191
Research Title: Strategic Reading of Undergraduate Students at Philadelphia University
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The enticing change in learning language modes and mediums dictates an update of the learning strategies profile. Using descriptive analysis, this study set out to explore reading strategies (RSs) at the undergraduate level in Jordan. Data were gleaned from a conveniently-sampled cohort of learners (n=54) enrolled in a BA program at the Faculty of Arts, Philadelphia University. The initial sample responded to a questionnaire, and a sub-sample of this cohort were observed reading academic texts to strengthen the investigation. Findings showed that irrespective of gender, learners of English read strategically. They tend to employ most of the strategies on the RSs inventory. However, they attribute relatively high value to problem-solving strategies than global and support strategies (μ=4.1682, 3.8622, 3.7547, respectively). Besides, they tend to use strategies during and less frequently before and after reading, which signals some implications for pedagogues and course description designers

Keywords: Meta-cognitive strategies, Reading strategies (RSs), Reading inventory, PU

192
Research Title: Digital Technology Changes How Language Learners Read and Comprehend Texts
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2021
A workshop on Reading Through Technological Mediums/Spaces: Affordances, Constraints, and Suggestions, Faculty of Arts - Philadelphia University
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The proliferation of digital technology has brought about increasing reading habits through digital devices, e.g., iPad, tablets, mobile phones and many other hand-held gadgets. E-book readers are on the rise. Reading online has become commonplace, and learners seem to read from screens more than from printed papers/books. This presentation discusses how language learners use online materials for reading and how electronic mediums afford opportunities to maximize reading comprehension and critical reading by adding multimodal elements to plain texts. It allows learners to self-express and reflect on their digital content reading practices and determine their participation on websites. The workshop is foundational for some research work on digital reading - examining the extent to which students at Philadelphia University handle digital texts, underscores their reading habits and strategies and thus bring to the foreground some important implications for curriculum designers, teachers, and learners altogether to employ proper reading strategies that fit in with reading in digital spaces.

Keywords: digital technology, e-books, reading comprehension

193
Research Title: Proficiency Testing from the Pluricentric Approach
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This chapter provides a rationale for proficiency testing that subscribes to the view that accepting English as the global target language requires a proficiency testing framework beyond the monolithic EFL and ESL-based tests. It departs from irreversible facts including the outgrowing number of non-native speakers (NNSs) and World Englishes (WE). Such changes in the linguistic map of English in the worldwide context have weakened power-base viewpoints that drive the monolithic English proficiency tests, such as TOEFL and IELTS. These tests, albeit defenders, hardly represent the realities of English at present. They reflect an outdated taxonomy of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) that undergo the sway of linguistic imperialism. They are mainly fashioned on the NS model and norms of Standard English (SE) and thus undermine the evolving WE. The chapter foregrounds an argument that the monopoly of the NS model is losing ground, and it is high time the new changes found their way to English proficiency testing. A testing shift from monocentrism to the pluricentric approach would reasonably reflect the reality of language uses and users worldwide.

Keywords: linguistic imperialism, monocentrism, NNSs, plurality, proficiency testing

194
Research Title: Evolution of Academic Writing: From Alphabetic literacy to Multimodality
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The fact that students attend lectures with visual multimodal literacies calls for a multimodal turn in academic prose, to move beyond alphabetic literacy. This session focuses on how Academic Writing (AW) has evolved as a genre with a focus on writing in ESL and EFL contexts. It touches on how linguistic communication has morphed into multimedia design in digital environments from simple alphabetic encoding. The presentation outlines the relevant literature, approaches to AW, and multimodality. Then, it discusses writing as a combination of texts, images, audio, and videos. This blend of words, audio, videos, voice messaging, still and moving photos (animation), games, and tutorials connect the linguistic and non-linguistic (semiotic) dimension of meaning-making. The discussion calls for freeing learners from getting bogged down in grammatical flaws and going beyond alphabetic literacy. Academic writing in L2 contexts can be approached now from the viewpoint of digital literacy. It goes beyond the printed words and develops a ‘full range of senses’ (multi-literacies). Composition teachers, as well as learners, should be prepared for multimodal writing in the era of digital literacy. There is a wide variety of options for creating an effective multimodal text, depending on the author's reason for creating the text, the audience the author wants to reach, the place, time, or situation in which the text is being created.

