Research Title: Effect of Transportation Parameters on Traffic Accident in Urban Areas Comparison study of ANFIS With Statistical Analysis
Author: Mohammad Khairi Younes, Published Year: 2021
International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering, 11
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Traffic accidents present a serious problem for both developed and developing countries and have become an urgent matter to tackle in all large metropolitan areas. This study aims to perform a deep comprehensive analysis of the traffic accidents issue in Istanbul, one of the world’s most populous cities. The accidents were classified and its intensities were presented on Istanbul map using a GIS tool. Furthermore, the performance of Negative Binomial Regression analysis and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model was assessed. Data collection of independent variables included distribution of trips, percentage of street parking, rate of car ownership, street density and population density. Trips were divided into three categories, passenger car, minibus and bus trips. The results showed that four legs intersection got the highest proportion of accidents among the other types with (40%). It also demonstrated that increasing both the percentage of bus trips and the percentage of street parking will decrease the traffic accident rate. Furthermore, the implementation of ANFIS model increased the accuracy of forecasts and reduced errors more than the regression model.

Keywords: GIS and traffic, ANFIS, traffic modeling, traffic regression analysis, traffic accidents

Research Title: Cross Diffusion Effect on Linear and Nonlinear Double Diffusive Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid Saturated Porous Layer with Internal Heat Source
Author: Anas Abdallah Al-Tawallbeh, Published Year: 2021
fluids, 6
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Double diffusive convection in a binary viscoelastic fluid saturated porous layer in the presence of a cross diffusion effect and an internal heat source is studied analytically using linear and nonlinear stability analysis. The linear stability theory is based on the normal mode technique, while the nonlinear theory is based on a minimal representation of truncated double Fourier series. The modified Darcy law for the viscoelastic fluid of the Oldroyd type is considered to model the momentum equation. The onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection and steady heat and mass transfer have been obtained analytically using linear and nonlinear theory, respectively. The combined effect of an internal heat source and cross diffusion is investigated. The effects of Dufour, Soret, internal heat, relaxation and retardation time, Lewis number and concentration Rayleigh number on stationary, oscillatory, and heat and mass transport are depicted graphically. Heat and mass transfer are presented graphically in terms of Nusselt and Sherwood numbers, respectively. It is reported that the stationary and oscillatory convection are significantly influenced with variation of Soret and Defour parameters. An increment of the internal heat parameter has a destabilizing effect as well as enhancing the heat transfer process. On the other hand, an increment of internal heat parameter has a variable effect on mass transfer. It is found that there is a critical value for the thermal Rayleigh number, below which increasing internal heat decreases the Sherwood number, while above it increasing the internal heat increases the Sherwood number.

Keywords: viscoelastic fluids; cross diffusion; internal heat; double-diffusive; stability theory; porous media

Research Title: Pharmacotherapy Assessment by WHO Core Prescribing Pattern in a Teaching Hospital in the Capital City, Islamabad, Pakistan
Author: Najlaa Saadi Ismael, Published Year: 2021
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 40 (5) p.1060-1066
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: In developing countries, access to essential medicines is a common issue. Generic drug prescribing and drug prescribed from essential drug lists (EDL) minimizes the error in adopting pharmacotherapy approaches and improves the safe and effective use of drugs. This study aimed to assess the consultants’ prescribing patterns in a teaching hospital. A prospective descriptive study was carried out from January to March 2020. The systematic random sampling technique was used for collecting prescriptions from consultants in outpatient pharmacy departments (OPD) of the hospital. The collected data was assessed using the World health organization (WHO) core prescribing indicators and their standard guidelines. A total of 639 prescriptions were collected prospectively in which 3136 drugs were prescribed (Mean; 4.9) in prescriptions. The majority of the drugs, 77.7% (n = 2438) were prescribed from EDL while 6.1% (n = 194) of drugs by generic names. Antibiotics were prescribed in 9.6% (n = 303), while injections in 9.8% (n = 308) prescriptions. Among consultants; the average number of drugs per prescription were prescribed by Nephrologists (6.81), Rheumatologists (6.61), Pulmonologists (6.53), Endocrinologists (5.51), and Urologists (2.95) in each prescription. Whereas most of the Pulmonologist prescribed (31.4%) of the drugs by their generic name and from EDL (25.5%). It was concluded that pharmacotherapy pattern among consultants regarding WHO core prescribing patterns shows deviation from the recommended WHO guidelines and drug prescribing patterns should be assessed for prescribing indicators to promote safe and effective drug therapy.

