phenylalanine in 90:10 diethylene glycol/water (v/v) and heat-treated at 180°C for 1 hour to test the formation of PhIP. The PhIP contents were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All ratios of mixed spices and corresponding flavonoid compounds were as follows: 1:0.25, 1:0.5, and 1:1. The synergistic effect was assessed by identifying the reduction percentage of PhIP formation. All investigated combinations significantly (p< 0.05) reduced PhIP formation. The combination of piperine and genistin had the highest synergistic effect for all combinations. While the combination of catechin and capsaicin had the lowest synergistic effect. Knowing the antioxidants with the best synergistic effects could be useful in developing dietary antioxidants, leading to lower HCA formation.

Keywords: synergetic effect, heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, spices, flavonoid compounds, model system

417
Research Title: The Inhibitory Effect of Spices and Flavonoid Compounds on Formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-Phenylimidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine (PhIP) in a Model System
Author: Zaher Qassim Al-Bashabsheh, Published Year: 2020
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research,, 8, No. 12, 746-751
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a class of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds generated when muscle foods are cooked at high temperatures. Exposure to HCAs has been linked to human cancers, among them colon, prostate, breast, and pancreatic cancers. 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) is a common, potentially harmful HCA that forms via the Maillard reaction. The health consequences of consuming HCAs have caused the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to list PhIP as a “possible human carcinogen.” Spices and flavonoid compounds have received considerable attention for their beneficial effect against HCA formation in our daily foods. In this study, a model system with 0.011 mmol glucose, 0.022 mmol creatinine, and 0.022 mmol phenylalanine in 90:10 diethylene glycol/water (v/v) was heat-treated at 180°C for 1 hour to test the formation of PhIP. Spices such as black pepper oil, piperine, D-limonene, P-cymene, and capsaicin and flavonoid compounds such as quercetin, apigenin, genistin, phlorizin, and catechin were added individually to the model system at three concentrations (125, 625, and 1250 ppm) to test their effect on PhIP formation. The PhIP contents were assessed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results indicate that four out of five components of spices: black pepper oil, piperine, D-limonene, and capsaicin significantly (p < 0.05) reduced PhIP formation, while P-cymene had no significant effect on PhIP formation. All flavonoid compounds also had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on PhIP formation. These findings provide valuable information about spices and flavonoid compounds as protective agents against HCA formation.

Keywords: heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, spices, flavonoid compounds, model system

418
Research Title: الإعلان الالکتروني في وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي
Author: Anas Ibrahim Al-Najjar, Published Year: 2022
مجلة الفنون والعلوم الانسانية, 9
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: عني البحث الحالي بدراسة الإعلان الإلکتروني فى وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي، وحدد الباحث مشکلة البحث التى ترکزت من خلال السؤال التالي ( ما هي أثار الإعلان الإلکتروني في وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي على المستهلک و الشرکات المنتجة )، وانطوت أهمية البحث فى التعريف بالإعلان بشکل عام و الإعلان الإلکتروني بشکل خاص وأثره على المستهلک و المنتج، و تحددت أهداف البحث فى دراسة تطور الإعلان من الإعلان المطبوع إلى الإعلان الإلکتروني أثارهم على عملية التسويق والاستهلاک وذلک خلال الفترة المحددة 2000-2021م حول العالم، وجاءت الدراسة محددة فى عدة نقاط أساسية للتعريف بالأثار الناتجة من الزخم الإعلاني المتراکم من خلال وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي الذى أحدثت ثورة في عالم الاستهلاک الضروري وغير الضروري على کافة فئات المجتمع الواحد ومدى إسهام ذلک في تغيير اتجاهات السوق والاستهلاک مما أدى إلى توجيه الفئات غير المقتدرة على عمليات الشراء التي لا يحتاجونها أساساً وانعکست الفائدة فقط على الشرکات المصنعة والمروجة للسلع والخدمات، وتناول البحث أيضا دور الإعلان في عملية التسويق و أثره على الاستهلاک، و تضمنت الدراسة تطور الإعلان من الإعلان المطبوع إلى الإعلان في الإنترنت وکذلک أهمية وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي وهي الوسيط الأکثر انتشاراً وتداولاً بين فئات المجتمع الواحد وفي جميع أنحاء العالم، وتأسيساً لما سبق وثقت الدراسة ببعض الرسومات البيانية التي تشير إلى أعداد مستخدمي وسائل التواصل الاجتماعى ، وتضمن البحث استخلاص النتائج التى کان من أهمها عملية التحول من الإعلان المطبوع إلى الإعلان المرئي الذى سار في تسارع هائل وأثار مدوية ذات مخاطر تعرضت لها کافة فئات المجتمع بسبب الزخم الإعلاني الذي يتفاعلون مع محتواه الإعلاني لمنتجات وخدمات هم بغنى عنها.

