181
Research Title: WHY REPORTING VERBS SELECTION MATTERS IN ACADEMIC WRITING
Author: Abdu Al-Kadi, Published Year: 2022
6th International Conference on Research in Applied Linguistics - ULEAD ICRAL 2022 , Amasya University, Amasya, Turkey
Faculty: Arts

Abstract: This paper highlights how appropriate uses of reporting verbs (RVs) increase the readability of academic work. Besides providing an overview of RVs and their functions in academic writing, it furnishes a list of evaluative potential RVs. These RVs are categorized into positive, negative, and neutral RVs depending on how academic writers use them to convey strong, weak, and neutral positions of arguments. The article encourages authors to examine the wider context of a citation, integrate other authors’ ideas into their writing, and present their evaluation of the cited information persuasively. In addition to suggestions for employing RVs properly, the article suggests underscoring RVs in academic writing courses. As well, journal editorial boards and reviewers would consider the appropriate uses of RV as a criterion of publishable papers.

Keywords: Academic writing, Rhetoric, Reporting verbs (RVs), Journal articles, genre

182
Research Title: The Nine-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF): Its Psychometric Properties among Sri Lankan Students and Measurement Invariance across Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA.
Author: Maha Mohammed Wahbi Atout, Published Year: 2022
Healthcare, 10 (3)
Faculty: Nursing

Abstract: The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with the social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age = 17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16–18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, although strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.

Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale 9—Short Form (IGDS9-SF); university students; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; cultur*/collectivisti*/individualis*; invariance; gender; game type

183
Research Title: Antimicrobial PMMA bone cement containing long releasing multi-walled carbon nanotubes
Author: Yazan Mohammad Al-Thaher, Published Year: 2022
Nanomaterials, 2022 (12), 1381
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) ensued from total joint replacement (TJR) pose a severe threattopatientsthatinvolvepoorhealthoutcomes,severepain,death(inseverecases),andnegative influence patients’ quality of life. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is frequently used for the prevention and treatment of PJI. This work aims to study gentamicin release from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement to prolong release over several weeks to provide prophylaxis from PJIs after surgery. Different CNT concentrations were tested with the presence of gentamicin as a powder or preloaded onto carboxyl functionalized CNTs. The different types of bone cement were tested for drug release, mechanical properties, water uptake, antimicrobial properties, and cytocompatibility with human osteoblast cells (MTT, LDH, alizarin red, and morphology). Results showed prolonged release of gentamicin from CNT-loaded bone cements over several weeks compared to gentamicin-containing bone cement. Additionally, the presence of CNT enhanced the percentage of gentamicin released without adversely affecting the nanocompositemechanicalandantimicrobialpropertiesneededforperformance. Cytotoxicitytesting showed non-inferior performance of the CNT-containing bone cement to the equivalent powder containing cement. Therefore, the developed nanocomposites may serve as a novel PMMA bone cement to prevent PJIs.

Keywords: PMMA; bone cement; carbon nanotubes; gentamicin; antimicrobial; cytotoxicity; compression trength

184
Research Title: Antimicrobial PMMA Bone Cement Containing Long Releasing Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Author: Raida W. Khalil, Published Year: 2022
Faculty: Science

Abstract: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) ensued from total joint replacement (TJR) pose a severe threat to patients that involve poor health outcomes, severe pain, death (in severe cases), and negative influence patients’ quality of life. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is frequently used for the prevention and treatment of PJI. This work aims to study gentamicin release from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement to prolong release over several weeks to provide prophylaxis from PJIs after surgery. Different CNT concentrations were tested with the presence of gentamicin as a powder or preloaded onto carboxyl functionalized CNTs. The different types of bone cement were tested for drug release, mechanical properties, water uptake, antimicrobial properties, and cytocompatibility with human osteoblast cells (MTT, LDH, alizarin red, and morphology). Results showed prolonged release of gentamicin from CNT-loaded bone cements over several weeks compared to gentamicin-containing bone cement. Additionally, the presence of CNT enhanced the percentage of gentamicin released without adversely affecting the nanocomposite mechanical and antimicrobial properties needed for performance. Cytotoxicity testing showed non-inferior performance of the CNT-containing bone cement to the equivalent powder containing cement. Therefore, the developed nanocomposites may serve as a novel PMMA bone cement to prevent PJIs.