Keywords: academic composition, alphabetic literacy, meaning-making, multimodal literacies,

195
Research Title: Wikis as Effective Collaborative Writing Tools in EAP Programs
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: A wiki is best defined as “a freely expandable collection of interlinked Web pages, a hypertext system for storing and modifying information—a database, where each page is easily editable by any user with a forms capable Web browser client” (Leuf & Cunningham, 2001, p. 14). Wikis are one of the simplest, most practical, and most widespread technological tools for collaborative writing practices in SLA (Kioumarsi, H., et all. 2018; Miyazoe & Anderson, 2010; Storch, 2013). They provide the environment to establish communication between individuals and groups in specific contexts such as training and learning (Sadaghian, S. & Marandi, S., 2020; Klobas 2006), and they are mostly free. They are also effective tools to improve teaching (Medero & Albaladejo, 2020). Wiki environments offer an extensive, interactive, flexible environment, which can be extremely useful for SLA. When using wikis, students can perform all the following tasks: access content created by other users all over the world, edit pages in collaboration with others, provide links to external sources and resources, update the content easily, track and view changes, and so much more (Klobas, 2006). Compared to traditional web pages, wikis are easier to edit and update. This session is grounded in exciting theoretical developments concerning the applicability of wikis for writing, but it is focused on a practical demonstration of how these platforms can be used in ESL classrooms. After an overview of the basic mechanics of the wiki platforms, and concepts around collaborative writing and SLA, the presenters will expose a writing activity. Participants will be led through the setting up of the writing prompt, which can be replicated and modified for each of their classes to show students how writing can be done collaboratively.

Keywords: collaborative Writing, English for Academic Purposes, Wikis

196
Research Title: Digital Literacy in L2 Academic Writing Classrooms
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The multimodal approach to writing is now gaining acceptance in order to “escape the current paradigmatic view of composition studies” (Zawilski, 2011, p. 3). In multimodality, writing is not only pieces of prose but a combination of texts, images, audio, and videos (Leeuwen, 2011). This blend of words, audio, videos, voice messaging, still and moving photos (animation), games, and tutorials connect the linguistic and non-linguistic (semiotic) dimension of meaning-making (Leeuwen, 2011; Palmeri, 2007; Zawilski, 2011). Multimodality advocates (e.g., Zawilski, 2011) contend that this emerging genre of the composition goes beyond the printed words and develops a ‘full range of senses’ (multi-literacies). The fact that students attend lectures with visual multimodal literacies (Palmeri, 2007) calls for a multimodal turn in academic prose, to move beyond alphabetic literacy. Pandey (2021) explains that “the unlimited possibilities for meaning-making brought by multimodal resources such as images, sounds, and space are not only acknowledged but also deemed an indispensable part of composition in the contemporary era” (p.3), and Palmeri elucidated how teaching multimodal composition contributes to enhancing students’ alphabetic writing skills. Elliot and Klobucar (2013) stressed working with “students in digital writing …to teach them to build multimodal worlds” (p.18) as they build sentence patterns, post reflective statements in a portfolio. At its core, technology-based writing enables interaction between learners, teachers, and computers and “such interactions translate into opportunities for increased writing practice with formative feedback” (Wilson & Roscoe, 2020, p. 88). This research outlines common writing hindrances and foregrounds their causes. It calls for instituting multimodal composition to connect the linguistic and nonlinguistic (semiotic) dimension of meaning-making and thus enhance written fluency and free learners from getting bogged down in grammatical flaws and go beyond alphabetic literacy (Lim et al., 2020). This paper discusses writing from the viewpoint of several approaches and shifts that have taken place: from alphabetic literacy to multimodality. Challenges that accrue from such shifts are discussed and future prospects are provided. The presentation concludes by discussing the implications for curriculum designers, teachers, and students. The presentation concludes by discussing the implications for curriculum designers, teachers, and students.

Keywords: academic writing, digital literacy, multimodality, second language learning

197
Research Title: Pharmacology of Neuropeptides:Substance P, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptides, Neuropeptide Y, Calcitonin Peptides and Their Receptorss
Author: Nabil Nimer, Published Year: 2020
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Neuropeptides are responsible for the regulation of various biological activities and mediate various regulatory mechanisms associated with every organ system.They control and regulate communication between endocrine and nervous systems and are also involved in signaling between cells found in the central and peripheral nervous system. Certainly, they can modulate immunomodulation, neuroprotection, and physiological homeostasis (e.g., feeding behavior, balance of water, blood pressure, breakdown of glucose, cognition, stress response, and pain) by working as peptide hormones.

Keywords: Calcitonin peptide · Neuropeptides · Neuropeptide tyrosine · Neuropeptide Y ·Substance P · Tachykinins · Vasoactive intestinal polypeptides

198
Research Title: Nosocomial Infection and Antibiotic-Resistant Threat in the Middle East
Author: Nabil Nimer, Published Year: 2022
Infection and Drug Resistance, 15: 631–639
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The prevalence of nosocomial infections (NIs) is associated with different bacteria found in hospitals. These infections in their extreme conditions result in morbidity and mortality. This study aims to provide a detailed review of literary studies to identify the prevalence of nosocomial infections and antibiotic-resistance specifically in Middle Eastern countries. A literature review approach is followed in this study. It further identifies different causes and effects associated with nosocomial infections in the given regions. Relevant studies were used to extract important information, specifically related to the Middle Eastern countries. The findings indicated that nosocomial infections following antibiotic resistance are an emerging problem in Middle Eastern countries, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Most frequently reported NIs in Middle East in our review are bloodstream infections (BSIs) (50%) and surgical site infections (SSIs) (50%) followed by urinary tract infections (UTIs). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species among gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus among gram-positive bacterial and fungal pathogens such as Candida species are most reported pathogens involved in nosocomial infections and resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones antibiotics were significantly reported. However, most studies showed minimum resistance of pathogens against drug colistin. To control the growth rate of the given condition, government officials are suggested to ensure that hospitals follow adequate healthcare mechanisms. Also, sufficient education must be provided to the hospital staff about the causes and effects of the given disease.

