281
Research Title: Pharmacy students' knowledge and attitude of prescribing errors
Author: Najlaa Saadi Ismael, Published Year: 2021
Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education and Research, 11(1)
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Background: Medication errors, particularly prescribing errors (PEs), are a major concern in the healthcare field. The growing incidence of PEs poses a risk to patients and a challenge for healthcare management. Pharmacists can play a major role in observing, intervening, and correcting PEs. Aim: The study was conducted to measure pharmacy students' knowledge of and attitude towards PEs. Method: The study was a cross-sectional survey based on the Likert scale to assess pharmacy students' attitudes towards PEs. Due to the accessibility of the sample, purposive sampling was used as the sampling method, and a structured questionnaire as the data collection method. The study targeted all students enrolled in the fifth year Bachelor of Pharmacy programme at the University of Petra in Jordan. Results: The number of students who completed the questionnaire was 125. Most of the participants (81, 64.8%) thought PEs are not common in Jordan. The majority of students (122/125, 97.6 %) believed that PEs could lead to death. Around a quarter of students, 26.4% (33/125) believed that PEs were secondary to other medical issues such as hospital infections. Most students (120/125, 96.0 %) believed that only the person who committed PEs was responsible. The majority of respondents (90/125, 72.0 %) do not believe that intervening on and correcting PEs was a major responsibility of pharmacists only. Students had good knowledge about general terms and features of medication errors, particularly PEs. However, students had many misconceptions about detecting specific scenarios of PE events. In addition, students had a lack of knowledge about PEs incidence in Jordan as most of them thought PEs are not common in Jordan. The odds of students’ agreement about the extent of PEs in Jordan were 3.56 times more likely in students who experienced a PE in their life than students who did not (OR 3.56; 95%CI 1.09%-11.62%; p=0.036). Conclusion: Senior pharmacy students at the University of Petra had an overall positive attitude toward statements related to the importance of PEs and the role of pharmacists in the intervention on and correction of PEs.The undergraduate curriculum should contain modules about patient safety and medication errors. Teaching students appropriate skills to detect and intervene.

Keywords: Prescribing errors, Pharmacy students, Jordan, Medication errors, Patient safety

282
Research Title: Pharmacy students' knowledge and attitude of prescribing errors
Author: Asma Ahmad El-Shara, Published Year: 2021
Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research, Volume 11 issue 1
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Background: Medication errors, particularly prescribing errors (PEs), are a major concern in the healthcare field. The growing incidence of PEs poses a risk to patients and a challenge for healthcare management. Pharmacists can play a major role in observing, intervening, and correcting PEs. Aim: The study was conducted to measure pharmacy students' knowledge of and attitude towards PEs. Method: The study was a cross-sectional survey based on the Likert scale to assess pharmacy students' attitudes towards PEs. Due to the accessibility of the sample, purposive sampling was used as the sampling method, and a structured questionnaire as the data collection method. The study targeted all students enrolled in the fifth year Bachelor of Pharmacy programme at the University of Petra in Jordan. Results: The number of students who completed the questionnaire was 125. Most of the participants (81, 64.8%) thought PEs are not common in Jordan. The majority of students (122/125, 97.6 %) believed that PEs could lead to death. Around a quarter of students, 26.4% (33/125) believed that PEs were secondary to other medical issues such as hospital infections. Most students (120/125, 96.0 %) believed that only the person who committed PEs was responsible. The majority of respondents (90/125, 72.0 %) do not believe that intervening on and correcting PEs was a major responsibility of pharmacists only. Students had good knowledge about general terms and features of medication errors, particularly PEs. However, students had many misconceptions about detecting specific scenarios of PE events. In addition, students had a lack of knowledge about PEs incidence in Jordan as most of them thought PEs are not common in Jordan. The odds of students’ agreement about the extent of PEs in Jordan were 3.56 times more likely in students who experienced a PE in their life than students who did not (OR 3.56; 95%CI 1.09%-11.62%; p=0.036). Conclusion: Senior pharmacy students at the University of Petra had an overall positive attitude toward statements related to the importance of PEs and the role of pharmacists in the intervention on and correction of PEs.The undergraduate curriculum should contain modules about patient safety and medication errors. Teaching students appropriate skills to detect and intervene.