Keywords: الإعلان الإلکتروني الإعلان المرئي الإعلان في وسائط التواصل الاجتماعي

419
Research Title: الجرافيک المتحرک وانماطه وبرمجيات تنفيذه
Author: Anas Ibrahim Al-Najjar, Published Year: 2022
مجلة الفنون والعلوم الانسانية, 9
Faculty: Architecture and Design

Abstract: قام البحث بدراسة مشکلة الوعي وأدراک الجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في تبسيط المواضيع المعقدة ومدى أهميته لکافة مستخدمي الوسائط المتعددة وأيضا تم دراسة محتوا الرسائل التي توجهها المؤسسات الحکومية والقطاع الخاص سواء في الجوانب الارشادية وتطبيقات الحياة العملية والأکاديمية والعلمية، وتناول البحث مفهوم الجرافيک المتحرک واهميته في معرفة عناصر الجرافيک المتحرک واستخداماتها الفعالة في التصميم الواحد و إدراک أهمية الجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في إيصال المحتوي الفعال في الحياة اليومية کوسيلة اتصال تقوم بتبسيط المفاهيم وبعض القضايا التي تهم المتلقي، کما هدف الى توعية المتلقي بالجرافيک المتحرک ودوره في حياتنا اليومية والعمل على إدراک مکونات وأنواع الجرافيک المتحرک وتقنيات تنفيذه و تناول البحث محتويات الجرافيک المتحرک من عناصر والتي تمثلت في الاشکال والصور والنصوص والايقونات والشعارات والاصوات ومؤثراتها، کما تناول البحث أنواع الجرافيک المتحرک ثنائي وثلاثي الابعاد واهم البرمجيات المستخدمة في عملية التنفيذ.

Keywords: الجرافيک المتحرک الرسوم المتحرکة برامج تصميم الجرافيک المتحرک

420
Research Title: Prevalence of Depression, Stress and Anxiety and Impact of Exercise on Mental Health and Physical Performance among Institutionalised Older Adults of Northern Malaysia
Author: Madhanagopal Jagannathan, Published Year: 2022
Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6
Faculty: Allied Medical Sciences

Abstract: Ageing population around the world is increasing dramatically and mental health is the second biggest health problem in Malaysia. Avoiding sedentary lifestyle and regular physical activity were important for healthy ageing. This study aimed to determine the exercise and mental health among Malaysian elderly in old age homes. Single group pre-test and post-test design was chosen. Status of mental health was assessed before and after exercise programme by using DASS-21 questionnaire. Single group pre-test and post-test study was conducted among old age homes of northern Malaysia and prevalence of mental health was assessed among 178 elderly and strengthening and aerobic exercises were introduced to 39 respondents with mild to moderate depression. The prevalence of depression was 23.6%, anxiety was 18.5% and stress was 7.9%. Significant improvement in physical performance was identified by the Short Physical Performance battery (SPBB) score at week1, 6, 9 and 12 of the exercise programmes (p= 0.000). Depression, anxiety, and stress scores were significantly reduced after the exercise intervention as compared to scores before the exercise (p= 0.000). Social support and emotional support are required to promote the better exercise habits among the elderly. Regular review of the elderly home facilities and exercise activities will help to support healthy aging and active lifestyle among Malaysian elderly residing in old age homes.

Keywords: Exercise, Mental Health, Elderly, Old age home