Keywords: PMMA; bone cement; carbon nanotubes; gentamicin; antimicrobial; cytotoxicity; compression trength

185
Research Title: Flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam using CFRP hybrid system
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2021
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering,
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This paper presents experimental and numerical study to investigate the flexural behaviour of strengthened RC beams using three CFRP techniques. Considered main variables were CFRP technique, amount of CFRP NSM and rope and cost/increase in strength effectiveness. Results indicate that using CFRP rope and sheet increased significantly maximum load and maximum strain of RC beams. Average increase in strength and maximum strain were 76.3% to 143.5% and 206% to 246% as the control RC beam. Moreover, RC beams strengthened with CFRP rope exhibited strength approximately similar to ones strengthened with CFRP strip. The cost/increase in strength ratio of specimens strengthened by CFRP rope is 61% higher than the ratio of specimens strengthened by CFRP NSM strip. Hence, the specimens strengthened by one layer of CFRP rope is the most economic techniques based in cost/increase in strength ratio even though it exhibited maximum load less than the specimens strengthened with two layers of CFRP rope or strip. CFRP rope was 40% lower than CFRP strip when same strengthening effect was achieved. Finally, complementary to experimental work a finite element model FEM was developed to investigate the flexural behaviour of beam. The FEA model showed somehow good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP); strengthening; reinforced concrete beam; flexure; debonding

186
Research Title: Flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam using CFRP hybrid system
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2021
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering,
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: This paper presents experimental and numerical study to investigate the flexural behaviour of strengthened RC beams using three CFRP techniques. Considered main variables were CFRP technique, amount of CFRP NSM and rope and cost/increase in strength effectiveness. Results indicate that using CFRP rope and sheet increased significantly maximum load and maximum strain of RC beams. Average increase in strength and maximum strain were 76.3% to 143.5% and 206% to 246% as the control RC beam. Moreover, RC beams strengthened with CFRP rope exhibited strength approximately similar to ones strengthened with CFRP strip. The cost/increase in strength ratio of specimens strengthened by CFRP rope is 61% higher than the ratio of specimens strengthened by CFRP NSM strip. Hence, the specimens strengthened by one layer of CFRP rope is the most economic techniques based in cost/increase in strength ratio even though it exhibited maximum load less than the specimens strengthened with two layers of CFRP rope or strip. CFRP rope was 40% lower than CFRP strip when same strengthening effect was achieved. Finally, complementary to experimental work a finite element model FEM was developed to investigate the flexural behaviour of beam. The FEA model showed somehow good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP); strengthening; reinforced concrete beam; flexure; debonding

187
Research Title: Compressive Stress-strain Behaviour of Unreinforced Masonry Boundary Element Prisms Constructed with C-Shaped Blocks
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2021
14th Canadian Masonry Symposiums At: Montreal, Canada, Canada
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Reinforced masonry shear walls (RMSW) with masonry boundary elements (MBE) are rectangular walls with integrated MBEs at the wall extremities. The compressive stress-strain behaviour of the MBE prisms built using C-shaped blocks (C-MBEPs) varies from that of regular stretcher prisms due to the continuity of the grout core and the higher grout-to-shell area ratio. Few studies have investigated the stress-strain behaviour of MBEs built using C-shaped blocks. This study evaluates the compressive stress-strain behaviour of half-scale fully grouted C-MBEP and its constituents (i.e., masonry shell and grout core). In total, 8 fully grouted masonry prisms, 6 un-grouted masonry shells, and 18 grout cores were tested under concentric displacement-controlled compression loading. The test matrix is composed of two aspect ratios: two and five, and normal and high grout strengths. In addition, the effect of grout core treatment, i.e., air and wet treatment, was examined. Similar to masonry prisms made from stretcher blocks, the superposition of the load-displacement relationship of the grout core and the masonry shell was found not comparable to that of the grouted C-MBEP Prisms built with similar grout and masonry blocks.