Keywords: Prescribing errors, Pharmacy students, Jordan, Medication errors, Patient safety

283
Research Title: Electrochemical Reduction and Oxidation of the Antibiotic Cefoxitin‐Cu2+ Complex and its Analytical Applications
Author: Mohammed Hassan Ali Saleh, Published Year: 2021
Chemistry Select, 6(4)
Faculty: Science

Abstract: The interaction of cefoxitin, being a compound of interest for antibiotic research, with Cu2+ resulted in the formation of a 1 : 1 complex. The electrochemical reduction at a hanging mercury drop electrode and oxidation at a renewable pencil graphite electrode of the formed cefoxitin‐Cu2+ complex was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry in Britton‐Robinson buffers (pH 2–9). For the electrochemical reduction or oxidation of the examined complex, a new well‐defined voltammetric peak was obtained and the features of the surface redox and oxidation peaks were studied. Calculations of the values of stability constant and the change on Gibbs free energy for cefoxitin‐Cu2+ complex suggest that the complexation is a spontaneous process. The sharp peak of the electroreduction and oxidation of the investigated complex associated with an effective interfacial accumulation of this complex facilitates the determination of the antibacterial drug cefoxitin in the bulk and blood serum samples. Cefoxitin was determined by electrochemical reduction and oxidation of the cefoxitin‐Cu2+ complex, with detection limits of 6.94×10−9M and 9.07×10−8M respectively.

Keywords: Electrochemical Analysis

284
Research Title: Challenges faced by mothers caring for children with leukaemia duringCOVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2021
Journal of Pediatric Nursing , NA
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: Purpose:This study aimed to investigate the experiences of parents who care for children diagnosed with leukae-mia. This paper is focused solely on reporting the interviewfindings from participating mothers regarding thechallenges of caring for children with leukaemia in the context of the COVID-19.Design and methods:The study took place in a Jordanian hospital where a descriptive qualitative design approachwas applied on one oncologyfloor and an oncology clinic. Semi-structured interviews were conducted withmothers of children aged 1–12 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Inductive thematic analysis approachwas undertaken. Written consent was obtained from all participants.Results:Fifteen interviews were conducted withfifteen mothers. Four major themes reflect the different chal-lenges parents and children face during the COVID-19 pandemic: children refusing to wear masks, social isola-tion, family relationship andfinancial concerns.Conclusions:Thefindings of the current study present important data for health care professionals to help themunderstand the challenges faced by parents and children with leukaemia, especially during the COVID-19 pan-demic.Practical implications:This study suggests activating emotional support teams in hospitals. These teams can ac-tively help mothers express their concerns and worries which might otherwise foster self-blame, guilt andisolation.

Keywords: Challenges,Mothers,Children,Leukaemia,COVID-19,Qualitative

285
Research Title: Tailored gentamicin release from silica nanocarriers coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers
Author: Yazan Mohammad Mashour Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2021
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 249
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Controlling antibiotic release kinetics is essential for effective treatment and for many biomedical applications. Herein, silica nanoparticles were prepared and loaded with gentamicin through various routes (Layer-by-layer (LbL), entrapment, adsorption). LbL coatings involved the polyelectrolytes poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), where the nanoparticles coated with quadruple layers (QL) of [PSS/gentamicin/PSS/PAH]. The nanoparticles were characterized by zeta potential, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, nanoparticles' gentamicin release was tested in different release media (acetate buffer pH 5 and PBS pH 7.4). The gentamicin LbL-coated nanoparticles were successful to sustain drug release over 2 weeks. Although the entrapment method was similarly able to sustain drug release over two weeks, it showed lower drug loading when compared to the LbL-coated nanoparticles. In contrast, simple adsorption on bare silica surface resulted in significantly lower drug loading and 90 % release on day 1. The release of gentamicin showed pH-responsive behavior, with higher release at pH 5. This work demonstrates that gentamicin release from silica nanocarriers can be controlled by the different approaches for loading gentamicin. This will give different release profiles tailored for many biomedical applications such as antibiotic-loaded bone cement or implant coatings.

Keywords: Silica, nanoparticles Layer-by-layer, gentamicin, PAH, PSS, Drug release

286
Research Title: The Importance of Nano-materials Characterization Techniques
Author: Yazan Mohammad Mashour Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2020
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The potential application of nanotechnology in the medical field ranges from nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronics biosensors, can be extended to molecular nanotechnology like biological machines. Nanomaterial characterization is a keystone for the development and adoption of nanomaterials for certain applications. The unique and novel physico-chemical properties of nanomaterial gave rise to a number of characterization techniques. Therefore, nanoparticles are characterized to study various physical and chemical features such as composition, structure size, morphology, surface area, optical properties, surface composition, oxidation state, and electrochemistry. The characterization of nanomaterials should not be limited to a single technique, because usually multiple measurements are needed to capture all pertinent nanomaterial characteristics. Hence, in this chapter, details of different characterization techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and zeta potential (ZP) are discussed.