Keywords: essential drug list, generic drugs, pharmacotherapy, prescribing pattern, WHO core indicators

Research Title: Prescription Analysis of Outpatients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Author: Najlaa Saadi Ismael, Published Year: 2021
Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research, 5(4):643-648
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Rational use of therapeutic agents is a vital component of good health outcomes for patients as well as the community. The current study aimed to identify rational use of drugs, prescription errors and polypharmacy in outpatients at a teaching hospital in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A prospective cohort research study was conducted for analyzing prescription in the outpatient pharmacy department of Lady Reading Hospital, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 326 prescriptions were examined through a random systematic sampling method. World Health Organization (WHO) core drug prescribing indicators and prescription legibility methods were used for prescription analysis. Using SPSS version 22.0, the collected data were recorded and analyzed after manual data verification. Of the total, 1,539 drugs were prescribed with a mean drug per prescription of 4.7 (Optimal value ≤ 2). Out of these, 65.3% (Optimal value < 30%) prescriptions consisting of antibiotics, Prescriptions with injectable medicines were 52.7% (Optimal value <21.1%). Percentage of drugs prescribed with generic name was 6.9% and 85.4% were from National essential medicine list/hospital formulary (Optimal value = 100%) and on average each patient was prescribed with almost five drugs. Poor adherence to WHO prescribing indicators and prescribing errors were observed. To identify the root causes of prescription problems in these settings, a comprehensive study needs to be carried out, with this study as a starting point.

Keywords: Outpatients, Pakistan, Hospital, Prescription, Polypharmacy, Drug use

Research Title: Micellar and polymer catalysis in the kinetics of oxidation of L-lysine by permanganate ion in perchloric acid medium
Author: Mohammed Hassan Ali Saleh, Published Year: 2021
South African Journal of Chemistry, 75
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Kinetics of oxidation of L-lysine by permanganate ion in a perchloric acid medium was investigated to explore the order of the reaction with respect to oxidant and substrate and to study the catalytic behaviour of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The reaction was found to be first-order with respect to the oxidant and the substrate and zero-order with respect to hydrogen ion. Changes in the sodium sulphate concentration produce a non-significant variation in the rate of the reaction. SLS and PEG were found to catalyze the reaction. Surfactant catalysis was modelled by Piszkiewicz’s cooperativity model, while polymer catalysis was explained with the help of the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The temperature dependence of the rate of the reaction was elucidated, and activation parameters were obtained. Interestingly, the reaction was found to possess positive activation entropy indicating the dissociative nature of the transition state and outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. A mechanism of the reaction that is supported by the experimental findings was suggested.

Keywords: L-lysine, permanganate ion, micellar catalysis, polymer catalysis, outer sphere electron transfer mechanism

Research Title: The Nature of the Relationship between Money Supply and Inflation in the Jordanian Economy (1980–2019)
Author: Atif Issa Batarseh, Published Year: 2021
banks and bank systems, 16 issue 1
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: The current study aims at investigating and analyzing the relation between money supply (M1) and inflation in the Jordanian economy during the period of 1980–2019. In order to achieve the goal of the study, the methodology of econometric analysis of time series was utilized through the following tests: Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) to test the stability of the study variables, Johansen’s Cointegration Approach to determine the long-term equilibrium relationship between the study variables, and Granger Causality Test to determine the direction of the causal relationship if it exists in the short term. The results of the study demonstrate that inflation has stabilized at the level, while the money supply M1 was unstable at a level and stabilized after taking the first difference. The results of the Cointegration test indicated that there was no causal link between the money supply M1 and inflation in the long term. Finally, the results of Granger Causality presented a unidirectional causality running from the money supply M1 to inflation in the short term, meaning that money supply causes inflation, not vice versa; this means that the money supply M1 can explain the changes that occur in the consumer price index (CPI) in the Jordanian economy. The study recommends that monetary authority in Jordan should have greater control over the money supply because of its impact on the stability of the general level of prices, in order to avoid a repeat of the 1989 crisis represented by the hard decline of the dinar exchange rate against other currencies and the increase in the inflation rate that year to 25.6 %.

Keywords: Money Supply M1, Inflation, ADF Test, Causality Test, Co-Integration Test, Jordanian Economy.

Research Title: Haploinsufficiency of PRR12 causes a spectrum of neurodevelopmental, eye, and multisystem abnormalities
Author: Tawfiq Froukh, Published Year: 2021
Faculty: Science

Abstract: PURPOSE: Proline Rich 12 (PRR12) is a gene of unknown function with suspected DNA-binding activity, expressed in developing mice and human brains. Predicted loss-of-function variants in this gene are extremely rare, indicating high intolerance of haploinsufficiency. METHODS: Three individuals with intellectual disability and iris anomalies and truncating de novo PRR12 variants were described previously. We add 21 individuals with similar PRR12 variants identified via matchmaking platforms, bringing the total number to 24. RESULTS: We observed 12 frameshift, 6 nonsense, 1 splice-site, and 2 missense variants and one patient with a gross deletion involving PRR12. Three individuals had additional genetic findings, possibly confounding the phenotype. All patients had developmental impairment. Variable structural eye defects were observed in 12/24 individuals (50%) including anophthalmia, microphthalmia, colobomas, optic nerve and iris abnormalities. Additional common features included hypotonia (61%), heart defects (52%), growth failure (54%), and kidney anomalies (35%). PrediXcan analysis showed that phecodes most strongly associated with reduced predicted PRR12 expression were enriched for eye- (7/30) and kidney- (4/30) phenotypes, such as wet macular degeneration and chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: These findings support PRR12 haploinsufficiency as a cause for a novel disorder with a wide clinical spectrum marked chiefly by neurodevelopmental and eye abnormalities.