Keywords: antibiotic-resistant threat, Middle East, nosocomial infection

199
Research Title: Green Synthesis of Gold, Iron and Selenium Nanoparticles Using Phytoconstituents: Preliminary Evaluation of Antioxidant and Biocompatibility Potential
Author: Abeer Shnoudeh, Published Year: 2022
Molecules, 27
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: This study aimed at fabricating gold (Au), iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) nanoparticles (NPs) using various natural plant extracts from the Fertile Crescent area and evaluating their potential application as antioxidant and biocompatible agents to be used in the pharmaceutical field, especially in drug delivery. The Au-NPs were synthesized using Ephedra alata and Pistacia lentiscus extracts, whereas the Fe-NPs and Se-NPs were synthesized using peel, fruit and seed extracts of Punica granatum. The phytofabricated NPs were characterized by the UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscope technique showed that the synthesized NPs surface was spherical, and the particle size analysis confirmed a particle size of 50 nm. The crystalline nature of the NPs was confirmed by the XRD analysis. All synthesized NPs were found to be biocompatible in the fibroblast and human erythroleukemic cell lines. Se-NPs showed a dose-dependent antitumor activity as evidenced from the experimental results with breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. A dose-dependent, free-radical scavenging effect of the Au-NPs and Se-NPs was observed in the DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, with the highest effect recorded for Au-NPs

Keywords: gold-nanoparticles; iron-nanoparticles; selenium-nanoparticles; antioxidant potential; biocompatibility; green synthesis; Punica grantum; Ephedra; Pistachio leaves

200
Research Title: La relation entre hommes et femmes : point de vue d’Ahlam Mosteghanemi.
Author: Mohammad Al-Ghazu, Published Year: 2022
مجلة دراسات : العلوم الانسانية والاجتماعية,
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: La relation entre hommes et femmes : point de vue d’Ahlam Mosteghanemi. Résumé La relation entre l'homme et la femme semble ambiguë malgré son abondance dans les écrits d’Ahlam Mosteghanemi. Très peu de chercheurs ont abordé ce sujet et selon nos recherches en bibliothèques et en ligne personne n’est allé chercher quel genre d’hommes existe dans ses écrits. Dans cette recherche nous avons essayé d'éclaircir la relation entre l'homme et la femme vue par Ahlam Mosteghanemi en répondant sur la question suivante : quels sont les trois genres d’hommes entre lesquels Ahlam est écartelée? Nous avons analysé sa vision de l'homme, et cherché les types d'hommes qui ont influencé ses idées. A travers une large étude des œuvres de cet écrivain, nous avons trouvé trois types d'hommes. Ce sont l'amant, le politicien et le patriotique. Mots clés: Ahlam Mosteghanemi, femme arabe, homme arabe, littérature francophone. Littérature française. The relationship between men and women: Ahlam Mosteghanemi’s point of view Abstract Despite the abundant discussion of the relationship between men and women in Ahlam Mosteghanemi's novels, the nature of this relation is not yet obvious. A few researchers have tackled this issue but none have investigated the types of men found in her novel. This research aims at clarifying the relationship between men and women in Mosteghanemi's novels through answering the following question: what three types of men whom Ahlam has been split between? Through the analysis of her vision towards men and through investigating the men who influenced her thoughts, three distinctive types of men are found in her novels; the lover, the politician and the patriot. Key words: Ahlam Mosteghanemie, arab woman, arab man, francophone literature. French literature. ملخص العلاقة بين الرجل والمرأة: وجهة نظر أحلام مستغانمي ان العلاقة بين الرجل والمرأة تبدو غير واضحة رغم وفرتها في كتابات احلام مستغانمي. ان الباحثين الذين تطرقوا لهذا الموضوع قليلون جدا وحسب البحوث التي اجريتها في المكتبات وعبر الشبكة العنكبوتية لم يبحث احد منهم عن انواع الرجال الذين تواجدوا في كتاباتها. في هذا البحث, لقد حاولنا توضيح هذه العلاقة حسب ما رأته احلام مستغانمي من خلال الاجابة على السؤال التالي : ما الانواع الثلاثة للرجال الذين تقاسموا احلام؟ لقد حللنا رؤيتها للرجل وبحثنا عن الرجال الذين اثروا في افكارها. من خلال الدراسة الموسعة لأعمال هذه الكاتبة وجدنا الانواع الثلاثة لهؤلاء الرجال. انهم العاشق والسياسي والوطني. الكلمات الدالة : أحلام مستغانمي, المرأة العربية, الرجل العربي, الأدب الفرانكوفوني, الأدب الفرنسي

Keywords: Ahlam Mosteghanemi, femme arabe, homme arabe, littérature francophone. Littérature française.