Keywords: DLS, SEM, AFM, Zeta, XRD, IR, TEM

287
Research Title: Drug-Receptor Interactions
Author: Yazan Mohammad Mashour Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2020
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Conventional treatment of any disease can be achieved by administration of drugs of natural and synthetic origin. The drugs exhibits its pharmacological action by altering cellular signalling or the biochemical events associated with the respective target proteins such as receptors or enzymes.

Keywords: Drug-receptor complex, H-bonding, VdW interaction, Antangonist, Agonist

288
Research Title: LbL-assembled gentamicin delivery system for PMMA bone cements to prolong antimicrobial activity
Author: Yazan Mohammad Mashour Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2018
Plos One,
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Introduction Antibiotic-loaded poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cements (ALBCs) are widely used in total joint replacement (TJR), for local delivery of antibiotics to provide prophylaxis against prosthetic joint infections (PJI). One of the shortcomings of the current generation of ALBCs is that the antibiotic release profile is characterized by a burst over the first few hours followed by a sharp decrease in rate for the following several days (often below minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)), and, finally, exhaustion (after, typically, ~ 20 d). This profile means that the ALBCs provide only short-term antimicrobial action against bacterial strains involved PJI. Rationale The purpose of the present study was to develop an improved antibiotic delivery system for an ALBC. This system involved using a layer-by-layer technique to load the antibiotic (gentamicin sulphate) (GEN) on silica nanoparticles, which are then blended with the powder of the cement. Then, the powder was mixed with the liquid of the cement (NP-GEN cement). For controls, two GEN-loaded brands were used (Cemex Genta and Palacos R+G). Gentamicin release and a host of other relevant properties were determined for all the cements studied. Results Compared to control cement specimens, improved GEN release, longer antimicrobial activity (against clinically-relevant bacterial strains), and comparable setting time, cytocompatibility, compressive strength (both prior to and after aging in PBS at 37 oC for 30 d), 4-point bend strength and modulus, fracture toughness, and PBS uptake. Conclusions NP-GEN cement may have a role in preventing or treating PJI.

Keywords: bone cement, ALBC, Gentamicin, TJR, PJI

289
Research Title: Role of processing parameters on surface and wetting properties controlling the behaviour of layer-by-layer coated nanoparticles
Author: Yazan Mohammad Mashour Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2018
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 36
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Wetting phenomena at surfaces and interfaces is an important field of research with numerous commercial applications. As example, superhydrophobic surfaces are used as self-cleaning, antibiofilm forming and antimicrobial materials nowadays. Given the potential impact, creating surfaces with tailored wetting characteristics employing various fabrication techniques is of great interest. One very promising fabrication technique, for creating such materials is the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly. LbL is a versatile technique allowing incorporation of different types of drugs and materials and the ability to coat substrates of complex geometries. This review summarises recent progress in preparation of Layer-by-layer constructs and a role of surface and wetting parameters in this technique. Effect of various physicochemical properties on LbL construct characteristics also was discussed.

Keywords: Nanoparticles,Layer-by-layer,Wetting,Surface properties

290
Research Title: Role of poly-beta-amino-esters hydrolysis and electrostatic attraction in gentamicin release from layer-by-layer coatings
Author: Yazan Mohammad Mashour Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2018
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 526
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition is a versatile technique that has been employed in numerous industrial applications i.e. biomaterials, drug delivery and electronics to confer peculiar properties to the system. When LbL is employed for drug delivery, the active molecule is sandwiched between layers of polyelectrolytes and the release is controlled by the diffusion of the drug through the layers and the possible hydrolysis of the coating (delamination). Poly-beta-amino-esters (PBAEs) are a class of hydrolysable polyelectrolytes that have been widely used in DNA delivery and for LbL on medical devices. Their use allowed the controlled release of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds from the surface of medical devices without cytotoxic effects. The general accepted consensus is that drug released from LbL coating assembled using PBAEs is the results of the polymer hydrolysis; however, no attention has been paid to the role of the electrostatic attraction between PBAE and the other polyelectrolyte utilised in the LbL assembly. In this work, we prepared LbL coatings on the surface of silica nanoparticles entrapping gentamicin as model drug and demonstrated that the drug release from PBAEs containing LbL coatings is predominantly controlled by the electrostatic attraction between opposite charged electrolytes. The positive charge of PBAE decreased from pH = 5 to pH = 7.4 while alginate negative charges remained unchanged in this pH range while PBAE hydrolysis kinetics was faster, as determined with Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), in acidic conditions. When PBAE were employed in the LbL construct higher levels of drug were released at pH = 7.4 than at pH = 5; additionally, replacing PBAE with chitosan (the charge of chitosan is not influenced in this pH range) resulted in comparable gentamicin release kinetics at pH = 5.

Keywords: Poly beta amino esters,PBAE,Layer-by-layer,Drug release,Gentamicin,Silica nanoparticles