Keywords: PRR12

Research Title: Psoriasis management using herbal supplementation: retrospective clinical case-study
Author: Buthaina Alkhatib, Published Year: 2021
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine ,
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Background: Currently, there is no effective long-term treatment for psoriasis by conventional medicine. Thus, several alternative treatments are currently used to attenuate the severity, including herbal and dietary supplements. Primary study objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a mixture of traditional Jordanian herbal supplements on psoriasis treatment. Methods/design: A retrospective case study was conducted at The Herbal Dynasty Medical Center, Jordan. Three psoriasis patients were selected to participate (2 males; 1 female); patients obtained their diagnosis by a physician. Participants were prescribed a specific dose of 2 capsules daily of the herbal supplement, which consisted of dandelion, olive leaf, nettle leaf, and turmeric, along with 2 capsules of milk thistle half an hour before breakfast. Participants were instructed to follow therapy protocol for 5 consecutive months. The psoriasis area and severity index score was calculated pretreatment and posttreatment. Results: The 3 psoriasis cases were diagnosed as mild, moderate, and severe at the study onset. The severity index scores were 3.2, 14, and 16.2, respectively, and improved posttreatment to 0, 0.8, and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Traditional herbal supplementation was shown to be beneficial for the treatment of psoriasis.

Keywords: psoriasis; PASI, nettle leaves; olive leaf; turmeric; dandelion; milk thistle

Research Title: Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on body weight, eating habits and physical activity of Jordanian children and adolescents
Author: Buthaina Alkhatib, Published Year: 2021
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness,
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Objective: The lockdown for COVID-19 pandemic affect the lifestyle patterns globally and impacted children and adolescents. This study aims to assess the effect of the lockdown on body weight, eating habits and physical activity of Jordanian youth (children and adolescents). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 477 Jordanian children and adolescents aged 6-17 years. The study tool was a structured validated questionnaire. It comprised four parts including: general description of the study purpose; sociodemographic and anthropometric data; physical activity data; and food intake pattern. Questions were reported before and during lock down. Changes in outcomes over the two study time points were evaluated. Results: After the lockdown period, the mean body weight and body mass index for - age -Z scores (BAZ) showed a significant increase (p=<0.001) compared to before the lockdown period. More than 50% of the subjects reported that they spent more than three hours in front of the screen during the lockdown. The percent of subjects who watched TV for more than three hours was increased. Moreover, physical inactivity was increased significantly during the lockdown. All food groups consumption was significantly increased during the lockdown compared to before the lockdown. Conclusions: COVID-19 locking period was characterized by increasing in the use of screen-based devices, lower physical activity, uncontrolled food intake and weight gain.

Keywords: COVID-19; body weight; physical activity; Children and adolescents

Research Title: In Silico Screening of Natural Phytoconstituents Towards Identification of Potential Lead Compounds to Treat COVID-19
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2021
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 8
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: COVID-19 is one of the members of the coronavirus family that can easily assail humans. As of now, 10 million people are infected and above two million people have died from COVID-19 globally. Over the past year, several researchers have made essential advances in discovering potential drugs. Up to now, no efficient drugs are available on the market. The present study aims to identify the potent phytocompounds from different medicinal plants (Zingiber officinale, Cuminum cyminum, Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, and Allium sativum). In total, 227 phytocompounds were identified and screened against the proteins S-ACE2 and Mpro through structure-based virtual screening approaches. Based on the binding affinity score, 30 active phytocompounds were selected. Amongst, the binding affinity for beta-sitosterol and beta-elemene against S-ACE2 showed −12.0 and −10.9 kcal/mol, respectively. Meanwhile, the binding affinity for beta-sitosterol and beta-chlorogenin against Mpro was found to be −9.7 and −8.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Further, the selected compounds proceeded with molecular dynamics simulation, prime MM-GBSA analysis, and ADME/T property checks to understand the stability, interaction, conformational changes, binding free energy, and pharmaceutical relevant parameters. Moreover, the hotspot residues such as Lys31 and Lys353 for S-ACE2 and catalytic dyad His41 and Cys145 for Mpro were actively involved in the inhibition of viral entry. From the in silico analyses, we anticipate that this work could be valuable to ongoing novel drug discovery with potential treatment for COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, main protease, Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Natural medicinal plants, S-ACE2, Structure-based virtual screening