Keywords: C-shaped blocks, grout, height-to-thickness ratio, masonry boundary element,stress-strain behaviour, superposition

188
Research Title: DEVELOPMENT OF A CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF BEARING CAPACITY FROM CPT AND THEORETICAL ANALYSIS USING ANN TECHNIQUES
Author: Ala Taleb Obaidat, Published Year: 2020
International Journal of GEOMATE, 19
Faculty: Engineering and Technology

Abstract: Bearing capacity is significant value in pile design. Various approaches have been introduced to estimate the axial pile capacity. These approaches have restrictions and accordingly did not implement uniform and precise estimation of axial pile capacity. To add a value of the effort to achieve a proper and accurate relationship of a cone penetration test, including axial pile capacity, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) method is employed in this paper, which can be applied in cases where the relationship between the input parameters is unknown. In this paper, ANN was used to predict the bearing capacity of bored and driven piles. The present study uses the neural network approach to develop a model that can be adopted to predict bearing capacity values using ANN Techniques and can comfortably accommodate new data as this becomes available. ANN was used to predict the bearing capacity of bored and driven piles. The data, which is used as inputs accompanied by CPT. Furthermore, three artificial neural network models were generated. All models show that ANN provides a more accurate result by comparing it with the available CPT method

Keywords: Bearing Capacity, ANN, CPT

189
Research Title: Mucilage of Coccinia grandis as an Efficient Natural Polymer-Based Pharmaceutical Excipient
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Polymers, 14
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: Natural eco-friendly materials are recently employed in products to replace synthetic materials due to their superior benefits in preserving the environment. The herb Coccinia grandis is widely distributed in continents like Asia and Africa and used traditionally to treat fever, leprosy, asthma, jaundice, and bronchitis. Mucilage of Coccinia grandis was accordingly extracted, isolated by a maceration technique, and precipitated. The mucilage was evaluated for its physicochemical, binding, and disintegrant properties in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. The crucial physicochemical properties such as flow properties, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, microbial load, cytotoxicity was evaluated and the compatibility was analyzed using sophisticated instrumental methods (TGA, DTA, DSC, and FTIR). The binding properties of the mucilage was used at three different concentrations and compared with starch and PVP as examples of standard binders. The disintegrant properties of mucilage were used at two different concentrations and compared with standard disintegrants MCCP, SSG, and CCS. The tablets were punched and evaluated for their hardness, friability, assay, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of the mucilage were performed in a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line. The outcome of the study indicated that the mucilage had good performance compared with starch and PVP. Further, the mucilage acts as a better disintegrant than MCCP, SSG and CCS for paracetamol tablets. Use of a concentration of 3% or less demonstrated the ability of the mucilage to act as a super disintegrating agent and showed faster disintegration and dissolution, which makes it as an attractive, promising disintegrant in formulating solid dosage forms to improve the therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation results demonstrated that the mucilage is non-cytotoxic to human cells and is safe.

Keywords: binding agent; disintegrating agent; natural polymer; mucilage; Coccinia grandis

190
Research Title: Development and In Vitro Evaluation of a Large-Intestinal Drug Delivery System
Author: Mohammad Bayan, Published Year: 2022
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 15
Faculty: Pharmacy

Abstract: The development of large intestinal drug delivery systems has gained increased attention for the effective treatment of some associated disorders, such as ulcerative colitis, where the therapeutic agent acts locally on the affected parts. The main aim of this study was to develop polymerized carriers capable to deliver drugs effectively to the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract (large intestine). Polymeric pellets, based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate with different crosslinker concentrations, were synthesized using a bulk polymerization method. Mesalazine, which is frequently used to treat inflammatory disorders associated with the large intestine, was selected as a model drug. Swelling and in vitro release studies were performed to assess the developed systems and study the effect of the crosslinker concentration. The swelling and release profiles have decreased significantly with increasing the crosslinker concentration. The produced pellets exhibited a delayed-controlled drug release up to 24 hours, which indicated their potential applicability as successful large-intestinal drug delivery systems.

Keywords: Ulcerative colitis, Specific delivery system, Inflammatory bowel disease, Drug targeting, Mesalazine.